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Grihyasutras. 
The  Grihya-sutras 


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THE 


SACRED  BOOKS  OF  THE  EAST 


[29] 


HENRY    FROWDE 


Oxford  University  Press  Y^^arehouse 
Amen  Corner,  E.C. 


THE 


SACRED  BOOKS  OF  THE  EAST 


TRANSLATED 


BY  VARIOUS  ORIENTAL  SCHOLARS 


AND    EDITED    BY 

F.   MAX    MULLER 


VOL.    XXIX 


OF)  Vf  01*55 

AT      THE      CLARENDON      PRESS 
1886 

[  All  rights  reserved  ] 


THE    G/?/HYA-S0TRAS 

RULES  OF  VEDIC  DOMESTIC  CEREMONIES 


TRANSLATED   BY 


HERMANN     OLDENBERG 


PART     1 

6'ANKHAYANA-G7?/HYA-SUTRA 

A^VALAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA 
PARASKARA-G7?/HYA-SUTRA 
KHADIRA-G7?/HYA- SUTRA 


(J^rfcirt! 

AT     THE     CLARENDON     PRESS 
1886 

[  All  rights  reserved  ] 


CONTENTS. 


^ANKHAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 


PAGE 


Introduction 3 

Translation 12 

A.SVALAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

Introduction ig3 

Translation ig^ 

PARASKARA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

Introduction 263 

Translation 269 

KHADIRA-Gie/HYA-SUTRA. 

Introduction 371 

Translation 3^4 


Transliteration  of  Oriental  Alphabets  adopted  for  the  Trans- 
lations of  the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East        .       .       .       -437 


*^*  The  Second  Volume  will  contain  a  General  Introduction 
to  the  Gnhya-Sfltras. 


5AN  K  H  AYAN  A-G^^/H  YA- 

SUTRA. 


C29]  .  B 


INTRODUCTION 

TO    THE 

5ANKHAYANA-GAVHYA-SUTRA. 

The  Gr/hya-SLitra  ascribed  to  ^afikhayana,  which  has 
been  edited  and  translated  into  German  by  myself  in  the 
XVth  volume  of  the  Indischc  Studien,  is  based  on  the  first 
of  the  fourVedas,  the  Rig-veda  in  the  Bashkala  recension  \ 
and  among  the  Brahmawa  texts,  on  the  Kaushitaka.  Its 
reputed  author,  whom  we  ordinarily  find  called  by  his  family 
name,  6"ahkhayana,  had  the  proper  name  Suya^y7a.  This 
we  may  infer  from  the  lists  of  Vedic  teachers  given  in 
different  Grz'hya  texts  where  they  describe  the  Tarpa;/a 
ceremony.  Though  in  these  lists  the  order  of  names 
varies  very  much,  yet  the  two  names  Suya^/7a  and  5ahkha- 
yana  are  constantly  placed  side  by  side,  so  that  this  fact 
alone  would  render  it  probable  that  they  belonged  to  the 
same  person.  Thus  we  read  in  the  ►Saiikhayana-Gr/hya 
IV,  io  =  VI,  i: 

Kahola;;/  Kaushitakiw,  Mahakaushitaki;//,  Suya^;7a;« 
6"ahkhayanam,  Aj'valayanam,  Aitareyam,  Mahaitareyam. 

Here  we  have  grouped  together  the  two  Brahma/za 
authors  (with  the  fictitious  doubles,  the  great  Kaushitaki, 
the  great  Aitareya)  and  the  two  corresponding  Sutra 
authors  belonging  to  the  two  chief  branches  of  the  Rig- 
veda  literature ;  first  comes  one  Brahma;/a  author  (for 
Kahola  Kaushitaki  is  one  person)  with  the  Sutra  author 
connected  with  him,  then  the  second  Sutra  author  and  the 
corresponding  Brahma;/a  teacher. 

In  the  5ambavya-Gr/hya  (Indische  Studien,  XV,  154)  the 
corresponding  passage  runs  thus: 

Gargya-  Gautama-  5akalya-  Babhravya-    Ma;/^/attavya 

^  See  IV,  5,  9, 
L   2 


.sankhayana-g/lthya-sOtra. 


[sic]-  Maw/ukeya/z  Suya^yTa-  SawH-chyayana-  6^atukar- 
7^yeya/^  [sic]  Paiwga  [sicj-  5ambavy'-Aitareya/^ 

The  same  Gr/hya  still  more  explicitly  bears  witness  to 
the  name  of  Suya^^Ta  vSahkhayana,  by  adding  at  the  end 
of  the  list  from  which  these  names  are  quoted  the  following 
words  :  Suya^>7a  5akhayanas  [sic]  tr/[pya]tu,  i.  e. '  May  Su- 
ya^;7a  5ankhayana  satiate  himself  (with  the  water  offering).' 

In  the  Awalayana-Gr/hya  III,  4?  we  read : 

Kaholaw  Kaushitakawz  Mahakaushitaka;;^  Paiiigyaw 
Mahapaingya;;^  Suya^fiaw  ^ankhayanam  Aitareyam 
Mahaitareyam. 

We  may  also  quote  here  a  Karika  given  by  Narayawa  ^ 
in    his    great    commentary    on    the    vSankhayana-Grzliya 
(I,  I,  lo): 
Atrara;npradanaw  yad  adhvaryu/z  kurute  kva/l'it  ^ 
mata?//  tan  na  Suya^nasya,  mathita7«  so  'tra  neM//ati. 

It  would  perhaps  be  hazardous  to  claim  for  the  author  of 
this  Karika  the  authority  of  an  independent  witness,  for 
very  likely  he  may  have  derived  his  knowledge  from  the 
lists  of  teachers  which  we  have  quoted  before.  But  at  all 
events  the  concordance  of  the  three  Grzhya  texts  furnishes 
a  proof  which,  I  think,  cannot  be  set  aside  by  another 
testimony  which  we  must  mention  now.  At  the  end  of  the 
Kaushitaki-Arawyaka  (Adhyaya  15)  we  find  a  Va/z/i-a  or 
list  of  the  teachers  by  whom  the  knowledge  contained  in  that 
Ara;/yaka  is  supposed  to  have  been  handed  down.  The 
opening  words  of  this  list  run  thus  : 

'Om!  Now  follows  the  Vawj-a.  Adoration  to  the 
Brahman !  Adoration  to  the  teachers !  We  have  learnt 
(this  text)  from  Gu;^akhya  vSahkhayana,  Gu;zakhya 
^■ahkhayanafrom  Kahola  Kaushitaki,  Kahola  Kaushitaki 
from  Uddalaka  Aru;zi,  &c.' 

It  is  a  very  natural  supposition  that  the  author  of  this 
list  intended  to  begin  with  the  name  of  the  Doctor 
eponymus,  if  we  may  say  so,  of  the  Sutras  of  his  school,  and 
then  to  proceed  to  name  the  Doctor  eponymus  of  the 
Brahma;ms,  and  after  him  the  more  ancient  teachers  and 

^  Manuscr.  Chambers  712  (Berlin  Royal  Library),  fol.  12  b. 
'  Comp.  Paraskara-Gr/hya  I,  2,  5  :  ara;npradanam  eke. 


INTRODUCTION. 


sages.  But  whether  the  author  of  this  passage  really  sup- 
posed this  Gu;/akhya  ^ankhayana  to  be  the  author  of  the 
5ankhayana-sutras,  or  not,  we  shall  be  justified  in  following 
rather  the  unanimous  statements  of  the  texts  previously 
quoted,  and  in  accepting  in  accordance  with  them,  as  the 
full  name  of  our  Sutrakara,  the  name  Suya^/la  5ahkhayana. 

The  Gr/hya-sutra  which  has  been  here  translated  pre- 
supposes, as  all  Gr/hya-sutras  do,  the  existence  of  the 
vSrauta-sutra,  with  which  it  is  intimately  connected  and 
which  is  referred  to  in  the  Gnhya  in  several  instances  ^ 

Here  the  question  arises  whether  the  Grzhya-sutra  was 
composed  by  the  same  author  to  whom  the  authorship  of 
the  5rauta-sutra  belongs,  so  that  the  two  texts  form  to- 
gether, and  would,  in  the  conception  of  their  author,  be 
intended  to  form,  one  great  body  of  Sutras,  or,  on  the  other 
hand,  whether  the  Gr/hya-sutra  is  a  later  addition  to  the 
5rauta-sutra.  On  this  question  I  have  ventured,  in  the 
preface  to  my  German  edition  of  5ankhayana  ^  to  offer  a  few- 
remarks  which,  however,  I  feel  bound  to  say  do  not  seem  to 
myself  quite  decisive.  I  there  pointed  out  that  the  Gr/hya- 
sutra  contains  a  few  aphorisms  which  we  should  rather  expect 
would  have  found  their  place  in  the  .Srauta-sutra,  if  the  two 
texts  were  composed  by  the  same  author  and  on  a  common 
plan^.  But,  apart  from  the  possibility  that  in  a  work  of  such 
considerable  extent  as  that  collection  of  Sutras  would  be, 
such  trifling  incongruences  or  irregularities  might  very 
easily  escape  the  attention  even  of  a  very  careful  author, 
there  is  still  another  objection  that  may  be  urged  against 
the  inference  drawn  by  me  from  such  passages.  It  can  be 
shown  ^  that  the  Gr/hya  texts  which  we  possess  are  based 
to  some  extent  on  one  common  original,  from  which  they 
have  taken  verbatim,  or  nearly  verbatim,  a  certain  number 
of  aphorisms.    Thus  if  we  were  to  suppose  that  5ahkhayana, 


•  See,  for  instance,  Grthya.  I,  i6,  i  (5rauta  IV,  16,  2). 
'  Indische  Studien,  vol.  xv,  pp.  11,  12. 

'  The  Sutras  with  reference  to  which  I  made  that  observation  are  I,  8,  14 ; 
14,  13-15;  11,15,10.     Comp.  6'rauta-sutra  II,  7,  12;  IV,  21. 

*  I  intend  to  give  some  proofs  of  this  in  the  General  Introduction  to  the 
GnTiya-sQtras  which  will  be  given  in  the  second  volume  of  these  translations. 


5ANKHAYANA-G/2JHYA-SUTRA. 


or  whosoever  the  author  of  this  Grz'hya-sutra  may  have 
been,  found  the  aphorisms  on  which  I  once  based  my  argu- 
ment, in  that  original  text,  this  would  explain  the  occur- 
rence of  those  passages  in  a  portion  of  the  great  body  of 
Sutras  different  from  that  in  which  we  should  expect  to 
meet  them.  Now  several  of  the  passages  in  question  recur 
identically  in  other  Grz'hya  texts,  so  that  we  may  infer 
indeed  that  they  are  taken  from  that  lost  original,  and  we 
have  no  means  to  judge  whether  the  other  similar  passages 
are  not  taken  from  it  also.  I  believe,  therefore,  that  the 
opinion  which  I  once  pronounced  regarding  the  relation  in 
which  the  two  Sutra  texts  stand  to  each  other,  cannot  be 
vindicated,  and  that  it  is  better  to  leave  that  question  un- 
answered until  perhaps  further  discoveries  throw  a  new  light 
on  it. 

For  the  reconstruction  of  the  correct  text  of  the  .Sahkha- 
yana-Grz'hya,  and  occasionally  also  for  its  interpretation,  it 
is  of  considerable  importance  that  we  possess,  besides  the 
Devanagari  MSS.  of  the  text  and  of  the  commentaries,  a 
South  Indian  MS.  written  in  the  Grantha  character  (MS. 
Whish  78  in  the  library  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society, 
London)  which  contains  a  Grzhya  based  on  that  of  6"ahkha- 
yana  and  following  it,  during  the  greater  part  of  the  work, 
nearly  word  for  word^.  It  is  designated  in  the  MS.,  at  the 
end  of  the  single  Adhyayas,  as  '  Kaushltaka-Gr/hya.'  It 
therefore  professes  to  follow  the  teaching  of  the  same  Brah- 
ma«a  which  is  adhered  to  also  by  the  Sutra  school  of 
6"ahkhayana.  A  metrical  commentary,  which  in  the  MS. 
follows  after  the  text,  names  in  its  opening  vSIoka  a  teacher 
5ambavya  as  the  author  of  this  Sutra.  The  6"loka  runs  thus : 
Natva  Kaushitaka/('aryaw  5ambavya;;/  sutrakr/ttamam 
gr/hya;;^  tadiyaw  sa;//kshipya  vyakhyasye  bahuvismr/tam. 
('  Having  bowed  to  the  most  excellent  author  of  Sutras, 
to  vSambavya,  the  AMrya  belonging  to  the  Kaushitaka 
school,  I  shall  compose  a  short  commentary  on  his  Grz'hya, 
which  has  been  forgotten  by  many.') 

The  name  of  this  5ambavya  does  not  occur  among  the 

*  Comp.  the  statements  given  with  regard  to  that  text  in  my  German  edition 
of  6'ankhayana,  Indische  Sludien,  XV,  4  seq. 


INTRODUCTION. 


teachers  enumerated  in  the  description  of  the  Tarpa;/a 
ceremony,  neither  in  5ahkhayana  IV,  lo,  nor  in  Ai-vala- 
yana  III,  4 ;  but  in  the  list  of  the  ^ambavya-Gr/hya  itself 
it  is  found  (see  above,  p.  4) ;  and  besides  it  seems  to  me 
also  to  be  mentioned  in  Aivalayana-G;'z"h}'a  IV,  8,  24,  in 
which  passage  it  \vill  scarcely  be  considered  too  bold  to 
conjecture  vSambavya  instead  of  5^;«vatya. 

Though  the  MS.  of  the  5ambavya-Gr/hya  is  very  con- 
fused, and  full  of  blunders  of  all  sorts,  yet  it  deserves  to  be 
attentively  studied  by  all  scholars  who  are  accustomed  to 
look,  if  not  in  theory  yet  in  practice,  on  the  agreement  of 
a  few  Vedic  text  MSS.,  or  of  a  few  Indian  commentaries, 
as  if  it  had  a  claim  to  an  unassailable  authority  to  which 
European  Orientalists  would  have  no  right  to  den}'  their 
faith.  In  the  5ahkhayana-Gn'hya  a  number  of  passages 
are  found  in  which  corrupt  readings  or  perverse  explana- 
tions arc  supported  by  all  the  ^aiikhayana  MSS.  and 
by  all  the  ^ankhayana  commentaries,  and  if,  by  a  rare 
and  fortunate  chance,  the  6ambavya  Grantha  MS.,  which 
is  unaffected  by  the  blunders  of  the  Devanagari  MSS., 
had  not  been  discovered  in  the  south  of  the  peninsula, 
these  readings  and  explanations  would  seem  to  rest  on  the 
unanimous  agreement  of  tradition.  Perhaps  it  seems  un- 
necessary to  dwell  on  this  point,  for  very  few  Orientalists, 
if  any,  would  be  prepared  to  assert  that  Indian  tradition  is 
infallible.  But  when  looking  over  many  of  the  editions 
and  translations  of  the  Vedic  texts,  even  such  as  have  been 
published  in  the  last  years,  one  finds  plentiful  occasion  to 
observe  that  in  hundreds  of  passages  tradition  has  been 
practically  treated,  by  scholars  of  very  high  merit,  as  if  it 
had  an  authority  not  very  far  removed  from  infallibility. 
A  case  like  that  of  which  we  have  to  speak  here,  in  which 
a  whole  set  of  MSS.,  and  occasionally  also  of  commentaries, 
can  be  tested  by  a  MS.  of  a  nearly  related  text,  written  in 
a  different  character  and  in  a  distant  part  of  India,  will 
strengthen  our  belief  that  we  are  right  in  judging  for  our- 
selves, even  if  that  judgment  should  oppose  itself  to  such 
authorities  as  Narayawa  or  Rama/t'andra  or  6^ayarama. 

Perhaps  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to  add  here,  as  an 


8  -S-ANKHAYANA-G/e/HYA-S^TRA. 

illustration  of  these  remarks,  a  few  observations  on  one  of 
the  passages  in  which  the  rejection  of  the  traditional  vSan- 
khayana  reading,  together  with  the  traditional  vSaiikhayana 
explanation,  is  confirmed  by  the  vSambavya  MS.,  though 
no  doubt,  even  without  the  aid  of  that  MS.,  we  ought  to 
have  formed  the  right  conclusions  for  ourselves.  At  vSaii- 
khayana II,  4,  I.  2  the  traditional  reading  is : 

Mama  vrate  hr/dayaw  te  dadhami  mama  ^ittam  anu 
klttdLin  te  astu  |  mama  va/^am  ekamana  ^ushasva  Br/has- 
patish  A/a  niyunaktu  mahyam  iti  |  kamasya  brahma- 
y^aryasyasav  iti. 

vS"ahkhayana  is  treating  here  of  the  Upanayana,  or  the 
initiation  of  the  student  who  is  received  by  a  teacher  and 
intends  to  study  the  Veda  with  him.  The  teacher  on  that 
occasion  is  to  pronounce  the  Mantra  which  we  have  just 
transcribed,  and  which  translated  into  English  would  run 
thus : 

'  Under  my  will  I  take  thy  heart ;  after  my  mind  shall  thy 
mind  follow ;  in  my  word  thou  shalt  rejoice  with  all  thy 
heart ;  may  Brzhaspati  join  thee  to  me.'  '  Of  the  Brahma- 
^arya  of  Kama  (or  lust),  N.  N.  1 ' 

The  MSS.  give  the  end  of  the  passage  as  we  have  printed 
it  above,  kamasya  brahma/^aryasyasav  iti.  This 
Naraya;^a  explains  in  the  following  way.  Brahma/^arya 
here  means  the  observances  which  the  student  has  to  keep 
through  certain  periods  of  time  before  the  different  texts 
which  he  has  to  learn  can  be  taught  him.  First  comes 
the  Savitri  verse,  for  which  he  prepares  himself  by  observ- 
ing the  savitra  vrata;  this  lasts  either  one  year,  or  three 
days,  or  the  Savitri  can  also  be  taught  him  immediately 
(see  chap.  5,  1-3).  Then  follows  the  jukriya  vrata,  of 
three  days,  or  twelve  days,  or  one  year,  or  any  other  period 
of  time  according  to  the  teacher's  pleasure  (chap.  11,  10); 
by  this  vrata  the  student  is  enabled  to  study  the  main 
portion  of  the  Veda.  Finally  come  the  i-akvara,  vratika, 
aupanishada  observances,  each  of  which  has  to  last  one 
year,  and  which  refer  to  the  different  parts  of  the  Arawyaka 
(see  chap.  1 1, 1 1  seq.,  and  the  sixth  book).  Now  the  formula 
of  which  we  treat  here  refers  principally  to  the  savitra 


INTRODUCTION. 


vrata.  The  teacher  announces  to  the  student  how  long 
he  has  to  keep  that  vrata.  He  says  (Siltra  i),  '  May  Bri- 
haspati  join  thee  to  me  (Sutra  2)  for  a  brahma/'arya  (i.  e.  a 
vrata)  of  such  and  such  (kamasya)  a  time  (one  year,  three 
days,  &c.),  N.  N. ! '  Kama  (the  pleasure)  would  thus  stand 
here  as  an  expletive  which  was  to  be  replaced  in  each  single 
case  by  the  indication  of  the  real  space  of  time  that  de- 
pended on  the  teacher's  pleasure  (' . . .  niyunaktu  mahyaw 
sawvatsarikasya  trairatrikasya  vanvakshikasyava  savitrasya 
brahma/'aryasyamukamuka^armann  iti  vakyasa;//yogo  £:ne- 
ya//').  The  same  should  take  place  at  the  corresponding 
forms  of  Upanayana  which  had  to  precede  the  entrance  of  the 
student  upon  the  jukriya,  i^akvara,  &c.  observances.  This  is 
the  explanation  of  Naraya;/a,  with  which  Rama/'andra  and 
all  the  other  commentaries  agree.  It  will  scarcely  be  neces- 
sary to  observe  that  the  singular  use  of  k a  ma,  on  which  this 
traditional  explanation  rests,  is  neither  in  accordance  with 
the  meaning  of  the  word,  nor  supported  by  any  parallel  texts. 
So,  even  before  I  had  the  opportunity  of  collating  the  6'am- 
bavya  MS.,  I  had  no  doubt  that  the  system  of  the  Vratas 
has  nothing  at  all  to  do  with  our  Sutra,  and  that  its  text 
should  be  made  intelligible  by  a  slight  alteration  touch- 
ing only  the  quantity  of  the  a  in  two  syllables,  by  writing, 
Kamasya  brahma>^ary  asy  asav  iti  (thou  art  the 
Brahmay^-arin  of  Kama,  N.  N. !),  as  we  read  in  A^valayana  I, 
20,8,kasya  brahma/^ary asi,  pr^;/asya  brahma/^ary 
a  si.  Afterwards  I  found  that  the  Grantha  MS.  of  6"ambavya 
gives  the  very  reading  which  I  had  conjectured. 

Passages  like  this  are  not  very  rare  in  the  Grzhya-sutras. 
In  the  other  Sutras  we  are  not  in  the  same  favourable 
position  of  possessing  a  MS.  which  enables  us,  as  the 
Grantha  MS.  of  5ambavya  does,  to  test  their  text. 

We  cannot  conclude  these  introductory  remarks  without 
speaking  of  the  later  additions  tacked  on  at  the  end  of 
the  original  body  of  the  ii'ahkhayana-Gr/hya-sutras^ 
There  are  unmistakable  indications  that  the  fifth  and 
sixth    books    arc    later    additions.       The    fifth     book    is 

'  Comp.  the  remarks  in  my  German  edition  of  ^'aiikhayana,  Ind.  Studieu, 
XV,  7. 


lO  .SANKHAYANA-GTe/HYA-SlJTRA. 


designated    as    a    pari^ish/a    in    a    Karika   quoted    by 
Naraya;/a : 

parii'ish^ad  avasathye  parvawatikrame  kdiXwh 
Vaii-vanarayagnaye  /(^agnaye  ^  tantumate  tatha. 

('  According  to  the  Pari^-ish/a,  if  one  of  the  half-monthly 
sacrifices  has  been  omitted,  a  mess  of  rice  should  be  offered 
on  the  sacred  domestic  fire  to  Agni  Vaij-vanara  and  to 
Agni  Tantumat.') 

The  passages  of  the  '  Parij'ish/a '  here  referred  to  are  the 
two  first  aphorisms  of  V,  4  : 

'  Now  if  a  half-monthly  sacrifice  has  not  been  performed, 
one  or  the  other  of  them,  then  a  mess  of  rice  (is  to  be 
offered) — • 

'  With  (the  words),  "  To  Agni  Vaijvanara  svaha !  To 
Agni  Tantumat  svaha!'" 

There  are,  besides,  several  passages  in  which  Naraya;/a 
himself  mentions  the  fifth  book  under  the  designation  of 
Parij-eshadhyaya^.  And  even  if  we  had  not  the  authority  of 
the  Karika  and  of  Naraya;^a,  the  contents  alone  of  the  fifth 
book  would  raise  our  suspicion  against  its  genuineness. 
The  matter  ordinarily  treated  of  in  the  Grz'hya  texts  is 
brought  to  an  end  in  Adhyayas  I-IV ;  in  the  fifth  book 
we  find  diverse  supplementary  additions  on  points  dis- 
cussed before ;  rules,  which  no  doubt  would  have  been  given 
at  their  proper  place,  had  the  fifth  book  been  composed  at 
the  same  time,  and  by  the  same  author,  as  the  preceding 
books ^.  Besides,  we  find  different  prayai-Xntta  oblations 
treated  of,  and  a  description  of  two  ceremonies  which  are 
mentioned,  as  far  as  I  know,  in  no  other  GWhya-sutra, 
but  belong  to  the  rites  frequently  described  in  such  works 
as  Pura;/as,  Parij-ish/as,  and  later  Dharma  texts :  the  con- 
secration of  ponds  or  wells  (chap.  2),  and  the  consecration 
of  gardens  (chap.  3). 

There  can  thus  be  little  doubt  as  to  the  secondary 
character  of  the  fifth  book.     And  this  alone   suffices   to 


'  vagTiaye  the  MS. 
*  Naraya«a  on  I,  9,  3  ;   10,  2, 

^  The  Paddhati  inserts  the  paraphrase  of  several  of  these  rules  into  the 
explanation  of  the  first  Adhyaya. 


INTRODUCTION.  1 1 


furnish  an  important  argument  in  favour  of  the  same  view 
with  regard  to  the  sixth  book  also.  This  view  is  further- 
more supported  by  the  opening  invocation  in  that  book, 
addressed  to  Brahman  and  to  a  number  of  mythological 
beings  and  Vedic  sages  and  teachers.  It  is  evident  that 
by  such  an  invocation  this  book  is  characterised  as  a  sepa- 
rate treatise,  presupposing  of  course  the  main  body  of  the 
^"ankhayana-sutras,  but  not  forming  part  of  it  in  the  same 
sense  in  which,  for  instance,  the  second  or  the  third  Adhyaya 
does.  The  object  of  that  treatise  is  the  exposition  of  the 
ritual  connected  with  the  study  of  the  Rahasya  texts.  The 
sixth  book,  composed  no  doubt  by  a  later  adherent  of  the 
5"ankhayana  school,  returns,  in  fact,  to,  and  enlarges  on, 
matters  that  have  already  found  their  proper  place  in  the 
original  Gr/liya-sutra  at  II,  12,  and  partly  also  at  IV,  7. 


5ANKHAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 


Adhyaya  I,  Khanda  1. 

1.  Now   henceforth  we   shall   declare  the  Paka- 

2.  When  (a  pnpil)  is  going  to  return  (from  his 
teacher),  let  him  keep  that  fire  (as  his  domestic  fire) 
on  which  he  has  put  the  last  piece  of  wood  (as 
required  by  the  regulations  for  a  student), 

3.  Or  (he  should  keep)  his  nuptial  fire. 

1,  I.  The  ceremonies  to  be  treated  of  are  defined  here  as  the 
Pakaya^was  (i,  e.  oblations  of  cooked  offerings)  just  as  in  the 
opening  sentence  of  the  Paraskara-Gr/hya  they  are  called  grz'hya- 
sthalipakas.  This  is  indeed  the  most  characteristic  form  of 
offerings  belonging  to  the  domain  of  the  Gr/hya  ritual,  though  it 
would  not  be  correct  to  state  that  the  Grzliya-sutras  treat  exclu- 
sively of  sacrificial  ceremonies  of  this  kind. 

2.  As  to  the  duty  of  the  Vedic  student  of  putting  every  day 
a  piece  of  wood  on  the  sacred  fire  of  his  teacher,  see  below,  II,  6,  8, 
and  compare  the  Gr/hya-sawzgraha-parij-ish/a  11,  58.  According 
to  a  Karika  given  by  Naraya^/a,  and  the  Karmapradipa  (I,  6,  1 3), 
the  prescription  of  this  Sutra  regarding  the  time  for  the  kindling 
of  the  sacred  fire  refers  exclusively  to  the  case  of  vagdana  (be- 
trothal). Comp.  also  Dr.  Bloomfield's  note  on  the  Gr/Tiya-sa?//- 
graha-parijish/a  I,  76  (Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft,  XXXV,  560).  In  the  Karika  it  is  stated  that  if  the 
betrothed  girl  dies  after  the  fire  has  been  kindled,  but  before  the 
marriage,  the  sacrificer  is  not  to  forsake  his  fire,  but  to  marry 
another  girl ;  if  he  cannot  find  a  bride,  he  should  make  the  fire 
enter  into  himself  according  to  the  rules  given  by  6'ahkhayana- 
Grihya.  V,  1,  and  himself  become  uttarajramin,  i.e.  enter  one  of 
the  two  final  Ajramas. 


I  ADHYAYA,   I   KUANDA,   8.  1 3 

4.  Some  declare  (that  the  domestic  fire  should  be 
kindled)  at  the  time  of  the  division  of  the  inheritance. 

5.  Or  that  after  the  death  of  the  householder  the 
eldest  one  himself  (should  kindle  it). 

6.  (It  should  be  kindled)  on  the  day  of  the  new 
moon  of  the  month  of  Vai>yakha  or  on  another  (new 
moon  day). 

7.  Some  say  (that  the  fire  should  be  kindled) 
according  to  the  (sacrificer's)  wishes  under  the  (cor- 
responding) constellation. 

8.  He  should  liorht  his  fire  at  one  of  the  followino- 
places,  viz.  in  the  house  of  a  Vaii-ya  who  Is  rich  in 

5.  Narayawa :  '  If  the  fire  has  not  been  kindled  at  the  time 
stated  above,  then,  after  the  householder  .  .  .  i.  e.  the  father,  even 
if  he  should  not  have  performed  the  adhana,  or  the  elder  brother 
has  died,  the  eldest  son  (or  the  son  who  after  his  elder  brother's 
death  has  become  the  eldest),  after  he  has  performed  the  Sapi7/d?ika- 
rana  (for  the  dead  father  or  brother;  see  below,  IV,  3,  and  the  ninth 
chapter  of  the  Parijish/a  [book  VJ),  even  if  he  has  not  divided  the 
inheritance  with  his  younger  brothers  (so  that  the  time  stated  in  the 
fourth  Sutra  would  not  have  arrived),  should  kindle  the  fire  him- 
self, i.  e.  without  an  officiating  priest  (n'tvi^).  ...  Or  the  Sutra 
should  be  divided  into  two;  prete  va  grzhapatau  (or  after  the 
death  of  the  householder),  and  svaya;«  ^yayan  (the  eminent  one 
himself),  i.e.  of  Brahma?/as,  Kshatriyas,  and  Vaijyas  a  ^yayan, 
which  means  a  most  eminent  person,  a  Brahma;/a,  performs  the 
Pakaya^ftas  himself;  for  the  two  other  castes  the  Pakaya^ftas  have 
to  be  performed  through  an  officiating  priest :  this  is  the  meaning 
of  this  svaya/«  (himself).'  I  have  given  this  note  of  Narayawa  as 
a  specimen  of  the  entirely  arbitrary  and  obviously  misleading  expla- 
nations which  are  unfortunately  so  frequently  found  in  this  author, 
as  indeed  in  most  of  the  other  Sutra  commentators.  As  to  the 
true  meaning  of  this  svayawz  I  still  adhere  to  the  explanation 
which  I  proposed  in  my  German  edition  of  the  text  (p.  118),  that 
in  case  no  division  of  the  inheritance  takes  place,  the  sacred  fire 
should  be  kindled  on  behalf  of  all  the  joint-proprietors,  but  that 
only  the  cUlest  brother  should  act  personally  (svayaw). 

8.  Or,  '  at  (the  fire  of)  a  person  rich  in  cattle,  in  the  house  of 
a  Vaijya,'  &c.  ?     The  commentators  (see  p.  118  of  the  German 


14  SANKHAYANA-Gi^/IIYA  S^TRA. 

cattle,  at  a  frying-pan,  or  (at  the  fire  of)  one  who 
offers  many  sacrifices. 

9.  Some  say  that  (the  fire  should  be  fetched  from 
one  of  the  above-mentioned  places)  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning. 

10.  The  inauguration  (of  the  fire)  by  an  evening 
offering  should  be  learnt  from  the  Adhvaryus,  ac- 
cording to  (my)  teacher, 

11.  In  the  morning  he  shall  offer  a  full  oblation 
with  a  verse  sacred  to  Vish/^u,  or  silently. 

12.  The  time  for  setting  it  (i.e.  the  domestic  fire) 
in  a  blaze  and  for  sacrificing  on  it  has  been  explained 
by  (the  rules  given  with  regard  to)  the  Agnihotra. 

edition)  differ  as  to  whether  in  purupaju-vi/kula  one  or  two 
alternatives  are  contained,  and  it  is  interesting  to  see  that  the 
Sutra  authors  themselves  differed  in  this  respect ;  Paraskara  (I,  2,  3), 
when  declaring  from  what  place  the  fire  should  be  fetched,  speaks 
of  the  house  of  a  Vaijya  rich  in  cattle  ;  Ajvalayana,  on  the  contrary, 
who  in  the  Gr/hya-sutra  does  not  expressly  treat  of  the  kindling  of 
the  domestic  fire,  in  the  corresponding  passage  of  the  6'rauta-sutra 
(II,  2,  i),  gives  the  rule  that  the  dakshiwagni  is  to  be  fetched 
'from  the  house  of  aVai^ya  or  from  a  rich  person.' 

9-1 1.  I  now  differ  from  the  opinion  which  I  pronounced  in  my 
German  edition  with  regard  to  the  relation  in  which  these  three 
SiJtras  stand  to  each  other.  I  think  they  ought  to  be  understood 
thus :  9.  Some  teachers  say  that  the  fetching  of  the  fire  from  its 
yoni,  as  taught  in  Sutra  8,  ought  to  be  done  twice ;  in  the  evening, 
so  that  the  fire,  after  the  necessary  rites  have  been  performed,  goes 
out,  and  then  again  in  the  morning.  10.  But  my  (the  author's) 
teacher  (comp.  as  to  ikixyzh,  Katyayana's  6'rauta-siJtra  I,  3,  7; 
Professor  Garbe's  note  on  Vaitana-sutra  1,3)  is  of  opinion  that 
the  fire  should  be  fetched  only  once,  and  that  with  this  fire  the 
ceremonies  which  are  taught  by  the  Adhvaryus  are  to  be  per- 
formed in  the  evening  (see,  for  instance,  Katy.  IV,  7.  8,  which 
passage  is  paraphrased  here  by  Narayawa).  11.  In  the  morning 
(according  to  the  same  teacher,  not,  as  I  once  understood  this 
passage,  according  to  the  eke  referred  to  in  Sutra  9),  a  full  obla- 
tion is  to  be  offered,  &c. 

12.  .Srauta-sutra  II,  6,  2  seq. 


I  ADIIYAYA,   2  KHAiVDA,   2.  1 5 

13.  And  *  invested  with  the  sacrificial  cord,'  &c., 
all  these  rules,  as  far  as  they  are  applicable,  should 
be  applied  (here  also)  in  consequence  of  the  unity 
of  the  ritual. 

14.  With  regard  to  this  they  quote  also  (the 
following  ^'loka) : 

15.  'The  kinds  of  Pakaya^/las,  the  kinds  of  Ha- 
virya^/las,  and  again  the  kinds  of  Soma  sacrifices, 

*  Twenty-one  by  number,  these  are  proclaimed  to 
be  the  kinds  of  sacrifice.' 

KlIAiVKA   2, 

1.  At  the  end  of  the  sacrificial  acts  (follows)  the 
distribution  of  food  to  Brahma7^as. 

2.  Voice,  (pleasantness  of)  form,  age,  learning, 
moral  character,  (right)  conduct  are  the  qualities 
(required  in  the  Brahma;/as  who  are  to  be  invited 
thereto). 

13.  ^Srauta-sutra  I,  i,  6.  7;  ya^j^Ttopaviti  devakarmawi  karoti, 
praX-inaviti  pitrya;/i,  &c.  The  unity  of  the  ritual  of  course  means 
the  unity  of  the  two  great  domains  of  the  6'rauta  and  Gr/hya  ritual. 

15.  With  regard  to  the  twenty-one  kinds  of  sacrifice  compare, 
for  instance,  Gautama  VIII,  18-20;  Max  IMiiller,  Z.D.  M.  G. 
IX,  p.  Ixxiii;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  326.  The  seven 
kinds  of  Pakaya^?las  are  the  Ash/aka  sacrifices  (see  below,  III, 
1 2  scq.),  the  sacrifices  offered  at  each  Parvan  (I,  3),  the  6'raddha 
(or  funeral)  sacrifices  (IV,  i  seq.),  the  sacrifice  of  the  Aavawi 
full  moon  (IV,  15),  of  the  Agrahayawi  (IV,  17  seq.),  of  the 
A'litri  (IV,  19),  and  of  the  Ai'vayu^g^i  (IV,  16).  The  seven  Havis 
sacrifices  (belonging,  as  is  the  case  also  with  the  third  division  of 
sacrifices,  to  the  ^'rauta  ritual)  arc  the  Agnyadheya,  the  Agnihotra, 
the  sacrifices  of  the  full  and  new  moon,  the  Agrayawa,  the  three 
A'alurmasya  sacrifices,  the  Niru^/Z/apajubandha,  and  the  Sautra- 
maz/i.  The  seven  kinds  of  Soma  sacrifices  (of  which  the  more 
ancient  texts  mention  only  three  or  four  sa/wsthas,  see  Weber, 
Indische  Studien,  IX,  120)  are  the  Agnish/oma,  the  Atyagnish/oma, 
the  Ukthya,  the  Sho(/ajin,  the  Alirdtra,  the  Aptoryama. 


1 6  5'ANKIIAYANA-Gi?/HYA-sOTRA. 

3.  Learning,  however,  outweighs  every  (other 
quahfication). 

4.  A  learned  one  should  not  be  passed  over. 

5.  '  The  threefold  (knowledge,  viz.  that)  which 
refers  to  the  deities,  that  which  refers  to  the  Atman, 
and  that  which  refers  to  sacrifice, 

'  (Handed  down)  in  the  Mantras  and  in  the  Brah- 
ma/^a  :  this  is  called  learning. 

6.  '  A  performer  of  the  sacred  rights,  a  man  who 
has  studied  (the  Veda),  who  is  old  in  learning  and 
devoted  to  austerities  : 

'  He  who  gives  food  (even)  once  to  such  (a  Brah- 
ma/za),  hunger  will  not  befall  that  man  any  more. 

7.  'Whatsoever  deity  he  may  wish  to  satiate  at 
any  sacrifice, 

'  Destining  it  to  that  (deity)  in  his  mind,  he  shall 
give  (the  food)  to  a  person  like  that. 

8.  '  An  oblation  deposited  in  a  person  like  that 
will  never  miss  its  way  to  the  deity; 

'  Treasure  of  men,  vessel  of  gods  (in  which  they 
receive  what  is  given  to  them)  he  is  called.' 

Khaajda  3. 
T.  Now  (follow)  the  ceremonies  of  the  days  of  the 
new  and  full  moon. 
He  fasts. 

2.  In  the  morning,  when  the  sun  shines  on  the 

3,  I.  Most  probably  this  rule  should  be  divided  into  two  Sutras, 
so  that  atha  darjapur«amasau  would  stand  as  the  heading  of 
the  chapter;  comp.  below,  chap.  18,  i,  atha  ^'aturthikarma; 
chap.  24,  I,  atha  _§-atakarma,  &c. 

2.  '  If  this  is  expressly  stated,  the  oblation  is  to  be  made  in 
night-time  ;  for  instance,  at  the  Vastoshpatiya  ceremony  it  is  stated, 
"  The  tenth  oblation  of  the  Sthalipaka,  to  Agni  Svish/ak/vt  at 
night  ■'  (see  below,  III,  4,  8).'     Narayawa. 


I  ADIIYAYA,    3  KIIAiVDA,  4.  I  7 


top  of  the  great  trees,  that  is  the  most  auspicious 
time  for  all  kinds  of  sacrifices,  unless  there  be  a 
special  rule. 

3.  With  a  genial  mind,  clean,  on  a  pure,  protected 
spot,  having  cooked  a  full,  thin  mess  of  rice,  he 
offers  that  cooked  oblation  to  the  deities  of  the 
festivals  of  the  new  and  full  moon,  distributing:  it  in 
the  due  way. 

4-  In  the  oblations  of  cooked  food  the  acts  of 
taking  (the  intended  oblation),  of  putting  it  down 
(near  the  fire),  and  of  sprinkling  it  (with  water)  are 
performed  with  regard  to  the  deities  of  the  (re- 
spective) Mantras. 

3.  On  vighana,  which  I  have  translated  thin,  see  the  note  in 
the  German  edition,  pp.  119  seq. 

The  deities  of  the  festivals  of  the  new  and  full  moon  (i.  e.  of  the 
rites  which  in  the  ^Srauta  ritual  correspond  to  that  taught  here)  are, 
at  the  full  moon,  Agni  and  Agnishomau,  at  the  new  moon,  Agni, 
Vish/ni,  and  Indrdgni,  who  are  preceded  in  both  cases  by  Agni 
and  Soma  as  the  deities  of  the  two  a^^yabhagas  (see  below,  ch.  9,  7), 
and  followed  by  Agni  Svish/akr/t.  For  more  detailed  statements 
see  Hillebrandt,  Das  altindische  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer  (Jena, 
1879),  pp.  102  seq. 

4.  For  instance,  the  taking  of  the  portion  of  food  destined  to 
Agni  should  be  performed  wiUi  the  Mantra:  Agnaye  tva  ^ush- 
/a;//  gr/hwami,  &c.  A  number  of  ceremonies  common  to  the 
Sthalipaka  ritual  and  to  the  ordinary  ritual  of  A^ya  oblations,  such 
as  the  strewing  of  Kusa.  grass  round  the  fire,  the  ceremonies 
regarding  the  Pavitras  (strainers),  &c.,  have  to  be  supplied  here 
from  the  A^^ya  ritual  given  below  (ch.  7  seq.);  this  may  be  looked  upon 
as  an  argument  in  favour  of  our  conjecture  which  will  be  slated  in 
the  preface  (vol.  ii  of  the  Gr/hya-sfitras),  that  our  text,  as  probably 
is  the  case  also  with  the  Paraskara-sutra,  is  based  on  an  original, 
the  opening  sentences  of  which  are  preserved  to  us  in  6'ankh.  I, 
5,  i-5  =  Paraskara  I,  4,  1-5,  so  that  the  first  chapters  of  ^aiikha- 
yana,  and  among  them  the  exposition  of  the  festivals  of  the  full 
and  new  moon,  would  have  been  prefixed  to  the  original  connnencc- 
ment  of  the  text. 

[29]  C 


1 8  .sankhAyana-g/?7hya-sOtra. 

5.  And  the  rules  about  the  portions  to  be  cut  off 
(from  the  sacrificial  food,  are  valid). 

6.  But  before  the  sacrifices  of  the  new  and  full 
moon  one  should  make  offerings  to  the  deities  of 
the  Anvarambha;^iya  ceremony. 

7.  The  time  for  the  new  moon  sacrifice  is  not 
elapsed  until  the  full  moon,  nor  that  for  the  full 
moon  sacrifice  until  the  new  moon. 

8.  And  some  say  that  the  morning  oblation  may 
be  made  at  the  time  of  the  evening  oblation,  in  the 
case  of  danger. 

9.  But  the  time  is  fixed,  as  at  the  Agnihotra  an 
expiation  has  been  prescribed  for  him  who  has 
neglected  the  time. 

10.  At  the  two  daily  oblations  one  should  use  as 
sacrificial  food  either  rice  or  barley  or  grains. 

11.  In  case  these  are  not  at  hand,  other  (sorts  of 
sacrificial  food  are)  not  prohibited. 

12.  Some  say  that  if  he  uses  grains,  he  should 
wash  them.  -  •' 

13.  With  the  other  (kinds  of  food)  no  such  pre- 
paration takes  place^ 


5.  Ontheavadanadharmas  comp. Weber, Indische  Studien,  X, 
95;  Hillebrandt,  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer,  pp.  122  seqq. 

6.  The  Anvarambha«iya-ish/i  is  the  sacrifice  taught  in  the 
6'rauta  texts  which  is  to  be  performed  before  the  sacrificer  for  the 
first  time  offers  the  Darjapur?;amasa  sacrifice.  See  Weber,  Indische 
Studien,  X,  330;  Hillebrandt,  loc.  cit.,  p.  185.  The  deities  of  this 
ceremony  are  Agnivish;/u,  Sarasvati,  and  Sarasvat. 

7.  Comp.  the  expiatory  sacrifice  prescribed  in  the  Parijish/a  book, 

V,  4. 

8.  The  text  here  passes  over  from  the  two  monthly  sacrifices  to 
the  two  daily  ones,  which  correspond  to  the  Agnihotra  of  the 
iSrauta  ritual. 


I  ADIIYAYA,  4  KHAiVDA,   2.  1 9 

14.  In  the  evening  (he  makes  the  oblation)  to 
Agni,  in  the  morning  to  Surya, 

15.  And  after  both  silently  to  Pra^apati. 

16.  Some  (say  that)  before  the  first  oblation  a 
piece  of  wood  (is  to  be  put  on  the  fire). 

1 7.  The  sprinkling  with  water  as  indicated  (in  the 
6rauta-sutra). 

KlIAiVDA   4. 

1.  When  he  has  risen  in  the  morning  and  has 
sipped  water,  let  him  daily  repeat  his  recital. 

2.  (This  consists  of,  or  is  accompanied  by,  the 
following  texts :)  the  two  verses,  *  To-day,  god 
Savitar'  (Rig-veda  V,  82,  4-5);  the  hymn,  'Go 
away,  Manasaspati '  (X,  164);  the  hymn,  'Right 
and  truth'  (X,  190);  the  verses,  'Look  down,  ye 
Adityas,'  to  the  end  of  the  hymn  (VIII,  47,  11-18); 


14,  15.  These  are  the  same  deities  who  are  worshipped  also  at 
the  Agnihotra. 

17.  ^rauta-sfitrall,  6,  9-11.  Comp.  p.  120  of  the  German  edition. 

4,  I.  The  Paddhali  of  RamaX'andra  understands  svadhyayam 
adhiyi  ta  as  a^prescription  to  perform  the  daily  Brahmaya^7~ia(comp,, 
for  instance,  Ajvalayana-Gnliya  III,  2  ;  Apastamba  1, 11,  22  seq.), 
which  consists  in  the  recitation  of  portions  of  the  Veda ;  the  hymns 
and  verses  stated  in  Sutra  2  are,  according  to  the  same  authority, 
to  be  repeated  immediately  after  the  recitation  of  the  svadhyaya 
('  svadhyayanantaram').  Narayaz/a,  on  the  contrary,  considers  that 
the  svadhyaya  prescribed  in  Sutra  i  consists  of  those  very  hymns 
and  verses  which  are  indicated  in  the  second  Sutra.  As  to  the 
Brahmaya^i,^«a,  he  says  that  the  ka.  at  the  end  of  the  second  Sfitra 
may  be  referred  to  it  ('  the  word  L\  means  that  texts  procuring  a 
long  life,  such  as  Rig-veda  I,  89,  should  be  murmured,  or  an  in- 
junction of  the  Brahmaya^Tta  is  intended').  At  all  events  it  is  very 
difficult  to  believe  that  the  recitation  of  the  texts  stated  in  this  chapter 
should  be  quite  independent  from  the  daily  Brahmaya^rta.  About 
the  performance  of  the  Brahmaya^^ua  in  our  days  comp.  the  note  of 
Professor  Buhler,  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  vol.  ii,  p.  43. 

C    2 


20  .9ANKHAYANA-G/27HYA-s0tRA. 

the  verse,  '  O  Indra,  the  best  treasures'  (II,  21,  6); 
the  verse,  '  The  swan  dwelHng  in  purity'  (IV,  40,  5)  ; 
the  verse,  'Adoration  to  the  great  ones'  (I,  27,  13); 
the  verse,  'What  we  fear,  Indra'  (VIII,  50,  13);  the 
verse,  'And  of  the  sleep'  (I,  120,  12);  the  verse,  'He 
who  says  to  me,  O  king'  (II,  28,  10);  the  hymn, 
'  Let  glory  be  mine,  Agni '  (X,  128);  and  the  five 
verses, '  Bliss  may  create  for  us '  (V,  51,11  seq.). 

KHAiVDA   5. 

1.  There  are  four  kinds  of  Pakaya^/^as,  viz.  the 
HuTA,  the  Ahuta,  the  Prahuta,  and  the  Pra^'ITa. 

2.  On  the  following  five  occasions,  viz.  the  wed- 
ding, the  tonsure  (of  the  child's  head),  the  initiation 
(of  the  BrahmaZ'arin),  the  cutting  of  the  beard,  and 
the  parting  of  the  hair,  (on  these  occasions)  in  the 
outer  hall — 

3.  To  a  place  that  has  been  smeared  (with  cow- 
dung),    which    is    elevated,    and    which    has    been 

<^  sprinkled  (with  water),  he  carries  forward  the  fire, 

4.  Having  kindled  it  by  rubbing,  according  to 
some  teachers,  at  his  marriage. 

5.  During  the  northern  course  of  the  sun,  in  the 

5,  I.  This  Sutra  and  the  following  ones  down  to  the  fifth  are 
identical  with  Paraskara  I,  4,  1-5 ;  it  seems  to  me  that  we  have 
here  before  us  the  opening  Sutras  of  a  lost  text  from  which  this 
passage  has  been  copied  both  by  -S'ahkhayana  and  Paraskara. 
Comp.  the  preface  of  the  second  volume  of  the  Gr/hya-sutras. 

With  regard  to  the  fourfold  division  of  Pakaya^jlas  stated  here 
comp.  below,  chap.  10,  7. 

2.  Comp.  the  Karika  quoted  by  Narayawa,  '  vivahadishu  bahyo 
'gnir  ma/z^ape  kz.  tad  ishyata  id.' 

3.  On  the  Agni-prawayana  comp.  the  details  given  in  the  Gr/Tiya- 
sawgraha-parijish/a  (Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft,  vol.  xxxv),  I,  64-69. 


I  ADHYAVA,    6  KUANDA,  5.  51 

time  of  the  increasing  moon,  on  an  auspicious  day 
he  shall  seize  the  hand  of  a  girl, 

6.  Who  should  possess  (the  auspicious)  charac- 
teristics (required), 

7.  Whose  limbs  should  be  proportionate, 

8.  Whose  hair  should  be  smooth, 

9.  Who  should  also  have  at  her  neck  two  curls 
turned  to  the  right. 

10.  (Of  such  a  girl)  he  shall  know  that  she  will 
give  birth  to  six  men. 

Khaa^da  6. 

1.  If  he  will  acquire  a  wife,  let  him  recite  over 
the  wooers  (whom  he  sends  to  the  girl's  father) 
when  the)'  go  away,  the  verse,  '  Thornless  '  (Rig- 
veda  X,  85,  23). 

2.  When  they  arrive,  they  take  flowers,  fruits, 
barley,  and  a  pot  of  water. 

3.  They  say  thrice,  *  Here  I  am,  sir  ! ' 

4.  When  these  words  have  been  uttered,  they 
ask  the  girl  in  marriage,  reciting  the  clan  names, 
the  dwellers  turning  their  faces  to  the  east,  the 
visitors  to  the  west. 

5.  When  the  matter  pleases  both  sides,  let  them 
touch  a  full  vessel  into  which  have  been  put  flowers, 

9.  On  avartau  comp.  the  note  in  the  German  edition,  p.  121. 

6,  I.  'The  wooers,  i.e.  his  own  father,  &c.'  Narayawa. 

3.  *  Wlien  the  father  of  the  suitor  and  the  others,  together  with 
their  AX-ar3-a,  liave  arrived  at  the  house  of  him  who  is  to  give  away 
the  girl,  they  station  themselves  in  the  hall,  and  the  father  of  the 
suitor  says  thrice,  "  Here  am  I,  N.  N.  (amukaxarman),  Sir  I '" — in 
these  words  he  announces  himself  three  times  ....  P^or  at  the 
house  of  the  person  who  gives  the  girl  away,  there  arrive  also,  in 
order  to  see  the  festivities,  many  other  people.  In  order  to  dis- 
tinguish himself  from  these,  he  {)ronounces  his  name.'    Narayawa. 


2  2  ^-ANKHAYANA-G/S/HYA-stjTRA. 

fried  grain,  fruits,  barley,  and  gold,  and  let  them 
recite  (the  formula),  *  Undisturbed  art  thou,  the 
undisturbable  vigour  of  the  gods,  not  cursed,  pro- 
tecting against  a  curse,  unexposed  to  a  curse. 
Might  I  straightway  attain  to  truth.  Put  me  into 
prosperity.' 

6.  With  the  verse,  '  Offspring  may  produce  us ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  85,  43),  the  A/'arya  of  the  girl's 
(family),  standing  up,  places  (the  vessel)  on  her 
head  (saying),  *  Offspring  I  put  into  thee,  cattle 
I  put  into  thee,  splendour  and  holy  lustre  I  put 
into  thee.' 

KHAiVDA   7. 

1.  When  assent  has  been  declared  (by  the  girl's 
father,  the  bridegroom)  sacrifices. 

2.  He  besmears  a  quadrangular  space  with  cow- 
dung. 

3.  (Let  him  consider  in  the  ceremonies  to  be 
performed,)  of  the  two  eastern  intermediate  direc- 
tions, the  southern  one  as  that  to  which  (the  rites) 
should  be  directed,  if  the  rites  belong  to  the  Manes, 

6.  The  position  of  the  words  as  well  as  the  sense  favours  com- 
bining the  genitive  kanyaya/z  with  akavya./i,  not  with  mur- 
dhani,  though  Rama/^andra  says  that  the  varapaksha/('arya  is  to 
be  understood. 

7,  I  seq.  Plere  follows  a  description  of  the  sacrifice  which  is  to 
be  performed  when  the  girl's  father  has  declared  his  assent 
(pratij-rute)  to  give  her  away  in  marriage:  this  is  the  general 
model  for  all  Grzliya  sacrifices. — '  Varo^uhoti,'  Naraya7/a. 

3.  '  He  here  states  an  exception  to  the  rule,  "  The  ceremonies 
sacred  to  the  Manes  are  directed  towards  the  south"  (^'rauta-sutra 
I,  I,  14)  ...  .  He  should  consider  the  south-eastern  direction, 
sacred  to  Agni,  as  that  to  which  the  ceremonies  are  to  be  directed 
(pra/tim  purvaw  kalpayet)  which  are  sacred  to  the  Manes,  such  as 


I  ADHYAYA,    7  KUANDA,  II.  23 

4.  The  northern  one,  if  the  rites  belong  to  the 
gods, 

5.  Or  rather  the  east  (itself)  according  to  some 
(teachers). 

6.  He  draws  in  the  middle  (of  the  sacrificial 
ground)  a  line  from  south  to  north, 

7.  Upwards  from  this,  turned  upwards,  to  the 
south  one  line,  in  the  middle  one,  to  the  north  one. 

8.  These  he  sprinkles  (with  water), 

9.  Carries  forward  the  fire  with  the  verse,  '  I 
carry  forward  Agni  with  genial  mind ;  may  he  be 
the  assembler  of  goods.  Do  no  harm  to  us,  to  the 
old  nor  to  the  young ;  be  a  saviour  to  us,  to  men 
and  animals,' 

10.  Or  (he  carries  it  forward)  silently, 

11.  Then  he  wipes  with  his  wet  hand  three 
times  around  the  fire,  turning  his  right  side  to  it. 
This  they  call  Samuhana  (sweeping  together). 


prescribed  in  the  SUtra,  "  Let  him  make  oblations  every  month  to 
the  Fathers"  (IV,  i,  i)  ....  He  states  an  exception  to  the  rule, 
"The  ceremonies  sacred  to  the  gods  are  directed  towards  the  east" 
(^raut.  I,  I,  13)  ...  .  The  northern  of  the  two  eastern  inter- 
mediate directions,  sacred  to  Ijana,  should  be  considered  as  that  to 
which  the  ceremonies  sacred  to  the  gods,  such  as  oblations,  &c., 
are  to  be  directed.' — Comp.  Ajvalayana-^S'raut.  I,  12,  4. 

6-7.  See  the  quotations  from  Rama/^andra's  and  Narayawa's 
commentaries,  p.  123  of  the  German  edition.  An  illustration  of  the 
form  of  the  stha«r/ila  with  the  lines  drawn  thereon  is  given  by 
Dr.  Bloomfiekl  in  his  note  on  the  Gr/hya-sawgraha-parijish/a  I,  52 
seq. ;  instead  of  the  three  lines,  however,  which  are  here  prescribed 
in  Sfltra  7,  there  are  four  indicated  in  accordance  with  the  doctrine 
of  that  Parijish/a  and  of  Gobhila  himself,  which  are  stated  to  be 
sacred  to  Pr/thivi,  Pra_§'apati,  Indra,  and  Soma,  while  the  line  turned 
from  south  to  north  is  sacred  to  Agni. 

9.  On  the  Agniprawayana  (carrying  forward  of  the  fire)  see  the 
Gri'hya-sa;7igraha-parijish/a  I,  64-69. 


24  .SANKHAYANA-G227HYA-s0tRA. 


12.  Once,  turning  his  left  side  to  it,  in  the  rites 
belonging  to  the  Manes. 

Khanda  8. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  strewing  (of  grass)  around 
(the  fire). 

2.  He  strews  eastward-pointed  Kui-a  grass  around 
it,  in  three  layers  or  in  five  layers, 

3.  Beginning  on  the  east  side,  then  to  the  west, 
then  to  the  west. 

4.  He  covers  the  roots  (of  the  grass-blades)  with 
the  points. 

5.  And  all  kinds  of  rites  are  to  be  performed 
beginning  south,  ending  north. 

6.  He  places  the  Brahman  south  with  the  words, 

BhUR    BHUVAff    SVAH, 

7.  Adorns  him  with  flowers, 

8.  Carries  forward  on  the  north  side  the  Pra?^ita 
waters  with  the  words,  'Who  carries  ye  forward  ?' — 

9.  Takes  up  with  the  left  hand  the  Kui-a  blades, 
and  arranges  them  (on  the  ground)  with  the  right 
hand, 


8,  I.  Comp.  the  passages  quoted  in  Professor  Eggeling's  note  on 
•Satapatha  Br.  I,  i,  i,  22. 

6.  Ordinarily  there  was  no  real  Brahman  present,  and  his  place 
was  filled  by  a  bundle  of  Kusa.  grass  that  represented  him.  Nara- 
ya«a  states  that  this  bundle  should  consist  of  fifty  blades  of  Kusa, 
grass.     Comp.  also  the  Gr/hya-sawgraha-parijish/a  I,  89-90. 

8.  Comp.  the  passages  quoted  by  Dr.  Bloomfield,  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morgenland.  Gesellschaft,  vol.  xxxv,  p.  565,  note  2. 

9.  This  Sutra  shows  that  the  paristarawa,  though  already 
treated  of  in  Sfitras  1-4,  is  not  to  be  performed  till  after  the  '  carry- 
ing forward'  of  the  Prawita  water.  Comp.  Narayawa's  note  on  Sutra 
1  (p.  123  of  the  German  edition).  That  this  is  indeed  the  order 
of  the  different  acts  is  confirmed  by  Paraskara  I,  i,  2. 


I  ADIIYAYA,    8  KUANDA,  2  1,  25 

10.  Bending  his  right  knee, 

11.  The  left  when  worshipping  the  Manes. 

12.  The  strewing  around  (of  the  grass)  is  not 
necessary  in  the  A^ya  offerings, 

13.  Nor  in  the  standing  offerings,  according  to 
Ma;^^ukeya. 

14.  He  now  measures  off  with  the  span  (of  his 
hand)  two  Kusb.  blades,  which  are  not  unequal,  with 
unbroken  points,  bearing  no  young  shoots  in  them, 
and  severs  them  (from  their  roots)  with  a  Ku^a 
blade,  saying,  '  Purifiers  are  ye.' 

1 5.  There  are  two  or  three  (of  these  Kui^a  strainers). 

16.  He  holds  them  with,  their  points  to  the  east 
and  sprinkles  them  (with  water,  saying),  *  Belonging 
to  Vish;ai.' 

I  7.  With  the  two  Ku«s"a  blades  he  sprinkles  (water) 
around  the  fire  three  times,  keeping  his  right  side 
turned  towards  it, 

18.  Takes  up  the  Ac^-a  pot  with  the  words,  'Milk 
of  the  cows  art  thou  ;' 

19.  Puts  it  on  the  fire  with  the  words,  '  For  sap 
thee ;' 

20.  Takes  it  from  the  fire  towards  the  north  with 
the  words, '  For  juice  thee  ;' 

21.  And  holding  the  two  (Ku^a)  strainers  with 
their  points  to  the  north,  seizing  them  on  both  sides 

13.  'In  the  standin!^  offerings,  such  as  theVaijvadeva  sacrifice  in 
the  morning  and  in  the  evening.'     Narayawa. 
14-16.  V%asaneyi  Sawhita  I,  12  a. 

18.  Va^.  Sawh.  IV,  3  a. 

19.  Va^.  Sawh.  I,  22  d. 

20.  Va^.  Sawh.  I,  30  c. 

21.  y^g.  Sawh.  I,  12  b. — The  division  of  Sutras  21  and  22 
should  be  after  iti,  not,  as  the  Indian  tradition  has  it,  after 
TdLsmihhi/i. 


26  .SANKHAYANA-Gi?7HYA-StjTRA. 

with  his  two  thumbs  and  fourth  fingers,  he  bends 
them  down,  the  points  upwards,  and  dips  them  into 
the  A^ya  with  the  words, 

'  By  the  impulse  of  Savitar  I  purify  thee  with 
this  uninjured  purifier,  with  the  rays  of  the  good 
sun.' 

A 

2  2.  (This)  preparation  of  the  A^a  (takes  place) 
each  time. 

2  2,.  Let  him  not  offer  (A^ya)  which  has  not  been 
(thus)  prepared. 

24.  Also  the  waters  in  the  Sruva  spoon  (he  puri- 
fies) with  the  words,  *(By  the  impulse)  of  Savitar 
(I  purify)  you.' 

25.  This  (is  called)  the  PRAivixA  and  the  Prok- 
SHAJvi  water. 

KUANDA   9. 

1.  The  Sruva  spoon  (serves  as)  a  vessel. 

2.  According  to  the  purpose  the  properties  (of 
the  different  things  to  be  used  at  each  oblation) 
should  be  chosen. 

3.  Taking  up  Kusb,  blades  with  the  left,  and  the 


24,  25.  Rama^andra:  'He  pours  water  into  the  Sruva  and 
purifies  this  also,  as  he  had  done  with  the  A^a  (Sutra  21)  ...  . 
He  then  pours  a  Httle  portion  of  that  water  on  to  the  Prawita  water 
(see  above,  Sfitra  8),  and  with  the  rest,  which  is  called  the  Prok- 
shani  water,  he  sprinkles  the  sacrificial  food,  the  fuel,  and  the 
Barhis.' 

9,  I.  'When  no  special  rule  is  stated,  the  Sruva  is  to  be  under- 
stood as  the  vessel  (for  the  offering).  Thereby  the  rule,  "The 
Guhu  is  the  vessel"  (^rauta-sQtra  III,  19,  5)  is  abolished  (for  the 
Grthya,  rites).'     Narayawa. 

3.  The  manner  of  holding  the  Sruva  in  which  the  A^a  is,  is 
described  by  Katyayana,  ■S'raut.  I,  10,  6  seq.,  Stenzler's  note  on 
Paraskara  I,  i,  4. 


I  ADIIYAYA,    9  KIIAA'ZIA,    lO.  2'] 

Sruva  at  its  bottom  with  the  right  hand,  with  the 
words,  '  The  hand  of  Vish;ui  art  thou  ' — 

4.  He  offers  with  the  Sruva  the  A^a  oblations. 

5.  Beginning  from  the  north-west  side  of  the  fire 
he  offers  (the  A^-a)  unintermittingly  on  the  south 
side  (of  the  fire)  with  (the  verse),  '  Thou  Agni  art 
full  of  foresight'  (Rig-veda  I,  31,  10). 

6.  Beginning  from  the  south-west  side  of  the  fire 
he  unintermittingly  offers  on  the  north  side  with 
(the  verse),  '  To  whom  these  snowy  mountains ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  121,  4). 

7.  To  Agni  belongs  the  northern  A/ya  portion, 
to  Soma  the  southern. 

8.  In  the  middle  (are  made)  the  other  oblations, 

9.  (With  the  words,)  *  Agni  is  the  begetter;  may  he 
give  to  me  N.  N.  as  my  wife  ;  svaha ! 

*  Soma  is  rich  in  wives ;  may  he  make  me  rich  in 
wives  by  N.  N. ;  svaha  ! 

*  Pushan  is  rich  in  kindred ;  may  he  make  me  rich 
in  kindred  by  the  father,  the  mother,  the  brothers  of 
N.  N.;  svaha!' 

10.  At  the  A^'a  oblations  the  offering  of  the  two 
A^a  portions  and  of  the  Svish/akr/t  oblation  is  not 
standing. 


4.  As  to  the  characteristics  of  A^ya  (sacrificial  butter),  which  is 
the  substance  offered  at  most  of  the  Gr/liya  sacrifices,  comp.  the  state- 
ments of  the  Gr/hya-sawgraha-parjjisli/a  I,  105  seq. 

5.  Avi>('/{7nnna;«  (unintermittingly)  is  explained  in  Nar.'s  com- 
mentary by  ekadharayS. 

8  seq.  Here  are  indicated  the  chief  oblations  of  this  sacrifice 
(anya  ahutaya/i  pradhanabhflta//,  Nar.),  or  the  avapa  (the  inser- 
tion, Sfttra  12)  which  comes  between  the  standing  introductory  and 
concluding  oblations. 

10.  On  Svish/akr/t,  comp.  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  IX,  217. 


28  .SANKHAYANA-Gi27HYA-StJTRA. 

IT.  Nor  in  the  standing  oblations,  according  to 
Ma;^^ukeya. 

12.  The  place  for  the  insertion  is  the  interval 
between  the  Mahavyahr/tis,  the  general  expiation, 
and  the  oblation  to  Pra^apati. 

11.  See  chap.  8,  13. 

12,  This  Sutra  prescribes  where  the  avapa,  i.e.  the  special  cha- 
racteristical  offerings  of  each  sacrifice,  is  to  be  inserted  between 
the  regular  offerings  that  belong  to  the  standing  model.  The 
same  subject  is  treated  of  in  the  A^rauta-sutra  in  the  two  rules,  I, 
16,  3  and  4:  'Whatsoever  is  offered  between  the  two  A^ya  por- 
tions and  the  Svish/akr/t,  that  is  called  avapa;  this  is  the  chief  part 
(pradhana)  (of  the  sacrifice) ;  the  other  (oblations)  are  subordinate 
thereto  (tadafigani).'  The  position  of  the  avapa  among  the  other 
oblations  is  indicated  by  Paraskara  in  the  following  rule  (I,  5,  6): 
'  Between  the  general  expiation  and  the  oblation  to  Pra^apati,  this 
is  the  place  for  the  avapa.'  (The  word  vivahe  at  the  end  of  this 
Sutra  seems  to  me  to  belong  not  to  this  rule,  but  to  Sutra  7.)  Our 
Sutra  is  identical  with  that  of  Paraskara  word  for  word ;  only  instead 
of  sarvaprayai-y^itta,  as  Paraskara  has,  we  read  here,  mahavya- 
hrz'tisarvaprayaj/titta.  This  means,  I  believe,  that  the  avapa, 
preceded  and  followed  by  the  Mahavyahnti  oblations  (comp.  below, 
I,  12,  13),  should  be  placed  between  the  Sarvaprayax/titta  and  the 
Pra^apatya  oblation.  The  oblations  made  with  the  Mahavyahntayas 
are  four  in  number;  the  corresponding  formulas  are  :  hhu/i  svaha, 
bhuva^  svaha,  sva//  svaha,  bhur  bhuva/z  sva/^  svaha  (comp. 
below,  chap.  12, 12).  The  Sarvaprayaj>^itta  (general  expiation)  con- 
sists of  two  oblations,  one  with  the  three  Mahavyahr/tayas,  the  other 
with  the  verse  ayaj  /(-ague,  quoted  in  the  .S'rauta-sutra  III,  19,  3, 
and  in  Ajvalayana's  6'rauta-sutra  I,  11,13.  (Oi'i  the  Sarvapraya^X'itta 
in  the  .Srauta  ritual,  compare  Hillebrandt,  Neu-  und  Vollmonds- 
opfer,  p.  166.)  The  Pra^apatya  oblation  is  performed  with  the 
formula  Pra^apataye  svaha.  The  discussions  of  Narayawa  on 
this  Sutra  (see  p.  125  of  the  German  edition)  evidently  fail  to  bring 
out  the  true  meaning  of  the  text ;  according  to  this  commentator 
the  oblations  follow  each  other  in  this  order  :  the  two  A^yabhagas, 
the  principal  oblations  (pradhanahutaya//),  the  Svish/akr/t,  the  four 
Mahavyahrz'ti  oblations,  the  two  Sarvapraya^X'itta  oblations,  the 
Pra^apatya  oblation.  Finally  we  may  mention  the  corrupt  form  in 
which  the  corresponding  passage  of  the  6'ambavya-sutra  is  pre- 


I  ADHYAYA,    9  KHAN2)A,    1 9.  29 

13.  If  the  oblation  consists  in  A^ya,  let  him  seize 
the  Kui-a  blades  in  his  left  hand  with  his  rieht 
hand  at  their  points  and  with  the  left  at  their  roots, 
and  let  him  wet  their  points  (with  Afya)  in  the 
Sruva,  the  middle  and  the  roots  in  the  A^a  pot  ; 

14.  In  the  oblations  of  cooked  food,  however,  the 
points  in  the  Sru/c,  the  middle  in  the  Sruva,  the  roots 
in  the  A^ya  pot. 

1 5.  When  he  then  has  thrown  them  (into  the  fire) 
with  the  words,  'Agni's  garment  art  thou,' 

16.  And  has  put  on  (the  fire)  three  pieces  of 
wood, 

1 7.  (Water)  is  sprinkled  round  (the  fire)  as  stated 
above. 

18.  Oblations  for  which  only  the  deities  are  in- 
dicated, but  no  texts  prescribed,  are  to  be  made 
merely  with  the  word  Svaha,  *  To  such  and  such  a 
deity  svaha  !     To  such  and  such  a  deity  svaha  ! ' 

19.  The  ritual  (here)  declared  of  the  sacrifice  (to 


served  in  the  MS.  There  the  two  Sutras  10  and  11  are  placed 
before  the  Mantra  in  Siatra  9.  This  Mantra  then  is  given  down  to 
svaheti,  then  follows  a^g^yena,  which  seems  to  me  to  form  part 
of  the  same  Sijtra,  and  to  refer  to  the  oblations  to  which  the  ^Mantra 
belongs.  Then  the  MS.  goes  on  :  mahavyahr/tishu  sarvapra- 
yzskittaram  (sic)  etad  dvapasthanawz  a^yahavishi  vyahrz'- 
tishu  sarvaprayaj^ittaraw  (the  syllables  prayaj/l'ittara/^ 
seem  to  be  expunged)  svish/akr/to  sthalipake.  In  the  com- 
mentary I  find  the  following  6'lokas,  which  I  give  exactly  as  they  are 
read  in  the  MS.:  tisriuam  vyXhrtiinXm  Aa.  prayajX'ittahutir 
api  yad  antarara  tad  apapasthana/;/  sarpi//i)radhanake. 
sthalipake  vyahruiwaw  yat  tat  svish/akr/tottaraw  ahuti- 
na;/i  pradhanana;«  nanadaivata>(7/andasa/«  yas  tu  kalas 
tad  avapasthanam  itd/Oyate  budliai//  tatas  tat  taw  ma  ara- 
bhya  prayaj/('ittahuti/i  kramat. 

17.  See  above,  chap.  8,  17. 

19.  This    SUtra,    though   reckoned  in  the  Indian  tradition  to 


30  .SANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-SUTRA. 

be  performed)  when  (the  father's)   assent  (to  give 
away  his  daughter)  has  been  declared — 

Khaa^da  10. 

1.  Forms  the  standard  for  all  sacrifices  that  pro- 
cure happiness, 

2.  And  for  all  A^a  offerings, 

3.  For  the  sacrifice  of  animals  which  are  tied  to  a 
branch, 

4.  And  for  the  offerings  of  boiled  (rice)  grains  and 
of  cooked  food. 

5.  These  are  performed,  all  the  offerings  of  cooked 
food,  without  Prayaga  and  Anuyaga  oblations,  with- 
out (the  invocation  of)  the  Ila,  without  Nigada  reci- 
tation, and  without  Samidhen!  verses. 

6.  There  are  also  the  following  ^S^lokas  : 

chap.  9,  seems  to  me  clearly  to  belong  to  the  next  chapter,  and  to 
contain  the  subject,  to  which  the  predicate  is  given  in  10,  i.  For 
prati^rute,  see  chap.  7,  i. 

10,  I.  'As  in  the  ^S'rauta  ritual  the  sacrifice  of  the  full  and  new 
moon  forms  the  standard  for  the  ish/is,  the  pajubandha,  &c.,  thus 
the  pratii'rut-kalpa  is  the  standard  for  the  vikr/tis  of  the  Smarta 
ritual,  such  as  the  ^atakarman  (chap.  24),  &c.'     Narayawa. 

3.  '  It  is  the  standard  of  the  sacrifices  prescribed  in  the  rules, 
"  The  animal  (offered)  to  the  teacher  is  sacred  to  Agni ;  to  an  offi- 
ciating priest,  to  Brzliaspati,  &c." '  Narayawa.  This  refers  to  the 
sacrifice  of  animals  which  forms  part  of  the  Arghya  ceremony ;  see 
II,  15,  4  seq. 

4.  ^aru«a;«  pakaya^wanawi  ^a.     Naraya«a. 

5.  On  the  five  Praya^as  and  the  three  Anuya^as  (introductory 
oblations  and  oblations  following  on  the  principal  offerings)  pre- 
scribed in  the  ^Srauta  ritual,  comp.  Hillebrandt's  Neu-  und  VoU- 
mondsopfer,  pp.  94  seq.,  134  seq.  On  the  Ila,  see  ibid.,  122  seq. ; 
on  nigada,  Weber's  Ind.  Studien,  IX,  217,  &c. ;  on  the  Samidheni 
verses,  Hillebrandt,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  74  seq.  On  this  Sutra  compare 
also  the  passage  in  Katyayana's  -Srauta-sfitra,  VI,  10,  22  seq. 


I  ADHYAYA,    II    KHAiVDA,   2.  3 1 

7.  '  (An  oblation  is  called)  Huta,  (if  made)  by  the 
performing  of  the  Agnihotra ;  Ahuta  (i.e.  unsacri- 
ficed,  if)  by  the  Bali  offering;  Praiiuta  (i.e.  sacrificed 
up,  if)  by  a  sacrifice  to  the  Manes;  Pra^ita  (i.e.  tasted, 
if)  deposited  as  an  offering  in  a  Brahma;^a. 

8.  'Without  raising  his  knees,  with  spread  knees 
let  him  always  offer  his  oblation  ;  for  the  gods  never 
accept  an  offering  (that  has  been  made  holding  the 
hand)  not  between  (the  knees). 

9.  '  But  when  he  has  repeated  a  text  sacred  to 
Rudra,  to  the  Rakshas,  to  the  Manes,  to  the  Asuras, 
or  that  contains  an  imprecation,  let  him  touch  water, 
and  so  also  when  he  has  touched  his  own  body.' 

KHAiVDA    11. 

1.  Now  when  the  bride  is  to  be  carried  away  (to 
the  bridegroom's  house)  that  night,  or  on  the  next, 
or  on  the  third  night, 

2.  On  that  night,  when  (the  darkness  of)  night  is 
gone,  they  wash  the  girl  up  to  her  head  with  (water 
that  has  been  made  fragrant  by)  all  sorts  of  herbs 
and  the  choicest  fruits  together  with  scents ; 

7.  Comp.  chap.  5,  i. 

8.  Comp.  the  Gr/'hya-sawgraha-pamish/a  I,  46,  and  the  note, 
Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenl,  Gescllschaft,  XXXV,  556. 
Narayawa :  dakshiwa/w  bahuw  ^anvor  antare  k/-z'tvety 
artha^,  sarvada  sarvasminn  api  karmawi  havir  homadra- 
vyaw  ^uhuyat. 

9.  This  verse  is  found  also  in  the  Karmapradipa  III,  8,  4. 

11,  I.  The  ceremony  described  in  this  chapter  is  called  Indrawi- 
karman.  The  goddess  Indrawi  is  mentioned  in  Sialra  4  among  the 
deities  to  whom  A_§^ya  oblations  are  made. 

2.  Nijakale,  nija  madhyasthaw  praharadvayaw,  tasmin  kale  atite. 
Narayana. 

On  the  anvarambha,  comp.  Weber's  Indische  Studicn,  IX,  224. 


'X2  i-ANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-SUTRA. 


3.  They  put  on  her  a  newly-dyed  garment  or  (a 
new  one)  which  has  not  yet  been  washed ; 

4.  Then  (the  A/'arya  of  the  bride's  family)  makes 
the  girl  sit  down  behind  the  fire,  and  while  she  takes 
hold  of  him  he  sacrifices  with  the  Mahavyahmis, 
and  then  he  makes  Af  ya  oblations  to  Agni,  to  Soma, 
to  Pra^apati,  to  Mitra,  to  Varu;^a,  to  Indra,  to 
Indra;^i,  to  the  Gandharva,  to  Bhaga,  to  Pushan, 
to  Tvash/ar,  to  Br/haspati,  to  the  king  Pratyanika. 

5.  After  they  have  regaled  four  or  eight  women, 
who  are  not  widows,  with  lumps  of  vegetables, 
Sura,  and  food,  these  should  perform  a  dance  four 
times. 

6.  The  same  deities  (they  worship  also)  on  behalf 

of  the  man, 

7.  And  Vai5rava;^a  and  l5ana. 

8.  Then  follows  the  distribution  of  food  to  Brah- 


ma^ms. 


KHAiVDA    12. 

1.  The  bridegroom,  who  has  bathed  and  for 
whom  auspicious  ceremonies  have  been  performed, 
is  escorted  by  happy  young  women,  who  are  not 
widows,  to  the  girl's  house. 

2.  To  these  he  shall  not  behave  unobsequiously, 
except  where  forbidden  food  or  a  transgression  is 
concerned. 

3.  Having  obtained  their  permission,  he  then 
gives  her  the  garment  with  (the  verse), '  The  Raibhi 
was '  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  6). 

4.  The  'king  Pratyanika'  has  given  origin  to  a  very  curious 
misunderstanding  in  the  6'ambavya-G/'/hya  and  its  commentary;  see 
p.  127  of  the  German  edition. 


I  ADIIYAYA,    12   KllANDA,    9.  33 

4.  With  (the  verse),  '  Mind  was  the  cushion ' 
(ibid.  7)  he  takes  up  the  salve-box. 

5.  The  verse  for  the  anointing  is,  'May  the  Vi^ve 
devas  anoint  (or,  unite),'  (ibid.  47.) 

6.  '  As  this  (has  protected)  Sa./A  the  beloved 
one,  and  Aditi  the  mother  of  noble  sons,  and 
Apala  who  was  free  from  widowhood,  may  it 
thus  here  protect  thee,  N.  N. ! ' — with  these  words 
(the  bridegroom)  gives  her  into  her  right  hand  the 
quill  of  a  porcupine  (and)  a  string  of  three  twisted 
threads, 

7.  With  the  verse,  *  Shape  by  shape'  (Rig-veda 
VI,  47,  18)  a  mirror  into  the  left. 

8.  Her  relations  tie  (to  her  body)  a  red  and 
black,  woollen  or  linen  cord  with  three  (amulet) 
gems,  with  the  verse,  '  Dark-blue  and  red '  (Rig- 
veda  X,  85,  28). 

9.  With  the  verse,  '  Full  of  honey  the  herbs ' 
(Rig-veda  IV,  57,  3),  (the  bridegroom)  ties  (to  her 
body)  Madhuka  flowers. 

12,  5.  On  the  ceremony  of  '  salving  together'  {samail^ana), 
comp.  Paraskara  I,  4,  14;  Gobhila  II,  2,  &c.  Professor  Stenzler 
is  certainly  wrong  in  translating  Paraskara's  sama??^ayati  by 
'heisst  sie  beide  zusammentreten'  (according  to  G^ayarama's  expli- 
cation, sammukhikaroti).  It  is  clear  from  -Sahkhayana,  that  a 
real  anointing  of  bridegroom  and  bride  took  place.  This  was  per- 
formed, according  to  Gobhila,  by  the  *  audaka'  (this  seems  to  be  the 
same  person  that  is  mentioned  in  Paraskara  I,  8,  3),  of  whom  it  is 
said,  pawigrahaw  (i.e.  the  bridegroom)  miirdh ad eje  'vasi?I/tati, 
tathetaram.  Naraya«a,  on  the  contrary,  in  his  note  on  our  pas- 
sage, says  that  it  is  the  bridegroom  who  anoints  the  eyes  of  the 
girl  with  the  verse  quoted.  But  the  word  sam-a/l^ana,  and  the 
obvious  meaning  of  the  whole  rite,  make  it  rather  probable  that 
both  were  anointed,  and  that  this  was  done  by  a  third  person. 

6.  Comp.  below,  chap.  22,  8,  where  the  use  of  a  porcupine's 
quill  is  prescribed  at  the  simantonnayana  ceremony;  and  see 
chap.  22,  10. 

[29]  D 


34  ^ankhayana-gr/iiya-sCtra. 


10.  At  the  wedding  one  cow,  when  the  Argha 
ceremony  has  been  performed  ;  in  the  house  one 
cow :  these  are  the  two  Madhiiparka  cows. 

11.  (The  bridegroom)  makes  the  girl  sit  down 
behind  the  fire,  and  while  she  takes  hold  of  him  he 
makes  three  oblations  with  the  Mahavyahmis. 

10.  As  to  the  meaning  of  arhayitva  I  differ  from  the  opinion  of 
Narayawa  (see  his  note  on  p.  127  of  the  German  edition),  who  takes 
gam  as  the  object  of  this  verb  (gam  arhayitva  pu^ayitva  mata 
rudrawam  ity  n'/^aw?  ^apitva  [comp.  Paraskara  I,  3,  27]).  The  real 
meaning  of  arhayati  is,  to  perform  the  Argha  ceremony  for  a 
guest.  Evidently  in  this  Sutra  two  different  occasions  are  stated 
on  which  the  Argha  reception,  eventually  with  the  killing  of  a  cow, 
should  be  performed ;  firstly,  the  bridegroom  should  be  so  received 
in  the  house  of  the  bride's  father;  secondly,  when  the  newly- 
married  people  have  arrived  at  their  own  house,  an  Argha  reception 
should  there  be  offered  to  them,  perhaps,  as  the  commentaries 

A 

State,  by  the  A/^arya. 

11.  According  to  Narayawa  it  is  the  AHrya  who  performs  the 
rite  prescribed  in  this  Sutra ;  Rama-^andra,  on  the  contrary,  refers  it 
to  the  bridegroom,  which  seems  to  me  right.    Comp.  Gobhila  II,  i. 

In  -Sankhayana's  description  of  the  wedding  ceremonies  the  point 
at  which  the  bride  passes  over  from  the  paternal  power  into  that 
of  her  new  husband  is  not  expressly  indicated.  Paraskara  (I,  4,15) 
clearly  indicates  it  (pitra  prattam  adaya),  and  in  the  Parii'ish/a  of 
the  Ajvalayana-Grzliya  this  act  of  handing  over  the  girl  is  treated 
of  in  detail  (I,  22).  On  this  depends  the  description  in  the  Prayo- 
garatna,  fol.  69;  comp.  also  Colebrooke's  Miscell.  Essays,  I,  210. 
The  Paddhati  of  Rama/l'andra  does  not  fail  to  mention  the 
kanyapradana,  but  I  do  not  think  that  the  succession  of  the 
different  rites  is  stated  there  correctly.  According  to  the  Paddhati 
the  bridegroom  goes  to  the  house  of  the  girl's  father,  and  there, 
after  the  madhuparka  has  been  offered,  the  bride  is  given  over 
to  him;  he  then  (labdhavadhuka/^)  goes  (chap.  12,1),  accom- 
panied by  young  women,  to  the  kautukagara,  where  the  cere- 
monies described  in  chap.  12,  3  seq.  take  place.  Paraskara,  on 
the  contrary,  describes  the  handing  over  of  the  garments,  the 
anointing,  &c.,  as  preceding  the  giving  over  of  the  girl,  and 
indeed  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  see  in  the  acts  of  dressing,  adorn- 
ing the  girl,  &c.,  in  which  both  the  bridegroom  and  her  relations 


I  ADHYAVA,    13  KIIAA'KA,    4.  35 

12.  A  fourth  (oblation)  with  (the  three  Mahavya- 
hrz'tis)  together  is  to  be  understood  from  this  rule. 

13.  In  this  way,  where  no  express  rule  is  stated, 
in  all  sacrifices  that  procure  happiness,  one  is  to 
sacrifice  before  and  afterwards  with  these  same 
(Mahavyahrnis). 

Khaa^da  13. 

1.  '  Be  queen  with  thy  father-in-law,'  with  this 
verse  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  46)  her  father  or  brother 
sacrifices  with  a  sword's  point  on  her  head,  or  with 
the  Sruva,  standing  while  she  is  sitting,  with  his 
face  turned  to  the  west,  while  her  face  is  turned  to 
the  east. 

2.  '  I  seize  thy  hand  for  the  sake  of  happiness ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  85,  36),  with  these  words  (the  bride- 
groom) seizes  with  his  right  hand  her  right  hand 
with  the  thumb,  both  hands  being  turned  with  the 
palms  upwards,  he  standing  while  she  is  sitting,  with 
his  face  turned  to  the  west,  while  her  face  is  turned 
to  the  east. 

3.  And  when  he  has  murmured  the  following  five 
verses, 

4.  (He  continues  thus,)  'This  am  I,  that  art  thou; 

take  part,  anything  but  preparatory  performances  that  precede 
the  decisive  moment.  The  sacrifice,  on  the  contrary,  which  the 
bridegroom  performs,  according  to  chap.  12,  11,  in  common  with 
his  bride,  seems  to  presuppose  that  he  has  aheady  received  her 
from  her  father;  and  the  ceremonies  described  in  chap.  13,  the 
pawigrahawa,  the  pronouncing  of  the  IMantra,  chap.  13,  4,  which 
reminds  one  of  the  Roman  formula  ubi  tu  Gaius,  the  seven 
steps — all  that  should  be  understood  not  as  intended  to  establish 
the  power  of  the  husband  over  his  wife,  but  as  presupposing  that 
power  and  showing  an  exercise  of  it. 

13,  4.  Naraya«a  states  that  here  four  Brahmawas  should  repeat 

D  2 


o 


6  5ANKHAYANA-Gi2/HYA-stjTRA. 


that  art  thou,  this  am  I  ;  the  heaven  I,  the  earth  thou; 
theJ^tV^  art  thou,  the  Saman  I.  So  be  thou  devoted 
to  me. 

'  Well !  Let  us  here  marry.  Let  us  beget  off- 
spring. Let  us  acquire  many  sons  who  may  reach 
old  age.' 

5.  (The  A/'arya)  fills,  with  the  words  bhur 
bhuva^  sva/^,  a  new  water-pot, 

6.  Throws  into  it  (branches)  with  milky  sap  and 
leaves,  of  a  tree  the  name  of  which  is  masculine, 
together  with  Kui-a  grass, 

7.  And  gold,  according  to  some  (teachers), 

8.  And  hands  it  over  to  a  student  who  observes 
silence. 

9.  They  should  walk  round  this  Stheya  water, 
(placed)  to  the  north-east,  so  that  they  turn  their 
right  sides  towards  it. 


the  Surya  hymn  (Rig-veda  X,  85)  to  the  bride.  That,  according 
to  -Sahkhayana,  that  hymn  is  recited  at  the  wedding,  is  clear  from 
chap.  14,  12. 

6.  Sakshirant  sapala^ant  sakujan.  Narayawa's  commen- 
tary divides  sa  kujan,  and  refers  sa  to  the  a-^arya.  But  this 
sa  would  be  superfluous,  and  the  substantive  to  which  sakshiran 
and  sapala^an  are  to  be  referred,  is,  as  both  the  nature  of  the 
case  and  the  corresponding  passages  show,  jakhan  and  not 
kujan.  Comp.  the  6'rauta-sutra  IV,  17,  5  :  palaja^akhara  sapa- 
lisa,m  nikhaya,  and  a  passage  concerning  the  very  rite  here 
described,  Ai'valayana-parij-ish/a  I,  24:  audumbaryarddhaya 
(read,  ardraya.?)  jakhaya  sapala^aya  sahira?/yapavitrayS 
sadfirvapavitraya.  The  MS.  of  the  6'ambavya-sGtra  has  sa- 
kshiran palaj-an  sakujan. 

9.  'The  Stheya  water  has  to  be  so  placed  that  when  the  bride 
and  the  bridegroom  walk  (their  seven  steps,  see  chap.  14,  5  seq.), 
their  right  sides  are  turned  towards  it.'  Narayawa.  Comp.,  re- 
garding the  Stheya  water  and  its  bearer,  the  Gr/hya-sawgraha- 
parii'ish/a  II,  26.  30.  35. 


I  ADHYAYA,   1 4  KHAiVDA,    2.  37 

10.  And  after  (the  A/'arya)  has  placed  a  stone 
towards  the  northern  direction, 

11.  (The  bridegroom)  makes  her  rise  with  the 
words,  '  Come,  thou  joyful  one,' 

1 2.  And  makes  her  tread  with  the  tip  of  her  right 
foot  on  the  stone,  with  the  words,  '  Come,  tread  on 
the  stone ;  like  a  stone  be  firm.  Tread  the  foes 
down  ;  overcom.e  the  enemies.' 

13.  He  then  leads  her  round  the  fire  so  that  their 
right  sides  are  turned  to  it, 

14.  And  gives  her  a  second  garment  with  the 
same  text  (chap.  1 2,  §  3). 

15.  Her  father  or  brother  pours  out  of  a  basket 
fried  grain  mixed  with  ^S'ami  leaves  into  her  joined 
hands. 

16.  The  spreading  under,  the  sprinkling  over,  and 
the  second  sprinkling  over  (are  done)  with  A^ya. 

I  7.  She  sacrifices  those  (fried  grains). 

KllANDA   14. 

1 .  '  This  woman,  strewing  grains,  prays  thus,  "  May 
I  bring  bliss  to  my  relations  ;  may  my  husband  live 
long.  Svaha!'" — while  the  husband  murmurs  (this) 
text,  she  sacrifices  standing. 

2.  (All  the  ceremonies,)  beginning  from  the  tread- 

17.  I  believe  that  the  words  forming  this  Sfitra,  ta»l^uhoti,  are 
taken  from  the  same  lost  old  Gn'hya.  text  which  ^"'ankhayana  has 
followed  word  for  word  also  in  I,  5,  1-5  and  elsewhere.  This  is 
made  probable  by  the  comparison  of  Paraskara  I,  6,  2.  The 
author  of  our  text,  while  literally  adopting  the  words  of  his  original, 
has  not  quite  succeeded  in  welding  them  together  with  his  own 
statements ;  thus  the  sacrifice  of  grains  is  treated  of  in  this  SGtra 
and  in  the  first  SQtra  of  the  next  chapter,  as  if  there  were  two 
different  acts,  while  indeed  it  is  one  and  the  same. 

14,  2.  The  treading  on  the  stone  is  prescribed  in  chap.  13,  12. 


38  5ANKHAYANA-Gi?/HYA-sOTRA. 


ing  upon  the  stone,  (are  repeated)  in  the  same  way 
for  a  second  time, 

3.  And  in  the  same  way  a  third  time. 

4.  Silently,  if  they  like,  a  fourth  time. 

5.  (The  A/C-arya  ?)  makes  (them)  step  forward  in 
a    north-eastern    direction    seven    steps    (with    the 

words), 

6.  '  For  sap  with  one  step,  for  juice  with  two  steps, 
for  the  prospering  of  wealth  with  three  steps,  for 
comfort  with  four  steps,  for  cattle  with  five  steps, 
for  the  seasons  with  six  steps.  Friend  be  with 
seven  steps.' 

7.  (The  A/^arya?)  'appeases'  those  (foot-steps) 
with  water. 

8.  With  the  three  Apohish//aya  verses  (Rig-veda 
X,  9,  1-3)  he  wipes  (them)  with  the  Stheya  water, 

9.  And  sprinkles  it  on  their  heads. 

10.  (The    bridegroom    then)    says,  '  I    give   you 

a  cow.' 

11.  Let  him  give  something  to  the  Brahma/^as 
each  time  at  the  Sthalipakas  and  other  rites ; 

12.  To  him  who  knows  the  Surya  hymn  the 
bride's  shift. 


5,  7.  According  to  Naraya«a  it  is  the  teacher  who  makes  them 
walk  the  seven  steps ;  the  Paddhati  says  that  the  bridegroom  or 
the  AX-arya  causes  her  to  do  so.  Comp.  Paraskara  I,  8,  i ;  Ajva- 
layana  I,  7,  19,  &c. 

8.  Comp.  chap.  13,  9. 

9.  Probably  we  should  read  mfirdhani  (ace.  dual.),  not  mur- 
dhani.  A^valayana  has  jirasi.  Of  course  the  heads  of  both  the 
bridegroom  and  the  bride  were  sprinkled  with  water  ;  comp.  A^va- 
layana  I,  7,  20,  &c. 

12.  The  Surya  hymn  is  Rig-veda  X,  85.  Comp.  the  note  above 
on  chap.  13,  4. 


I  ADHYAYA,    1 5  KHAA^DA,   3.  39 


13.  A  COW  is  the  optional  gift  to  be  given  by 
a  Brahma;^a, 

14.  A  village  by  a  Ra^anya, 

15.  A  horse  by  a  Vaij-ya. 

16.  A  hundred  (cows)  with  a  chariot  (he  gives  to 
a  father)  who  has  only  daughters. 

17.  To  those  versed  in  the  sacrificial  rites  he 
gives  a  horse. 

KllANDA    15. 

1.  The  three  verses, '  I  loosen  thee'  (Rig-veda  X, 
85,  24),  when  she  departs  from  the  house. 

2.  'The  living  one  they  bewail'  (Rig-veda  X, 
40,  10),  if  she  begins  to  cry. 

3.  The  wife  then  smears  the  axle  of  the  chariot 
with  clarified  butter  with  this  (verse),  '  They  feasted, 
they  got  drunk'  (Rig-veda  I,  82,  2), 

13-15.  These  Sfitras,  treating  of  the  fee  for  the  sacrifice,  are 
identical  with  Paraskara  I,  8,  15-18.  Apparently  they  are  taken 
from  the  same  lost  original  from  which  several  identical  passages 
in  the  Siitras  of  Paraskara  and  iS'ahkhayana  seem  to  be  derived 
(see  the  notes  on  chap.  5,  i  ;  13,  7).  They  stand  rather  out  of 
place  here,  for  they  return  to  the  same  subject  which  had  already 
been  treated  of  in  Sutra  10,  though  in  that  S{itra,  as  very  frequently 
is  the  case  in  our  text  and  in  similar  ones,  only  the  case  of  the 
bridegroom  being  a  Brahmawa  has  been  taken  notice  of 

16.  Comp.  the  passages  quoted  by  Professor  Stenzler  on  Para- 
skara I,  8,  18.  Narayawa  has  the  following  note  :  '  To  a  duhitr/- 
mat,  i.e.  to  the  father  of  a  girl  who  has  no  brother,  he  shall  give 
a  hundred  cows  and  besides  a  chariot,  in  order  to  destroy  the  guilt 
brought  about  by  marrying  a  girl  who  has  no  brother.'  Possibly 
we  should  here  emancipate  ourselves  from  the  authority  of  the 
commentators,  and  explain  duhitr/mat  'he  who  gives  his 
daughter  in  marriage,'  the  bride's  father.  Comp.  Apast.imba  II, 
II,  18  ;  II,  13,  12  ;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  V,  343,  note  2. 

15,  3.  Probably  the  use  of  this  verse  on  this  occasion  rests  on  the 
assonance  of  its  opening  word  akshan  and  aksha  (rathaksha). 


40  5ANKHAYANA-G/?7HYA-StjTRA, 

4.  And  with  the  two  (verses),  '  Pure  are  thy 
wheels/  'Thy  two  wheels'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  12.  16), 
of  the  two  wheels  the  first  with  the  first  (verse) 
and  the  second  with  the  second  (verse), 

5.  And  the  two  bulls. 

6.  After  (the  wife  ?)  has  put,  with  this  (verse), 
*  In  the  box  of  the  wheel'  (Rig-veda  VIII,  80,  7), 
a  branch  of  a  fruit-bearinor  tree  into  each  of  the 
holes  destined  for  the  pins, 

7.  Or,  if  (such  branches)  are  (already)  fixed,  has 
recited  (that  verse)  over  them, 

8.  They  then  harness  the  two  bulls  with  the  two 
(verses),  '  Harnessed  be  thy  right  one'  (Rig-veda  I, 
82,  5-6),  (the  bridegroom)  reciting  the  half-verse, 
'White  the  two  bulls'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  10),  over 
them  when  they  have  been  harnessed. 

9.  Now  should  any  part  of  the  chariot  break  or 
burst,  let  him  take  the  girl  to  the  house  of  one  who 
keeps  the  sacred  fires, 

10.  And  repair  (the  damage)  with  the  verse, 
'Cover  thyself  with    the   Khadiras'  (Rig-veda  III, 

53'   19). 

11.  A  knot  with  the  verse,  'Him  like   a  horse' 

(Rig-veda  X,  143,   2). 

12.  He  then  murmurs  the  five  verses, '  May  pros- 
perity give  us'  (Rig-veda  V,  51,  1 1-15). 

13.  'Adorned  with  Ki;7^i"uka  flowers'  (Rig-veda  X, 
85,  20),  when  she  mounts  the  chariot; 

14.  'May  no  waylayers  meet  us'  (ibid.  ^,2),  at 
a  cross-way ; 

15.  'Which  the  woman's '(ibid.  31),  near  a  cemetery; 

16.  The    half-verse,  'O    tree    with    thy  hundred 

6.  See  Narayawa's  note  on  jamyagarta,  p.  129  of  the  German 
ediiion. 


I  ADIIYAYA,   1 6  KIIAA^DA,  3.  4 1 

branches'  (Rig-veda  III,  8,  ii),  he  mutters   near  a 
big  tree ; 

17.  'The  good  protectress'  (Rig-veda  X,  63,  10), 
when  she  ascends  a  ship ; 

18.  'Carrying  stones'  (Rig-veda  X,  53,  8),  when 
she  crosses  a  river ; 

19.  Optionally  (he)  also  (murmurs  the  same  verse, 
if  that  is  done)  with  the  harnessed  chariot ; 

20.  'Up  may  your  wave'  (Rig-veda  III,  ^,2,,  13),  at 
deep  places  (in  the  river) ; 

21.  And  (at  such  places)  let  her  not  look  out. 

22.  The  seven  verses,  '  Here  may  delight'  (Rig- 
veda  X,  85,  27  seq.),  when  she  has  reached  the  house, 
omitting  the  verses  already  employed. 

Khanda  16. 

1.  'A  bull's  hide' — this  has  been  declared. 

2.  On  that  hide  the  husband  makes  her  sit  down 
and  sacrifices,  while  she  takes  hold  of  him,  four  obla- 
tions (with  the  following  formulas), 

3.  '  With  god  Agni,  with  the  earth-world  of  the 
worlds,  and  the  Rig-veda  of  the  Vedas  :  therewith 
I  appease  thee,  N.  N.,  svaha ! 

'  With  god  Vayu,  with  the  air-world  of  the  worlds, 

16,  I.  In  chap.  15,  22  it  is  said  that  the  bride  arrives  at  the 
house;  in  16,  12,  that  she  enters  the  house.  Probably  we  are  to 
understand,  therefore,  that  the  sacrifice  prescribed  in  this  chapter, 
Sijtras  2  seq.,  is  performed  before  the  house,  like  the  Vastosh- 
patiya  karman  (below,  III,  4).  The  words,  'has  been  declared,' 
refer  to  the  .S'rauta-sQtra  (IV,  16,  2),  'Having  spread  a  red  bull's 
skin,  will)  ilie  neck  to  the  north  or  to  the  east,  with  the  hair  out- 
side, behind  the  fire,  they  sit  down,'  &c. 

2.  On  anvarambha  comp.  the  quotation  in  the  note  on 
chap.  11,2. 


42  .SANKITAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 

with  the  Ya^ur-veda  of  the  Vedas  :  therewith  I  ap- 
pease thee,  N.  N.,  svaha  ! 

'  With  god  SCirya,  with  the  heaven-world  of  the 
worlds,  with  the  Sama-veda  of  the  Vedas  :  therewith 
I  appease  thee,  N.  N.,  svaha ! 

'  With  god  A^'andra,  with  the  world  of  the  quarters 
(of  the  horizon)  of  the  worlds,  with  the  Brahma- 
veda  of  the  Vedas  :  therewith  I  appease  thee,  N.  N., 
svaha ! ' 

4.  Or,  '  Bhil/i !  What  harm  dwells  in  thee,  bring- 
ing death  to  thy  husband,  death  to  thy  husband's 
brother,  that  I  make  death-bringing  to  thy  para- 
mour, N.  N.,  svaha!' — thus  the  first  (of  the  before- 
mentioned  formulas)  may  be  joined  with  the  first 
Mahavyah;Vti,  the  second  with  the  second,  the  third 
with  the  third,  the  fourth  with  (the  three  Maha- 
vyahrztis)  together. 

5.  With  (the  verse),  'With  no  evil  eye'  (Rig- 
veda  X,  85,  44),  let  him  besmear  (her)  eyes  with 
A^ya  salve. 

6.  (The  bridegroom,)  having  touched  the  ends  of 
her  hair  with  the  three  (verses),  '  How  may  us  the 
resplendent  one  .  .  .'  (Rig-veda  IV,  31,  1-3), 

7.  And  having  quickly  recited  the  four  verses, 
'And  those  divine  medicines'  (Rig-veda  VIII,  18,  8), 
at  the  end  (of  that  text)  with  the  word  svaha  (pours 
out)  the  remainder  on  (her)  head. 

8.  Here  some  place  a  boy  of  good  birth  on  both 
sides,  in  her  lap,  with  this  (verse),  '  Into  thy  womb' 
(see  below,  chap.  19,  6), 

8.  It  should  be  noted  that  the  verse  a  te  yonim  is  quoted  here 
only  with  the  Pratika,  while  its  full  text  is  given  below,  chap.  19,  6. 
Can  the  Siitras  describing  this  ceremony  with  the  kumara  ubha- 
yata/i-su^ata  be  a  later  addition? 


I  ADHYAYA,    17  KUANDA,  9.  43 

9.  Or  also  silently. 

1 0.  I nto  this  (boy's)  joined  hands  (the  bridegroom) 
gives  fruits  and  causes  (the  Brahma;^as)  to  wish  an 
auspicious  day. 

1 1.  Thus  she  becomes  the  mother  of  male  children. 

12.  With  the  rest  of  the  hymn,  'Stay  ye  here 
both'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  42  seq.),  they  make  them 
enter  the  house. 

KHAiVDA   17. 

1.  With  the  verse,  '  I  praised  Dadhikravan'  (Rig- 
veda  IV,  39,  6),  let  them  drink  together  curds. 

2.  Let  them  sit  silent,  when  the  sun  has  set,  until 
the  polar-star  appears. 

3.  He  shows  her  the  polar-star  with  the  words, 
'  Firm  be  thou,  thriving  with  me !' 

4.  Let  her  say,  '  I  see  the  polar-star  ;  may  I  obtain 
offspring.' 

5.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  let  them 
refrain  from  conjugal  intercourse. 

6.  Let  them  sleep  on  the  ground. 

7.  Let  them  eat  together  boiled  rice  with  curds, 
with  the  three  verses, '  Drink  and  satiate  yourselves' 
(Rig-veda  VIII,  35,  10). 

8.  Let  them  serve  the  nuptial  fire  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning  with  the  words,  '  To  Agni  svaha  ! 
To  Agni  Svish/akm  svaha!' 

9.  '  Let  the  two  men  Mitra  and  Varuy^a,  let  the 
two  men,  the  A^-vins  both,  let  the  man  Indra  and 
also  Agni  make  a  man  grow  in  me.     Svaha  ! ' — with 

17,  2,  3.  I  have  changed  in  the  translation  the  division  of  these 
SQtras;  the  native  authorities  divide  after  dhruvadarxandt,  while 
I  propose  to  divide  after  astamite. 


44  ^ANKHAYANA-GTe/HYA-SUTRA. 

(these  words  she  offers)  the  first  oblation  if  she  is 
desirous  of  pregnancy. 

lo.  For  ten  days  they  are  not  to  set  out  (from 
home). 

Khanda  18. 

1.  Now  the  rites  of  the  fourth  day. 

2.  When  the  three  nights  have  elapsed,  he  makes 
offerings  of  cooked  food  (with  the  texts), 

3.  '  Agni !  Thou  art  expiation  ;  thou  art  the  ex- 
piation of  the  gods.  What  substance  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  death  to  her  husband,  that  drive  away 
from  her. 

'  Vayu  !  Thou  art  expiation ;  thou  art  the  expiation 
of  the  gods.  What  substance  dwells  in  her  that 
brings  sonlessness,  that  drive  away  from  her. 

*  Surya !  Thou  art  expiation  ;  thou  art  the  expia- 
tion of  the  gods.  What  substance  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  destruction  to  the  cattle,  that  drive  away 
from  her. 

'  To  god  Aryaman  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice, 
to  Agni ;  may  he,  god  Aryaman,  loosen  her  from 
this,  and  not  from  that  place. 

'  To  god  Varu;^a  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice,  to 
Agni ;  may  he,  god  Varu/za,  &c. 

*  To  god  Pushan  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice,  to 
Agni ;  may  he,  god  Pushan,  &c.' 

4.  The  seventh  oblation  with  the  verse,  *  Pra^a- 
pati'  (Rig-veda  X,  121,  10). 

5.  The  eighth  to  (Agni)  Svish/akr/t. 

18,  3.  As  to  preto  mu?i/tatu  mamuta/z  compare  Paraskara  I, 
6,  2:  preto  mu97/l'atu  ma  pate/?.  This  passage  shows  what 
ita//  and  amuta/;  refer  to,  Comp.  Professor  Weber's  note  3  at 
Indische  Studien,  V,  347. 


I  ADHYAYA,    1 9  KllANDA,  6.  45 


Kuan  DA  19. 

1.  Let  him  pound  the  root  of  the  Adhyd;^rt^a  plant 
and  sprinkle  it  at  the  time  of  her  monthly  period 
with  the  two  (verses),  '  Speed  away  from  here ;  a 
husband  has  she'  (  Rig-veda  X,  85,  21.  22),  with 
svaha  at  the  end  of  each,  into  her  right  nostril. 

2.  '  The  mouth  of  the  Gandharva  Vii-vavasu  art 
thou' — with  these  words  let  him  touch  her,  when  he 
is  about  to  cohabit  with  her. 

3.  When  he  has  finished,  let  him  murmur, 

4.  '  Into  thy  breath  I  put  the  sperm,  N.  N. !' 

5.  Or,  '  As  the  earth  is  pregnant  with  Agni,  as 
the  heaven  is  with  Indra  pregnant,  as  Vayu  dwells 
in  the  womb  of  the  regions  (of  the  earth),  thus  I  place 
an  embryo  into  thy  womb,  N.  N. !' 

6.  Or,  '  May  a  male  embryo  enter  thy  womb,  as 
an  arrow  the  quiver ;  may  a  man  be  born  here,  a 
son  after  ten  months. 

'  Give  birth  to  a  male  child ;  may  after  him 
(another)  male  be  born ;  their  mother  shalt  thou 
be,  of  the  born,  and  (to  others)  mayst  thou  give  birth. 

'  In  the  male  verily,  in  the  man  dwells  the  sperm ; 
he  shall  pour  it  forth  into  the  woman  :  thus  has 
said  Dhatar,  thus  Pra^'-apati  has  said. 

'  Pra^apati  has  created  him,  Savitar  has  shaped 
him.  Imparting  birth  of  females  to  other  (women) 
may  he  put  here  a  man. 

'  From  the  auspicious  sperms  which  the  men  pro- 

19,  6.  The  first  verse  is  that  quoted  already  at  chap.  16,  8. 
The  text  of  the  verses  quoted  in  this  Suira  is  very  corrupt ;  see  the 
notes  on  p.  36  of  the  German  edition. 


46  5ANKHAYANA-G/?/nYA-S<JTRA. 

duce  for  us,  produce  thou  a  son  ;  be  a  well-breeding 
cow. 

'  Roar,  be  strong,  put  into  her  an  embryo,  achieve 
it ;  a  male,  thou  male,  put  into  her ;  to  generation 
we  call  thee. 

'  Open  thy  womb  ;  take  in  the  man's  sperm  ;  may 
a  male  child  be  begotten  in  the  womb.  Him  thou 
shalt  bear ;  (having  dwelt)  ten  months  in  the  womb 
may  he  be  born,  the  most  excellent  of  his  kin.' 

KHAiVDA   20. 

1.  In  the  third  month  the  Pu;;^savana  (i.e.  the 
ceremony  to  secure  the  birth  of  a  male  child), 

2.  Under  (the  Nakshatra)  Pushya  or  Srsivana. 

3.  Having  pounded  a  Soma  stalk,  or  a  Ku^a 
needle,  or  the  last  shoot  of  a  Nyagrodha  trunk,  or 
the  part  of  a  sacrificial  post  which  is  exposed  to 
the  fire, 

4.  Or  (having  taken)  after  the  completion  of  a 
sacrifice  the  remnants  from  the  6^uhu  ladle, 

5.  Let  him  sprinkle  it  into  her  right  nostril  with 
the  four  verses,  'By  Agni  may  good'  (Rig-veda  I, 
I,  3),  '  That  sperm  to  us'  (HI,  4,  9),  '  May  he  succeed 
who  lights  fire'  (V,  37,  2),  '  Of  tawny  shape'  (H,  3,  9), 
with  Svaha  at  the  end  (of  each  verse). 

20,  3.  On  juiiga  compare  the  note  of  Narayawa  and  the  verse 
quoted  from  the  Karmapradipa,  p.  131  of  the  German  edition. 

On  kujaka«/aka  Narayawa  says,  ku^akaw/akara  kuso 
darbhas  tasya  kaw/aka^  su/('i  (su/^a,  MS.  Berol.  Orient,  fol. 
602)  tarn  va  peshayitva.  I  do  not  understand  why  the  commen- 
tators of  Paraskara,  whom  Professor  Stenzler  has  followed  in  his 
translation  of  Par.  I,  14,  4,  make  ka«/aka  equal  to  miila. 

5.  Nasto  dakshiwata//  stands  here  as  in  chap.  19,  i.  Ajva- 
layana  I,  13,  6  has  dakshiwasyawz  nasikayam,  and  so  has  also 


I  ADIIYAYA,   2  2  KHAiVDA,   7.  47 


KnAiVDA    21. 

1.  In  the  fourth  month  the  Garbharaksha?za  (i.e. 
the  ceremony  for  the  protection  of  the  embryo), 

2.  Sacrificing  six  oblations  from  a  mess  of  cooked 
food  with  (the  six  verses  of  the  hymn),  '  Agni,  joined 
with  the  prayer'  (Rig-veda  X,  162), 

3.  With  (the  verses),  'From  thy  eyes,  thy  nose' 
(Rig-veda  X,  163),  verse  by  verse  besmearing  her 
Hmbs  with  A^a  salve. 

Khanda  22, 

1.  In  the  seventh  month,  at  her  first  pregnancy, 
the  Simantonnayana  (or  parting  of  the  hair). 

2.  He  causes  her,  after  she  has  bathed  and  put 
on  a  (new)  garment  which  has  not  yet  been  washed, 
to  sit  down  behind  the  fire. 

3.  He  sacrifices,  while  she  takes  hold  of  him,  with 
the  Mahavyahr/tis. 

4.  He  cooks  a  mess  of  food, 

5.  According  to  some  (teachers)  boiled  rice  with 
Mudga  beans. 

6.  The  implements  used  and  the  Nakshatra  should 
be  of  male  gender. 

7.  (He  then  sacrifices  with  the  following  texts,) 
*  May  Dhatar  give  to  his  worshipper  further  life  and 
safety ;  may  we  obtain  the  favour  of  the  god  whose 
laws  are  truthful. 

'  Dhatar  disposes  of  offspring  and  wealth  ;  Dhatar 
has   created   this  whole  world ;    Dhatar  will  give  a 

Paraskara  I,  13.  Comp.  the  natthukamma  treated  of  in  the 
Pali  Buddhist  texts  (Mahavagga  VI,  13)  and  in  the  medical 
literature. 


48  5ankhayana-g/?/hya-sOtra. 


son  to  the  sacrlficer :  to  him  you  shall  sacrifice,  an 
offering  rich  in  ghee.' 

(Besides)  with  the  three  verses,  '  Ne^amesha,  fly 
away'  (Rig-veda  Khailika  sukta,  after  X,  184,  vol.  vi, 
p.  31),  and  in  the  sixth  place  the  verse, '  Pra^apati' 
(Rig-veda  X,  121,  10). 

8.  (The  husband  then)  parts  her  hair,  upwards, 
beginning  from  the  middle,  with  a  porcupine's  quill 
that  has  three  white  spots,  or  with  a  Darbha  needle 
tooether  with  unripe  Udumbara  fruits,  with  the 
words, '  Bhur  bhuva/^  sva//.' 

9.  He  lays  down  (the  thing  he  has  used)  in  her  lap, 

10.  Ties  (the  fruits)  to  a  string  of  three  twisted 
threads  and  fastens  them  to  her  neck  with  the  words, 
'  Rich  in  sap  is  this  tree  ;  like  the  sappy  one  be  thou 
fruitful.' 

1 1.  (The  husband)  then  says  to  lute-players,  'Sing 

ye  the  king — 

12.  'Or  if  anybody  else  is  still  more  valiant.' 

13.  Having  poured  fried  grain  into  a  water-pot, 
let  him  cause  her  to  drink  it  with  the  six  verses. 


22,  8.  Comp.  above,  chap.  12,  6. 

10.  Narayawa:  tisr/bhis  tantubhir  vr/tte  sutre  udumba- 
raphalani  .  .  .  gale  .  .  .  badhnati,  I  have  translated  accordingly. 
Paraskara  I,  15,  6  uses  the  same  expression  trivr/t.  Professor 
Stenzler  there  translates  it,  on  the  authority  of  Gayarama,  'dreifache 
Haarflechte,'  and  says  in  his  note  on  that  passage  that,  according 
to  .Sahkhayana,  he  would  have  to  tie  the  things  with  a  threefold 
string  to  the  neck  of  the  woman,  as  if  -Sahkhayana's  statement 
were  different  from  that  of  Paraskara.  But  both  authors  have  the 
same  word,  and  only  the  commentators  differ  in  their  explanations 

thereof. 

11.  Ajvalayana  more  explicitly  says  (I,  14,  6),  Somara  ra^a- 
nsim  sa?«gayetam  iti. 

13.  In  my  German  translation  there  is  a  mistake  which  should 
be  corrected.    1  have  there  referred  shalr/X'a  to  the  verses  Rakam 


I    ADHYAYA,  24  KIIAA^DA,    I.  49 

'  May  Vish;^u  take  care  of  thy  womb,'  '  I  call  Raka ' 
(Rig-vedaX,  184,  i  ;   II,  32,4-8). 

14.  Let  him  then  touch  her  (with  the  words), 

15.  'The  winged  one  art  thou,  the  Garutmat; 
the  Trivm  (stoma)  is  thy  head,  the  Gayatra  thy 
eye,  the  metres  thy  limbs,  the  Ya^s  thy  name,  the 
Saman  thy  body,* 

16.  Let  him  cause  her  to  sing  merrily, 

I  7.  Wearing,  if  she  likes,  many  gold  ornaments. 
18.  A  bull  is  the  fee  for  the  sacrifice. 

KHAiVDA   23. 

I .  Let  him  pound  the  roots  of  the  plants  kakatani, 
ma/'aka^atani,  koi'ataki,  of  the  egg-plant,  and  of  the 
indigo  plant,  and  besmear  (therewith)  the  place  in 
which  she  is  going  to  be  confined,  in  order  to  drive 
away  the  Rakshas. 

KUANDA   24. 

I.  Now  the  Catakarman  (i.e.  ceremony  for  the 
new-born  child). 


aham,  which  are  actually,  only  five  in  number.     The  six  verses 
are  Vishwur  yonim,  &c.,  and  the  five  verses  mentioned. 

15.  Va^asaneyi  Sawhita  XII,  4. 

16,  17.  Naraya«a  :  modamani;?^  harshayukta^z  tawz  mah- 
gaiikair  gitair  gayayet  .  .  .  mahahemavatiw  bahvabha- 
rawayukta/w  va  gayayet. 

24,  I.  Comp.  Dr.  Speijer's  essay  on  the  (ratakarman  (Leiden, 
1872).  Narayawa  observes  that,  as  it  is  prescribed  below  (chap. 
25,  4)  that  a  mess  of  food  is  to  be  cooked  in  the  sfitikagni,  here 
the  sQtikagni  is  established,  and  sacrifice  is  performed  therein. 
The  Sutra  i,  25,  4,  from  which  it  is  to  be  inferred  that  the  sflti- 
kagni  should  be  kept,  is  considered,  accordingly,  as  a  Gnnpaka. 
(see  Professor  Biihler's  notes   on  Apastamba  I,  ii,  7;  Gautama 

[29]  E 


50  .SANKHAYANA-G/?7HYA-StjTRA. 

2.  Let  (the  father)  breathe  three  times  on  the 
new-born  child  and  then  draw  in  his  breath  with  the 
words,  '  Draw  in  your  breath  with  the  Rik,  breathe 
within  with  the  Ya^us,  breathe  forth  with  the  Saman.' 

3.  Let  him  mix  together  butter  and  honey,  milk 
curds  and  water,  or  grind  together  rice  and  barley, 
and  give  it  to  eat  (to  the  child)  thrice  from  gold  (i.e. 
from  a  golden  vessel  or  with  a  golden  spoon), 

4.  With  (the  verse),  '  I  administer  to  thee  honey 
food  for  the  festival,  the  wisdom  ("  veda")  raised  by 
Savitar  the  bountiful ;  long-living,  protected  by  the 
gods,  live  a  hundred  autumns  in  this  world,  N.  N. ! ' — 
(with  these  words)  he  gives  him  a  name  beginning 
with  a  sonant,  with  a  semivowel  in  it,  consisting 
of  two  syllables,  or  of  four  syllables,  or  also  of 
six  syllables ;  he  should  take  a  km  (suffix),  not  a 
taddhita. 

5.  That  (name  only)  his  father  and  his  mother 
should  know. 

6.  On  the  tenth  day  a  name  for  common  use, 
which  is  pleasing  to  the  Brahma;2as. 

7.  Let  him  pulverise  black  and  white  and  red 
hairs  of  a  black  ox,  intermix  (that  powder)  with 
those  four  substances  (see  Sutra  3),  and  give  it  to 
eat  (to  the  child)  four  times:  such  (is  the  opinion 
of)  Ma;2rt'ukeya. 


I,  31  ;    Narayawa's  note  on  chap.  25,  4,  p.  133  of  the  German 
edition). 

2.  Abhyavanya  should  be  corrected  into  abhyapanya,  as  in 
IV,  18,  I  nearly  all  the  MSS.  read  nivata  instead  of  nip  a  ta.  The 
-S'ambavya  MS.  reads  in  the  text,  trir  abhyanyanuprawya ;  in 
the  commentary  trir  a«yapa«yanupra«ya.  Comp.,  on  the  ter- 
minology of  the  different  vital  airs,  Speijer,  (^atakarma,  p.  64  seq. ; 
Eggeling,  S.  B.  E.,  vol.  xii,  p.  20. 


I  ADIIVAYA,   25    KHA2VDA,   I.  51 

8.  If  he  likes  (let  him  do  so)  with  the  words, 
'  BhM  !  The  Rig-veda  I  lay  into  thee,  N.  N.,  svaha  ! 

'  Bhuva//!  The  Ya^ur-veda  I  lay  into  thee,  N.  N., 
sviha ! 

'  Sva./i !  The  Sama-veda  I  lay  into  thee,  N.  N., 
svaha ! 

'  BhCir  bhuva//  sva//!  Vakovakya  (colloquies),  Iti- 
hasa,  and  Piira;^a — Om !  All  the  Vedas  I  lay  into 
thee,  N.  N.,  svaha!' 

9.  The  production  of  intelligence  (is  performed) 
by  thrice  saying  in  his  right  ear,  '  Speech !' 

10.  And  let  him  recite  over  (the  child  the  follow- 
ing text),  '  Speech,  the  goddess,  united  with  mind, 
together  with  breath,  the  child,  uttered  by  Indra — 
may  she  rejoice  in  thee,  the  goddess,  for  the  sake  of 
joy,  the  great  one,  the  sweet  sounding,  the  music, 
full  of  music,  the  flowing,  self-produced.' 

1 1.  Let  him  tie  a  piece  of  gold  to  a  hempen  string, 

12.  And  bind  it  to  (the  child's)  right  hand  until 
(the  mother)  gets  up  (from  childbed). 

13.  After  the  tenth  day  let  him  give  it  to  the 
Brahma;^as, 

14.  Or  keep  it  himself. 

KlIAA^DA  25. 

I.  After  ten  days  the  getting  up  (of  the  mother 
from  childbed). 


8.  Veti  vikalparthe.  bhOr  r/gvedam  ityadiX-aturbhir  mantrair 
asav  ity  atra  pfirveva  (read  pQrvavat?)  kumaranamagrahawapQr- 
vakaw  kumaraw  prajayet.     Narayawa. 

12.  Balasya  dakshiwc  haste.     Narayawa. 

25,  I.  After  ten  days  the  impurity  (ajau/(-a)  that  falls  on  the 
mother  at  her  confinement,  ceases  ;  see  Gautama  XIV,  16;  IManu 
V,  62  ;  VasishMa  IV,  21. 

E  2 


52  5ANKHAYANA-Gi2/HYA-stjTRA. 


2.  Father  and  mother  with  washed  heads,  wearing 
(new)  clothes  which  have  not  yet  been  washed  ; 

3.  And  so  also  the  child. 

4.  Let  (the  father)  cook  a  mess  of  food  in  that 
same  fire  that  has  been  kept  from  her  confinement, 

5.  And  let  him  make  oblations  to  the  Tithi  of 
(the  child's)  birth  and  to  three  constellations  with 
their  (presiding)  deities. 

6.  Let  him  place  in  the  middle  the  oblation  to 
that  constellation  under  which  (the  child)  is  born; 
the  deity,  however,  is  constantly  to  precede  (the 
corresponding  Nakshatra). 

7.  (He  then  makes  two  other  oblations  with  the 
verses,)  '  (May)  this  Agni,  the  excellent  one,  (give) 
thee  to-day  life  for  (our)  prayers ;  give  us  life  that 
we  may  live  long,'— (and,)  'Life-giving,  Agni,  be 
strong  by  Havis ;  may  thy  face  and  thy  seat  be  full 
of  ghee ;  drinking  ghee,  the  sweet  honey  of  the 
cow,  protect,  as  a  father  (protects)  his  son,  here 
N.  N.'  The  tenth  oblation  of  the  mess  of  cooked 
food  with  the  verse,  'Thou,  Soma,  givest  bliss  to 
the  old  one'  (Rig-veda  I,  91,  7). 

8.  Having  pronounced  aloud  (the  child's)  name, 

9.  And  caused  the  Brahma/^as  to  say  auspicious 
words, 

10.  And  having  sacrificed  in  the  same  way  every 
month  to  the  Tithi  of  (the  child's)  birth, 

11.  He  sacrifices,  when  one  year  has  expired,  on 
the  (ordinary)  domestic  fire. 


4.  Comp.  the  note  on  chap.  24,  i.  ^ 

7,  The  first  Mantra  is  corrupt;  in  the  A^valayana-^Srauta-sutra 
(II,  10,  4)  its  text  runs  thus,  ayush  /e  vii'vato  dadhad  ayam 
agnir  vare?/ya//,  &c.     Comp.  Atharva-veda  VII,  53,  6. 

II.  'The  words  "every  month"  (Sutra  10)  retain  their  value 


I    ADIIYAVA,    26  KUANDA,  20.  53 


Khajvda  26. 

1.  To  Agnl,  to  the  Kr/ttikas. 

2.  To  Pra^apati,  to  Koh'mL 

3.  To  Soma,  to  Mrigasiras. 

A 

4.  To  Rudra,  to  the  Ardras. 

5.  To  Aditi,  to  the  two  Punarvasus. 

6.  To  Brz'haspati,  to  Pushya. 

7.  To  the  Serpents,  to  the  A.deshas. 

8.  To  the  IManes,  to  the  Maghas. 

9.  To  Bhaga,  to  the  two  Phalgunis. 

10.  To  Aryaman,  to  the  two  Phalgunis. 

11.  To  Savitar,  to  Hasta. 

12.  To  Tvash/ar,  to  A'itr^. 
1 3-  To  Vayu,  to  Svati. 

14.  To  Indra  and  Agni,  to  the  two  Vi^akhds, 

15.  To  Mitra,  to  Anuradha. 

16.  To  Indra,  to  Gyesh//ia.. 

17.  To  Nirmi,  to  Mtala. 

1 8.  To  the  Waters,  to  the  Ashart7/as. 

19.  To  the  Vi^ve  devas,  to  the  Ashart7/as. 

20.  To  Brahman,  to  Abhifit. 

(here  also).  Thus  the  sfitikagni  is  to  be  kept  through  one  year. 
After  the  lapse  of  that  year  one  should  sacrifice  every  month  on 
the  domestic  fire  as  long  as  his  life  lasts.  As  it  is  said  "  in  the 
domestic  fire,"  the  siitikagni  is  not  to  be  kept  any  longer.' 
Naraya«a. 

26,  I,  This  chapter  is  not  found  in  the  .Samba vya-Gr?'hya,  and 
Naraya«a  expressly  designates  it  as  kshepaka  kha;/<fa.  It  is 
a  sort  of  appendix  to  the  Sfitras  25,  5.  6  ;  a  sacrifice  having  there 
been  prescribed  to  three  Nakshatras  with  their  prcsitling  deities,  an 
enumeration  of  the  Nakshairas  and  deities  is  here  given.  Compare, 
on  similar  lists,  Weber's  second  article  on  the  Nakshatras  (Abhand- 
lungen  der  Berliner  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften,  1861),  pp.  289 
seq-,  315.  367  seq. 


54  i'ANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-SUTRA. 

21.  To  VIsh;m,  to  Sr3.v3.n3.. 

2  2.  To  the  Vasus,  to  the  Dhanish///as. 

23.  To  Varu;^a,  to  ^'atabhisha^. 

24.  To  A,fa  ekapad,  to  the  ProshMapadas. 

25.  To  Ahi  budhnya,  to  the  Prosh///apadas. 

26.  To  Pilshan,  to  Revati. 

2y.  To  the  two  A^vins,  to  the  two  Ajrvinis. 
28.  To  Yama,  to  the  Bhara^^is, 

KHAiVDA  27. 

1.  In  the  sixth  month  the  Annaprai"ana  (i.e.  the 
first  feeding  with  sohd  food). 

2.  Goat's  flesh,  if  he  is  desirous  of  nourishment, 

3.  Flesh  of  partridge,  if  desirous  of  holy  lustre, 

4.  Fish,  if  desirous  of  swiftness, 

5.  Boiled  rice  with  ghee,  if  desirous  of  splendour — 

6.  (Such)  food,  prepared  with  milk  curds,  honey, 
and  ghee,  he  should  give  (to  the  child)  to  eat. 

7.  After  he  has  made  oblations  with  (the  verses), 
'  Lord  of  food,  give  us  food,  painless  and  strong ; 
bring  forward  the  giver ;  bestow  power  on  us,  on 
men  and  animals;'  'Whatsoever'  (Rig-veda  IV,  12, 
4);  '  Even  of  great'  (ibid.  5),  '  Him,  Agni,  (lead)  to 
long  life  and  splendour ;  sharp  strength  (mayst  thou), 
Varu;za,  king    Soma,   protection    may  Aditi,   like  a 

27.  2-6.  These  rules  stand  here,  in  the  beginning  of  the  chapter, 
as  introductory  remarks;  the  act  of  feeding  itself  (Sutra  10)  does 
not  follow  till  after  the  sacrifice  and  the  other  performances  pre- 
scribed in  Siitras  7-9. 

3.  This  rule  evidently  rests  on  the  allusion  of  taittira  (partridge 
flesh)  to  the  Taittiriya  school. 

7.  Both  metre  and  construction  show  that  the  Pada  imam 
Agna  ayushe  var/C'ase  is  incomplete;  the  -Sambavya-Griliya  and 
Taitt.  Sa?«hita  II,  3,  10,  3  add  kr/dhi  after  var-^ase. 


I  ADHYAVA,   28  KIIA^DA,  9.  55 

mother,  afford  to  him,  and  all  the  gods  that  he  may 
reach  old  age' — 

8.  And  has  recited  over  (the  child)  the  verse, 
'  Powers  of  life,  Agni'  (Rig-veda  IX,  66,  19), 

9.  And  has  set  him  down  on  northward  pointed 
Ku^a  grass  with  (the  verse), '  Be  soft,  O  earth'  (Rig- 
veda  I,  22,  15) — 

10.  The  act  of  feeding  is  performed  with  the 
Mahavyahmis. 

1 1 .  Let  the  mother  eat  the  remnant. 

KlIANDA  28. 

1.  After  one  year  the  /^u^akarman  (i.e.  the  ton- 
sure of  the  child's  head);  ^ 

2.  Or  in  the  third  year; 

3.  In  the  fifth  for  a  Kshatriya; 

4.  In  the  seventh  for  a  Vai^ya. 

5.  Having  placed  the  fire  (in  the  outer  hall ;  see 
chap.  5,  2)— 

6.  And  having  filled  vessels  with  rice  and  barle)', 
sesamum  seeds  and  beans, 

7.  And  having  put  down  northwards  bull-dung 
and  a  layer  of  Ku^-a  grass  for  receiving  the  hair, 
a  mirror,  fresh  butter,  and  a  razor  of  copper, 

8.  He  pours  cold  water  into  warm  with  (the  verse), 
'  Mix  yourselves,  ye  holy  ones,  with  your  waves,  ye 
honied  ones,  mixing  milk  with  honey,  ye  lovely  ones, 
for  the  obtaining  of  wealth.' 

9.  '  May  the  waters  moisten  thee  for  life,  for  old 
age  and  splendour.  The  threefold  age  of  6^amad- 
agni,  Ka^yapa's  threefold  age,  the  threefold  age  of 

28,  I.  A^G/akarman  literally  means,  the  preparing  of  the  lock 
or  the  locks  (left  when  the  rest  of  the  hair  is  shaven). 


56  ^-ANKHAYANA-G/JZHYA-SUTRA. 

Agastya,  the  threefold  age  that  belongs  to  the  gods, 
that  threefold  age  I  produce  for  thee  !  N.  N. !' — with 
these  words  he  sprinkles  the  right  part  of  his  hair 
three  times  with  lukewarm  water. 

10.  Having  loosened  the  tangled  locks,  according 
to  some  (teachers),  with  a  porcupine's  quill, 

1 1.  And  having  anointed  (his  hair)  with  fresh  butter, 

12.  He  puts  a  young  Kusa.  shoot  among  (the 
hairs)  with  the  words, '  Herb,  protect  him !' 

13.  Having  touched  the  hair  and  the  Kusa.  shoot 
with  the  mirror, 

14.  He  takes  up  the  copper  razor  with  the  words, 
*  Sharpness  art  thou  ;  the  axe  is  thy  father.  Do  no 
harm  to  him !' 

15.  With  (the  words),  'The  razor  with  which  in 
the  beginning  Savitar,  the  knowing  one,  has  shaven 
the  beard  of  king  Varu?^a,  and  with  which  Dhatar 
Br/haspati  has  shaven  Indra's  head,  with  that,  ye 
Brahma;/as,  shave  this  (head)  to-day ;  blessed  with 
long  life,  with  old  age  be  this  man  N.  N. !'  he  cuts 
the  tips  of  the  hairs  and  the  Kusa.  shoot. 

16.  In  the  same  way  a  second  time ;  in  the  same 
way  a  third  time. 

17.  In  the  same  way  twice  on  the  left  side. 

18.  Under  the  armpits  a  sixth  and  a  seventh  time 
at  the  Godanakarman  (ceremony  of  shaving  the 
beard). 

19.  The  Godanakarman  is  identical  with  the 
A^lirtf'akarman. 

15.  The  parallel  texts  show  that  instead  of  Br/haspatir  we 
have  to  read  Br/haspater,  instead  of  adya,  asya.  So  the  correct 
translation  would  be,  ' .  .  .  with  what  Dhatar  has  shaven  Brthas- 
pati's  and  Indra's  head,  with  that  do  ye  Brahmawas  shave  this  head 
of  this  (child).' 


I  ADHYAYA,   28  KHANDA,    24.  57 

20.  (It  is  to  be  performed)  in  the  sixteenth  or  in 
the  eighteenth  year. 

21.  At  the  third  turn  of  shaving,  however,  he  gives 
a  cow  and  a  garment  that  has  not  yet  been  washed. 

22.  Silently  the  rites  (are  performed)  for  girls, 

23.  To  the  north-east,  in  a  place  covered  with 
herbs,  or  in  the  neighbourhood  of  water  they  bury 
the  hairs  in  the  earth. 

24.  To  the  barber  the  vessels  of  grain.  To  the 
barber  the  vessels  of  grain. 

24.  See  Sfitra  6. 


58  .SANKHAYANA-G/J/HYA-SUTRA. 


Adhyaya   II,    KhA2VDA   1. 

1.  In  the  eighth  year  after  the  conception  let  him 
initiate  a  Brahma;/a, 

2.  With  an  antelope-skin, 

1,  I,  With  regard  to  the  standing  terminology  of  the  Upanayana, 
or  the  initiation  of  the  student,  we  may  observe  that  upa-ni  does 
not  mean,  as,  for  instance,  Professor  Stenzler  seems  to  understand 
it,  'to  introduce  a  student  to  his  teacher.'  Thus  Paraskara's  Sutra 
II,  2,  I,  ash/avarsha//z  brahma«am  upanayet,  &c.,  is  trans- 
lated by  that  distinguished  scholar,  '  Den  achtjahrigen  Brahmawa 
soil  er  (beim  Lehrer)  einfiihren,'  &c.  (comp.  also  Axvalayana- 
Grzhya.  I,  19,  i).  The  texts  clearly  point  to  another  translation  of 
upa-ni,  for  they  show  that  the  person  that  introduces  the  student 
(upanayati  or  upanayate;  the  middle  is  used  very  frequently, 
for  instance,  -Satapatha  Brahmawa  XI,  5,  4,  i  ;  ^Sahkh.  II,  i,  25)  is 
not  the  father  or  a  relation  of  the  youth  who  could  be  supposed  to 
lead  him  to  the  teacher,  but  the  teacher  himself;  he  introduces 
(upanayati)  him  to  the  brahma-i'arya,  or  introduces  him  with 
himself,  and  the  student  enters  upon  (upaiti)  the  brahma-^'arya, 
or  enters  with  (upaiti)  the  teacher;  he  who  has  thus  entered  upon 
studentship,  is  consequently  designated  as  up  eta  (6'ahkh.  IV,  8,  i ; 
Paraskara  III,  10,  10),  and  for  the  initiation,  which  is  usually  called 
upanayana,  occasionally  also  the  word  upayana  is  used  (see  the 
Manava-G/Vhya  I,  22,  quoted  by  Professor  Jolly  in  his  article,  Das 
Dharma-sutra  des  Vish/m,  p.  79).  The  following  passages  may  be 
quoted  here  as  supporting  our  opinion  on  this  terminology.  At 
-Satapatha  Brahma?/a  XI,  5,  3,  13  6'au^eya  says  to  Uddalaka  Aru«i, 
'  I  will  enter  (as  a  student)  with  the  reverend  One '  (upayani  bha- 
gavantam);  and  Aru?/i  replies,  'Come,  enter  (with  me) !'  (ehy 
upehi),  'and  he  initiated  him'  (ta^/i  hopaninye).  Ibid.  XI,  5,4,  16 
it  is  stated  that  according  to  some  a  teacher  who  has  initiated  a 
Brahmawa  as  a  student  (brahmawaw  brahma^aryam  upaniya)  should 
abstain  from  sexual  intercourse,  for  a  student  who  enters  upon  stu- 
dentship (yo  brahma-^'aryam  upaiti)  becomes,  as  it  were,  a  garbha, 
&c.  Finally  we  may  add  that  the  Buddhist  terminology  regarding 
the  entering  into  the  order  or  upon  a  life  of  righteousness  is  clearly 
connected  with  that  followed,  for  instance,  in  the  dialogue  between 


II    ADHYAYA,   1   KHANDA,  Q.  59 


3.  Or  in  the  tenth  year  after  the  conception. 

4.  In  the  eleventh  year  after  the  conception  a 
Kshatriya  with  the  skin  of  a  spotted  deer, 

5.  In  the  twelfth  year  after  the  conception  a 
Vaij'ya  with  a  cow-hide. 

6.  Until  the  sixteenth  year  the  time  has  not  passed 
for  a  Brahma/^a, 

7.  Until  the  twenty-second  for  a  Kshatriya, 

8.  Until  the  twenty-fourth  for  a  Vai-yya. 

9.  After  that  (time  has  passed),  they  become 
patitasavitrika  (men  who  have  lost  their  right  of 
learning  the  Savitri). 

^au/teya  and  Arum.  As  Szukeya.  there  says,  upayani  bhaga- 
vantam,  we  frequently  read  in  the  Pali  books  expressions  like  this, 
upemi  Buddha;//  sara/zaw  dhammail  >('api  anuttara/zz,  &c. 
(Dhammap.  A////akatha,  p.  97,  ed.  Fausboll),  and  as  Aruwi  replies, 
ehy  upehi,  Buddha  says  to  those  who  wish  to  be  ordained,  ehi 
bhikkhu,  svakkhato  dhammo,  ytara  brahma^ariya/?^,  &c. 
(Mahavagga  I,  6,  32,  &c.;  S.  B.  E.,  vol.  xiii,  p.  74,  note). 

The  counting  of  the  years  not  from  the  birth  but  from  the 
conception  occurs  both  in  the  Brahmanical  and  in  the  Buddhist 
ordinances,  comp.  H.  O.,  Buddha,  sein  Leben,  seine  Lehre,  seine 
Gemeinde,  p.  354,  note  i.  Several  GnTiya  texts  (for  instance,  Asv. 
I,  19,  I.  2)  admit  both  ways  of  counting  the  years.  The  number 
of  years  given  for  the  Upanayana  of  persons  of  the  three  castes 
(Brahma«as  8-16,  Kshatriyas  11-22,  Vaijyas  12-24)  is  evidently 
derived  from  the  number  of  syllables  of  the  three  metres  which  are 
so  very  frequently  stated  to  correspond  to  the  three  castes,  to  the 
three  gods  or  categories  of  gods  (Agni,  Indra,  Vijve  devas)  &c., 
viz.  the  Gayatri,  the  Trish/ubh,  and  the  Gagati.  This  is  a  very 
curious  example,  showing  how  in  India  phantastical  speculations 
like  those  regarding  the  mystical  qualities  of  the  metres,  were  strong 
enough  to  influence  the  customs  and  institutions  of  real  life. 

9  scq.  All  these  are  standing  expressions  recurring  nearly  iden- 
tically in  most  of  the  Gr/hya  and  Dharma-sutras.  In  the  rule 
contained  in  Sulra  13  a  number  of  the  parallel  texts  have  vivah- 
eyu//  or  vivahayeyuA,  others  have  vyavahareyu.^.  Comp. 
VasishMa  XI,  75;  Indische  Studien,  vol.  x,  p.  21. 


60  5ANKHAYANA-G7?7HYA-s{lTRA. 

10.  Let  them  not  initiate  such  men, 

11.  Nor  teach  them, 

12.  Nor  perform  sacrifices  for  them, 

13.  Nor  have  intercourse  with  them. 

14.  Or  (let  them  initiate  students  of)  all  (castes) 
wearing  a  (new)  garment  that  has  not  yet  been 
washed. 

And  wearing  a  girdle. 

15.  The  girdle  of  a  Brahma;2a  (shall  be)  made  of 
Mu?1^a  grass, 

16.  That  of  a  Kshatriya  (shall  be)  a  bowstring, 

1 7.  That  of  a  Vai^ya  a  woollen  thread. 

18.  The  staff  of  a  Brahma;^a  (shall  be)  made  of 
Pala^a  or  of  Bilva  wood, 

19.  That  of  a  Kshatriya  of  Nyagrodha  wood, 

20.  That  of  a  Vaii^ya  of  Udumbara  wood. 

21.  That  of  the  Brahmawa  shall  reach  the  tip  of 
the  nose, 

22.  That  of  the  Kshatriya  the  forehead, 

23.  That  of  the  Vaiyya  the  hair. 

24.  Or  all  (sorts  of  staffs  are  to  be  used)  by  (men 
of)  all  (castes). 

25.  Whatsoever  (the  student)  wears  at  his  initia- 
tion, is  at  the  disposal  of  the  teacher. 


14.  This  Sutra  should  rather  be  divided  into  two,  as  indicated 
in  the  translation.  As  to  the  m  ekhal  a  (girdle)  comp.  below,  chap.  2,  i. 

21.  There  is  no  doubt  that  prawasammito  (which  Narayawa 
explains  thus,  'pra«a  is  the  wind  [or  breath];  [the  staff  should] 
reach  to  the  place  where  the  wind  leaves  the  body,  i.  e.  to  the  tip 
of  the  nose')  should  either  be  corrected  into,  or  explained  as, 
ghrawasammito;  the  ^ambavya  MS.  has  ghrawantiko  brah- 
mawasya.  Comp.  Gautama  I,  26,  &c.  The  parallel  texts  agree 
in  assigning  the  longer  staff  to  the  higher,  not  as  -Sahkhayana 
does,  to  the  lower  caste. 


II    ADIIVAVA,   2  KUANDA,   I.  6 1 

26.  Having  had  him  shaved  all  round  (his  head) 

he  should  initiate  him. 

27.  After  (the  student)  has  washed  and  adorned 

himself, 

28.  (And)  after  (the  teacher)  has  sacrificed,  both 
station  themselves  behind  the  fire,  the  teacher  with 

•his  face  turned  to  the  east,  the  other  with  his  face 
to  the  west. 

29.  Let  him  initiate  him  standing  while  (the  other 
also)  stands. 

30.  ['  The  firm,  powerful  eye  of  Mitra,  glorious 
splendour,  strong  and  prosperous,  a  chaste,  flowing 
vesture,  this  skin  I  put  on,  a  valiant  (man).'] 

KlIAiVI>A   2. 

I.  'Here  has  come  to  us,  protecting  (us)  from 
evil  words,  purifying  our  kin  as  a  purifier,  clothing 
herself,  by  (the  power  of)  inhalation  and  exhalation, 
with  strength,  this  friendly  goddess,  this  blessed 
girdle' — with  these  words,  three  times  repeated, 
he  ties  the  girdle  from  left  to  right  thrice  round. 

26.  After  the  introductory  remarks  given  in  the  preceding  Sutras 
the  ritual  itself  of  the  Upanayana  is  now  described. 

28.  Naraya«a  :  hutva 'nadejaparibhashata-^  (see  above,  I,  12,  13) 
purastatsaw^Ttakaw  hutva  agniw  sthapitagniw  (see  above,  I,  5,  2) 
^aghanena  .  .  .  tish/Z/ata//. 

30.  This  Sutra  is  wanting  in  most  of  the  MSS.  (see  the  note, 
p.  48  of  the  German  edition).  It  contains  the  Mantra  with  which 
the  A^ina  (the  hide  mentioned  in  Sfltras  2,  4,  5  of  this  chapter)  is 
put  on.  Narajawa  gives  the  Mantra  which  he  says  is  taken  from 
the  Madhyandina-G/-/hya  (in  the  Paraskara-Gr/hya  it  is  not  found), 
after  chap.  2,  3,  and  he  states  that  the  corresponding  act  to  which 
it  belongs  has  its  place  after  the  rites  concerning  the  girdle 
(chap.  2,  i)  and  the  sacrificial  cord  (2,  3). 


62  ^-ANKHAYANA-G/e/HYA-SUTRA. 

2.  (There  should  be)  one  knot,  or  also  three,  or 
also  five. 

3.  He  adjusts  the  sacrificial  cord  with  (the  words), 
'  The  sacrificial  cord  art  thou.  With  the  cord  of 
the  sacrifice  I  invest  thee.' 

4.  He  fills  the  two  hollows  of  (his  own  and  the 
student's)  joined  hands  (with  water),  and  then  says 
to  him  :  '  What  is  thy  name  ?  ' 

5.  '  I  am  N.  N.,  sir,'  says  the  other. 

6.  *  Descending  from  the  same  7?/shis  ? '  says  the 
teacher. 

7.  '  Descending  from  the  same  i?/shis,  sir,'  says 
the  other. 

2.  2.  Rama/^andra :  '  Let  him  make  one,  or  three,  or  five  knots, 
according  to  (the  student's)  Arsheya,'  i.  e.  accordingly  as  he  belongs 
to  a  family  that  invokes,  in  the  Pravara  ceremony,  one,  or  three, 
or  five  i??shis  as  their  ancestors.  Comp.  Weber,  Indische  Studien, 
vol.  X,  p.  79. 

3.  On  the  sacrificial  cord  (upavita)  comp.  the  Grthya.-sa.mgra.ha- 
parii'ish/a  II,  48  seq. 

4.  Narayawa:  A/C'arya  atmano  mawavakasya  Mngali  udakena 
purayitva,  &c. 

6,  7.  A  similar  dialogue  between  the  teacher  and  the  student  at 
the  Upanayana  is  given  in  the  Kau^ika-sfitra  (ap.  Weber,  Indische 
Studien,  X,  71).  The  student  there  says,  'Make  me  an  Arsheya 
(a  descendant  of  the  7?/shis)  and  one  who  has  relations,  and  ini- 
tiate  me.'  And  the  teacher  replies,  *  I  make  thee  an  Arsheya  and 
one  who  has  relations,  and  I  initiate  thee.'  As  in  this  passage  of 
the  Kaui-ika-sfttra  the  teacher  is  represented  as  having  the  power 
of  making,  by  the  Upanayana  ceremony,  an  Arsheya  of  the  stu- 
dent, thus,  according  to  the  view  expressed  by  Professor  Weber 
(loc.  cit.,  p.  72  seq.),  6'ahkhayana  would  even  give  it  into  the 
teacher's  power  to  make  the  student  his  samanarsheya,  i.e.  to 
extend  his  own  Arsheya  on  as  many  pupils  as  he  likes.  Professor 
Weber  understands  the  sixth  Sutra  so  that  the  teacher  would  have 
to  say,  samanarsheyo  bhavan  brfihi  (Narayawa  :  bhavan  brfl- 
hiti  brahma-('ari  bhavan  bruhity  ata//  [Sutra  8]  siz^/havalokananya- 
yenatranusha^'yate.     According  to  Rama/iandra's  Paddhati  he  is 


II    ADIIYAYA,  2    KIIA2VDA,   1 5.  63 

8.  '  Declare  (that  thou  art)  a  student,  sir.' 

9.  '  I  am  a  student,  sir,'  says  the  other. 

10.  With  the  words,  '  BhClr  bhuva//  sva/^ '  (the 
teacher)  sprinkles  thrice  with  his  joined  hands  (water) 
on  the  joined  hands  (of  the  student), 

11.  And  seizing  (the  student's)  hands  with  (his 
own)  hands,  holding  the  right  uppermost,  he  murmurs, 

1 2.  *  By  the  impulse  of  the  god  Savitar,  with  the 
arms  of  the  two  A^vins,  with  Pushan's  hands  I 
initiate  thee,  N.  N.' 

T  3.  Those  who  are  desirous  of  a  host  (of  adherents, 
he  should  initiate)  with  (the  verse),  '  Thee,  (the 
lord)  of  hosts'  (Rig-veda  II,  23,  i). 

14.  Warriors  with  (the  verse),  'Come  here,  do  not 
come  to  harm'  (Rig-veda VIII,  20,  1). 

I  5.  Sick  persons  with  the  Mahavyah^^z'tis. 

only  to  say  samanarsheya^).  The  student  answers,  saman- 
arsheyo  'ham  bho;  Professor  Weber,  who  supplies  the  imperative 
asani,  translates  this,  '  May  I  have  the  same  Arsheya,  sir ! 

I  think  it  more  natural  to  simply  translate  the  teacher's  question, 
'Art  thou  samanarsheya?'  (or,  supplying  bhavan  brfihi  from 
Sfltra  8,  '  Declare  that  thou  art  samanarsheya '),  and  the  student's 
reply,  'I  am  samanarsheya,  sir  I'  Thus  we  ought  possibly  to 
consider  these  formulas,  which  slate  a  fictitious,  ideal  samanar- 
sheyatva  of  the  teacher  and  the  students  as  a  trace,  and  as  far 
as  I  can  see  as  the  only  trace,  of  an  ancient  rule  requiring  a  real 
samanarsheyatva  of  teacher  and  student.  As  long  as  the  ritual 
differences  between  the  different  Gotras,  of  which,  as  is  well  known, 
only  a  few  traces  have  survived  in  the  Vcdic  tradition,  had  retained 
their  full  importance,  it  can  indeed  scarcely  have  been  considered 
as  admissible  that  a  young  Brahmawa  should  be  confided  to  the 
guidance  of  a  teacher  who  sacrificed  and  invoked  the  gods  in 
another  way  than  the  customs  of  the  pupil's  own  family  required. 

II.  Narayawa :  dakshiwottarabhyaw  dakshiwa  uttara  upari  yayos 
tau  dakshiwottarau,  &c. 


64  .yANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-SUTRA. 


KUANDA    3. 

1.  *  Bhaga  has  seized  thy  hand,  Savitar  has  seized 
thy  hand,  Ptashan  has  seized  thy  hand,  Aryaman 
has  seized  thy  hand.  Mitra  art  thou  by  right, 
Agni  is  thy  teacher,  and  I,  N.  N.,  both  of  us. 
Agni,  I  give  this  student  in  charge  to  thee.  Indra, 
I  give  this  student  in  charge  to  thee.  Sun,  I  give 
this  student  in  charge  to  thee.  Vi^-ve  devas,  I  give 
this  student  in  charge  to  you,  for  the  sake  of  long 
life,  of  blessed  offspring  and  strength,  of  increase  of 
wealth,  of  mastership  of  all  Vedas,  of  renown,  of  bliss.' 

2.  'In  Indra's  course  I  move ;  in  the  sun's  course 
I  move  after  him' — with  these  words  he  turns  round 
from  left  to  right, 

3.  And  grasping  down  with  the  span  of  his  right 
hand  over  (the  student's)  right  shoulder  he  touches 
the  place  of  his  heart  with  the  words,  '  May  I  be 
dear  to  thy  inviolate  heart.' 


3,  I.  Narayawa  :  '  Instead  of  asau  (N.  N.)  he  puts  the  name  of 
the  student  in  the  vocative  case.'  I  think  rather  that  the  teacher 
here  pronounced  his  own  name.  Comp.  asav  ahaw  bho,  chap. 
2,  5,  &c.,  and  the  Mantra  in  Paraskara  II,  2,  20. 

The  text  of  the  Mantra  shows  that  the  AX'arya  here  seizes  the 
hand  of  the  Brahma-^arin ;  comp.  Ajvalayana  I,  20,  4-6,  where  it 
is  stated  that  he  seizes  the  student's  hand  together  with  the  thumb, 
quite  in  the  way  prescribed  for  the  wedding  at  6'ahkh.  I,  13,  2. 
Comp.  also  Paraskara  II,  2,  17,  Narayawa  :  mawavakasya  gr/hita- 
s^mpu/a.  evaMryo  Bhagas  ta  imaw  mantra?//  _o-apan,  &c. 

2.  Literally,  '  he  turns  round,  following  his  right  arm.'  Nara- 
ya«a  here  has  the  following  note,  '  A/^'aryo  ba/or  dakshinam  bahuw 
•hasta/w  aindrim  avrztam  iti  mantrewanvavartayet.  ayam  artha^, 
SHrya  ima/«  mantraw/  ^aptva  taw  ha./um  ka.  va^ayitva  pradakshiwa- 
varta/«  karayet.'  I  believe  that  the  commentator  here,  as  he  fre- 
quently does,  instead  of  interpreting  the  text  of  3'aukhayana,  fathers 


II  ADIIYAYA,    4  KUANDA,    4. 


4.  Having  silently  turned  round  from  right  to 
left, 

5.  And  then  laying  his  hand  with  the  fingers  up- 
wards on  his  (i.  e.  the  student's)  heart,  he  murmurs  : 

Khan  DA  4. 

1.  '  Under  my  will  I  take  thy  heart ;  my  mind  shall 
thy  mind  follow  ;  in  my  word  thou  shalt  rejoice  with 
all  thy  heart;  may  Brz'haspati  join  thee  to  me.' 

2.  '  Thou  art  the  BrahmaMrin  of  Kama,  N.  N. ! ' 

3.  With  the  same  text  (see  chap.  3,  2)  he  turns 
round  as  before, 

4.  And  touching  with  the  span  of  his  right  hand 
(the  student's)  right  shoulder,  he  murmurs  : 

on  him  statements  belonging  to  other  Sutras,  in  this  case  probably 
to  Ajvalayana  I,  20,  9.  As  our  text  has  not  anvavartya  but 
anvavrAya,  and  in  the  Mantra  not  avartasva  but  avarte,  we 
must  conclude  that  he  turned  round  himself,  and,  as  far  as  the 
statements  of  the  text  go,  did  not  cause  the  pupil  to  do  so. 

5.  The  gesture  is  the  same  as  that  prescribed  in  the  Paraskara- 
Gr/liya  I,  8,  8  to  the  bridegroom  at  the  wedding ;  the  Mantra  there 
is  identical  with  ^Sahkh.  II,  4,  i,  the  only  difference  consisting  in 
the  name  of  the  god  who  is  invoked  to  unite  the  two  :  at  the 
wedding  this  is  Pra^apati,  of  course,  because  he  is  '  lord  of  off- 
spring,' at  the  Upanayana,  Br/haspati,  the  Brahman  kut  e^oxrjv 
among  the  gods.  It  is  very  natural  that  at  the  Upanayana  and  at 
the  Vivaha,  which  both  are  destined  to  establish  an  intimate  union 
between  two  persons  hitherto  strangers  to  each  other,  a  number  of 
identical  rites  should  occur,  for  instance,  the  seizing  of  the  hand ; 
see  the  note  on  Sutra  i. 

4,  I.  Comp.  Parask.  I,  8,  8,  and  the  note  on  chap.  3,  3.  See 
also  Atharva-veda  VI,  94,  2. 

2.  As  to  Kamasya  brahma^'dry  asi,  see  my  remarks  in  the 
Introduction,  p.  9. 

3.  He  turns  round  as  described,  chap.  3,  2.  Narayawa  here 
also  explains  paryavr/tya  paryavartanaw  karayitva.  See 
our  note  above,  loc.  cit. 

[29]  F 


66  5'ANKHAYANA-G227HYA-sCtRA. 

5.  'A  student  art  thou.  Put  on  fuel.  Eat  water. 
Do  the  service.  Do  not  sleep  in  the  day-time. 
Keep  silence  till  the  putting  on  of  fuel.' 

6.  With  (the  words),  '  Thine,  Agni,  is  this  piece 
of  wood,'  he  puts  the  fuel  on  (the  fire),  or  silently. 

Khanda  5. 

1.  After  one  year  (the  teacher)  recites  the  Savitri 
(to  the  student), 

2.  (Or)  after  three  nights, 

3.  Or  immediately. 

4.  Let  him  recite  a  Gayatri  to  a  Brahmawa, 

5.  A  Trish/ubh  to  a  Kshatriya, 

6.  A  6^agatt  to  a  Vaii'ya. 

7.  But  let  it  be  anyhow  a  verse  sacred  to  Savitar. 

8.  They  seat  themselves  to  the  north  of  the  fire, 

9.  The  teacher  with  his  face  turned  eastward,  the 
other  westward. 

5.  According  to  Narayawa  the  student  correspondingly  answers, 
to  the  teacher's  word,  'A  student  art  thou,'  'I  will'  (asani),  to 
'  Put  on  fuel,' '  I  will  put  it  on,'  &c.  Eating  water  means  sipping 
water  after  having  eased  oneself.  On  the  putting  on  of 
fuel,  comp.  Sutra  6  and  chap.  10.  The  whole  formula  given  in 
this  Sutra  is  already  found  in  the  .S'atapatha  Brahmawa  XI,  5, 
4,  5- 

5,  I.  The  study  of  the  Veda  is  opened  by  the  Savitri.  Comp. 
.S'atapatha  Brahmawa,  loc.  cit.,  §§  6  seq. 

4-6.  The  Gayatri  which  the  teacher  shall  recite  to  a  Brah- 
ma?m  is  the  same  verse  of  which  it  is  said  below,  chap.  7,  11,  that 
it  belongs  to  Vijvamitra  (Rig-veda  III,  62,  10);  the  Trish/ubli 
which  is  taught  to  the  Kshatriya  is  a  verse  ascribed  to  Hirawya- 
stupa,  Rig-veda  I,  35,  2;  the  Gagati  which  is  to  be  repeated  to  a 
Vaijya  is  Rig-veda  IV,  40,  5,  belonging  to  Vamadeva,  or  Rig-veda 
I,  35,  9,  belonging  to  Hirawyastupa.     See  the  note  on  chap.  7,  10. 

9.  The  same  position  is  prescribed,  in  the  same  words,  for  the 
study  of  the  main  part  of  the  Veda,  below,  chap.  7,  3 ;    during 


II  ADHYAYA,    6  KUANDA,    2.  67 

10.  After  (the  student)  has  said,  '  Recite,  sir! ' — 

11.  The  teacher,  having  pronounced  the  word 
Om,  then  causes  the  other  one  to  say,  '  Recite  the 
Savitri,  sir ! ' 

12.  He  then  recites  the  Savitri  to  him,  the  verse 
*  That  glorious  (splendour)  of  Savitar '  (Rig-veda 
III,  62,  10) ;  (firstly)  pada  by  pada,  (then)  hemistich 
by  hemistich,  (and  finally)  without  a  stop. 


Kuan  DA  6. 

1 .  *  Waters  are  ye  by  name ;  happy  ones  are  ye 
by  name  ;  sappy  ones  are  ye  by  name  ;  undecaying 
ones  are  ye  by  name  ;  fearless  ones  are  ye  by  name ; 
immortal  ones  are  ye  by  name.  Of  you,  being  such, 
may  I  partake;  receive  me  into  your  favour' — with 
these  words  (the  teacher)  makes  the  student  sip 
water  three  times, 

2.  And  hands  over  to  him  the  staff  with  the  five 


the  study  of  the  Arawyaka  the  position  is  slightly  different  (VI,  3,  2). 
According  to  Naraya?/a  this  Sutra  would  contain  a  nishedhaof 
the  Sutras  828  and  829  of  the  Rig-veda-Prati^akhya  (p.  ccxcii  of 
Professor  I\Iax  IMiillcr's  edition). 

10,  II.  The  Indian  tradition  divides  these  Sfitras  after  a^arya^, 
so  that  the  words  adhihi  bho  would  have  to  be  pronounced  by 
the  teacher.  Thus  also  Narayawa explains,  a>^arya  adhihi  bho  3 
iti  mawavakam  uktva,  &c.  In  my  opinion  it  is  the  student  or 
the  students  who  say  adhihi  bho.  Thus  the  Prati^akhya  (Sutra 
831,  ed.  Max  IMiiller)  says, '  They  invite  him  with  the  words  adhihi 
bho  3,  all  the  students  the  teacher,  having  embraced  his  feet.' 
Comp.  also  below,  IV,  8,  12,  the  greater  part  of  which  Siitra  is 
word  for  word  identical  with  these  rules ;  VI,  3,  6  ;  Gautama  I,  46; 
Gobhila  II,  10,  38. 

G,  I,  2.  RamaX-andra  :  *.  .  .  with  this  Mantra  which  the  teacher 
tells  him,  and  which  he  (the  student)  pronounces,  he  sips  water 

F  2 


68  ^ANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-StjTRA. 

verses,   'Blessing   may  give  us'  (Rig-veda  V,   51, 

11-15)- 

3.  An  optional  gift  is  the  fee  for  the  sacrifice. 

4.  After  (the  teacher)  has  led  him  round  the  fire, 
turning  his  right  side  towards  it,  (the  student)  goes 
throuoh  the  villaije  to  begf  food. 

5.  (Let  him  beg,)  however,  of  his  mother  first, 

6.  Or  of  a  woman  who  will  not  refuse. 

7.  Having  announced  the  alms  to  his  teacher, 
he  may  eat  (the  food  himself)  with  the  master's 
permission. 

8.  The  daily  putting  on  of  fuel,  the  going  for 
alms,  the  sleeping  on  the  ground,  and  obedience  to 
the  teacher :  these  are  the  standing  duties  of  a 
student. 

three  times  .  .  .  He  (the  teacher)  then  gives  him  again  the 
staff,  which  he  had  given  him  before  silently.'  I  do  not  think  that 
this  double  handing  over  of  the  staff  agrees  with  the  real  meaning 
of  the  text;  Gobhila  also  (II,  10)  and  Ajvalayana  (I,  22,  i)  pre- 
scribe the  da«fi?apradana  after  the  repetition  of  the  Savitri, 
without  mentioning  that  the  same  had  been  already  done  before ; 
Paraskara  II,  2,11  speaks  of  the  handing  over  of  the  staff  before 
the  recital  of  the  Savitri,  and  does  not  state  that  it  should  be  re- 
peated afterwards. 

All  these  ceremonies,  the  teaching  of  the  Savitri  as  well  as  the 
da7z^/apradana,  were  considered  as  forming  part  of  the  Upana- 
yana,  even  though  a  longer  or  shorter  space  of  time  (chap.  5,  1-3) 
might  elapse  between  the  first  arrival  of  the  student  at  the  teacher's 
house  and  the  performing  of  these  rites.  This  follows  from  chap. 
1 1,  Siatras  2-4. 

2.  These  five  verses  have  already  occurred  above  at  I,  15,  12. 

3.  Comp.  I,  14,  13-15. 

4  seq.  On  the  student's  begging  of  alms  compare  the  more 
detailed  rules  in  Paraskara  II,  5 ;  Apastamba  I,  3,  &c. 

7.  Comp.  the  passages  quoted  by  Professor  Biihler  on  Apas- 
tamba I,  3,  31  (S.  B.  E.,  vol.  ii,  p.  12). 


II  ADHYAYA,    7  KIIAiVDA,    7.  69 


Khaa^da  7. 

1.  Now  (follows  the  exposition)  of  the  study  of 
the  Veda. 

2.  Both  sit  down  to  the  north  of  the  fire, 

3.  The  teacher  with  his  face  to  the  east,  the  other 
one  to  the  west. 

4.  After  (the  student)  has  reverentially  saluted 
the  teacher's  feet  and  has  sprinkled  his  (own)  hands 
(with  water), 

5.  And  has  kneeled  down  with  his  right  knee  on 
young  Kui-a  shoots  at  their  roots, 

6.  And  has  grasped  round  (those  Kui"a  shoots)  in 
their  middle  with  his  hands,  holding  the  right  upper- 
most, 

7.  The  teacher,  having  seized  them  at  their  tops 

7,  I.  Narayawa:  'Now  (atha),  i.e.  after  the  observance  of  the 
6'ukriya  vrata,'  &c.  On  the  -Sukriya  vrata  which  has  to  be  under- 
gone before  the  Anuva/C'ana  treated  of  in  this  chapter  can  be  per- 
formed, see  the  note  on  chap.  4,  i,  and  below,  chap.  11,  9.  One 
would  have  expected  that  in  the  arrangement  of  ^Sahkhayana  the 
rites  belonging  to  the  6'ukriya  vrata  would  precede  the  exposition 
of  the  Anuva^'ana.  Perhaps  it  was  in  consequence  of  the  exact 
analogy  of  the  -S'ukriya  with  the  6'akvara,  Vratika,  Aupanishada 
vratas,  that  the  description  of  the  former  has  been  postponed  till  the 
latter  had  to  be  treated  of. 

RamaX'andra's  Paddhali  has  the  following  remark  here,  '  Now 
the  way  of  studying  the  Veda,  called  AnuvaX'ana,  is  set  forth.  This 
can  be  done  only  after  the  ^S'ukriya  vrata  has  been  enjoined  on 
the  student ;  before  that  nothing  but  the  Savitri  can  be  taught  to 
him.' 

2  seq.  Comp.  above,  chap.  2,  8  seq. 

4.  The  way  in  which  this  reverential  salutation  should  be  per- 
formed is  described  below,  IV,  12,  i  seq. 

6.  On  dakshiwottarabhyam,  see  chap.  2,  11  and  Naraya«a's 
note  there. 


70  SANKHAYANA-G/?7HYA-S(JTRA. 


with  his  left  hand,  and  with-  his  right  hand  sprinkHng 
them  with  water,  then  makes  the  other  say  : 

8.  '  Recite  the  Savitri,  sir ! '  says  the  other. 

9.  '  I  recite  the  Savitri  to  thee ! '  says  the  teacher. 

10.  '  Recite  the  Gayatri,  sir ! '  says  the  other. 

'  I  recite  the  Gayatri  to  thee ! '  says  the  teacher. 

II.'  Recite  the  verse  of  Viwamitra,  sir !'  says  the 
other. 

'  I  recite  the  verse  of  Visvamitra  to  thee ! '  says 
the  teacher. 

12.  '  Recite  the  RisKis,  sir!'  says  the  other. 

'  I  recite  the  7?/shis  to  thee  ! '  says  the  teacher. 

1 3.  '  Recite  the  deities,  sir  ! '  says  the  other. 

'  I  recite  the  deities  to  thee  ! '  says  the  teacher. 

14.  *  Recite  the  metres,  sir!'  says  the  other. 

•  I  recite  the  metres  to  thee ! '  says  the  teacher. 

1 5.  '  Recite  the  ^'ruti,  sir ! '  says  the  other. 

'  I  recite  the  ^'ruti  to  thee  ! '  says  the  teacher. 

16.  '  Recite  the  Smr/ti,  sir!'  says  the  other. 

'  I  recite  the  Smmi  to  thee ! '  says  the  teacher. 

17.  '  Recite  faith  and  insight,  sir!'  says  the  other. 
'  I   recite  faith    and    insight   to   thee ! '    says   the 

teacher. 


8  seq.  Comp.  Weber's  Indische  Studien,  vol.  x,  p.  131  seq. 

10.  Comp.  the  note  on  chap.  5,  4-6.  Naraya«a  states,  in 
accordance  with  these  Sutras  of  the  fifth  chapter,  that  in  case  the 
student  belongs  to  the  second  or  third  caste,  an  Uha  (i.  e.  a  corre- 
sponding alteration  of  the  formulas;  from  the  6rauta-sutra,  VI,  i,  3 
the  definition  is  quoted  here  xabdavikaram  uhaw  bruvate)  takes 
place.  If  he  is  a  Kshatriya,  he  has  to  say,  '  Recite  the  Trish/ubh, 
sir!' — 'Recite  the  verse  of  Hira^zyastilpa  (Rig-veda  I,  35,  2),  sir!' 
A  Vai^ya  has  to  say,  'Recite  the  Gagati,  sir  I '—' Recite  the  verse 
of  Hirawyastiipa  (or,  of  Vamadeva,  Rig-veda  I,  35,  9  or  IV,  40,  5), 
sir ! ' 

17.  Comp.  Indische  Studien,  X,  132,  note  i. 


II  ADHYAYA,    7  KIIAiVDA,     1 9.  7 1 

18.  In  that  way,  according  to  what  Rish'i  each 
hymn  belongs  to  and  what  its  deity  and  its  metre  is, 
thus  (with  the  corresponding  indications  of  Ri'sKi, 
&c.)  let  him  recite  each  hymn ; 

19.  Or  also,  if  he  does  not  know  the  i??shis, 
deities,  and  metres,  the  teacher  recites  this  verse, 
'That  glorious  (splendour)  of  Savitar'  (Rig-veda 
III,  62,  10),  pada  by  pdda,  hemistich  by  hemistich, 
(and  finally)  without  a  stop,  and  says,  when  he  has 
finished,  '  This  (verse  belongs  to  Savitar ;  it  is  a 
Gayatri ;  Vi^vamitra  is  its  y??shi).' 

18-20.  I  do  not  think  that  Professor  Weber  (Indische  Studien, 
X,  132)  has  quite  exactly  rendered  the  meaning  of  these  Sutras 
when  he  says, '  The  teacher  then  (i.  e.  after  the  formula  of  Sutra  1 7 
has  been  pronounced)  teaches  him  first  the  7?zshi,  the  deity,  and  the 
metre  of  each  Mantra.  In  case  he  does  not  know  them  himself  for 
a  Mantra,  he  recites  the  holy  Savitri  (tat  Savitur  vare«yam).  After 
this  he  teaches  him  in  due  order  either  (i)  the  single  I^ishis,  i.e.  the 
hymns  belonging  to  each  JiiWi,  or  (2)  the  single  Anuvakas,'  &c. — 
It  does  not  seem  quite  probable  to  me  that  the  student  should  have 
had  to  learn  first  the  i?/shis,  deities,  and  metres  of  the  whole 
Veda,  before  the  text  of  the  hymns  was  taught  him  ;  I  rather  believe 
that  hymn  by  hymn  the  indication  of  the  i?/shis,  &c.  preceded  the 
anuva/('ana  of  the  text  itself,  and  with  this  opinion  the  statement 
of  Narayawa  agrees,  '  Evaw  purvoktena  i)rakare;/a  /v'shidevatiU/^an- 
da/iipurvakaw  law  ta?«  Agnim  i/a  ityadika/«  mantraz-'i  ma«avaka- 
yaHryo  inubrfiyal.' 

19.  According  to  Narayawa  by  esheti  (literally,  'This  [is  the 
Hik]')  it  is  meant  that  the  teacher,  after  having  recited  the  Saviiri 
in  the  three  ways  mentioned,  should  say  to  the  student, '  This  J^/'A  is 
in  the  Gayatri  metre.  If  recited  pada  by  pada,  it  has  three  padas. 
Thus  also  this  J^i'k,  if  recited  hemistich  by  hemistich,  has  two 
Avasanas  (pauses),  the  first  at  the  end  of  the  hemistich,  the  second 
at  the  entl  of  the  third  ^'arazza  (or  pada).  Thus  also  this  /?/^  is 
recited  without  stopping ;  at  the  end  of  the  three  /rarawas,  or  of  the 
twenty-four  syllables,  the  pause  (avasana)  should  be  made.  Thus  I 
recite  to  thee  the  Saviiri ;  I  recite  to  thee  the  Gayatri ;  I  recite  to 
thee  tlie  verse  of  Vijvamitra.'  '  For,'  adds  Naraya«a, '  if  the  Gayatri 
has  been  recited,  the  whole  complex  of  the  Veda  being  of  that  very 


72  .sankhayana-G2?/hya-sOtra. 

20.  Let  him  thus  recite  (the  hymns  belonging  to) 
each  7?/shi,  or  (each)  Anuvaka ; 

21.  Of  the  short  hymns  (in  the  tenth  Ma.nd3.\a)  an 
Anuvaka, 

22.  Or  as  much  as  the  master  may  think  fit. 

23.  Or  optionally  he  may  recite  the  first  and  last 
hymn  of  (each)  jRish'i, 

24.  Or  of  (each)  Anuvaka, 

25.  (Or)  one  (verse)  of  the  beginning  of  each 
hymn. 

26.  The  teacher  may  optionally  say  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  hymn,  '  This  is  the  commencement.' 

27.  This  has  been  (further)  explained  in  (the 
treatise  about)  the  7?zshisvadhyaya. 

substance,  a  complete  knowledge  thereof  has  been  produced.'  The 
commentator  then  indicates  a  shorter  form  for  the  teacher's  words 
which  our  Sutra  prescribes  by  esheti,  'This  verse  belongs  to 
Savitar ;  it  is  a  Gayatri ;  its  7?zshi  is  Vijvamitra.' 

21.  The  Kshudrasuktas  are  the  hymns  Rig-veda  X,  1 29-1 91. 

24  seq.  This  seems  to  be  an  abridged  method  by  which  students 
who  had  not  the  intention  of  becoming  Vedic  scholars,  and  probably 
chiefly  students  of  the  Kshatriya  and  Vaijya  caste,  could  fulfil  their 
duty  of  learning  the  Veda ;  a  student  who  knew  the  first  and  last 
hymn  of  a  i?z'shi,  or  of  an  Anuvaka,  was,  as  would  seem  from  these 
Sutras,  by  a  sort  of  fiction  considered  as  though  he  had  known  the 
whole  portion  belonging  to  that  /v'/shi,  or  the  whole  Anuvaka. 

27.  Narayawa  explains  i?/shisvadhyaya  by  mantrasa;«hita. 
He  says, '  The  Anuva>^ana  which  has  been  declared  here,  is  to  be 
understood  also  with  regard  to  the  svadhyaya,  i.e.  to  the  Sa7«hita 
of  the  Mantras.'  I  think  there  is  a  blunder  in  the  MS.,  and  instead 
of  tad  api  svadhyaye  .  .  .  gneyzm  we  ought  to  read  tad  r/shi- 
svadhyaye  .  .  .  gneyam.  In  this  case  we  should  have  to  trans- 
late the  quoted  passage,  '  ...  is  to  be  understood  with  regard  to 
the  i?/shisvadhyaya,  i.e.  to,  &c.' — I  think,  however,  that  the  true 
meaning  of  the  Sutra  is  different  from  what  Narayawa  believes  it  to 
be.  The  expression  vyakhyatam  apparently  conveys  a  reference 
to  another  treatise  in  which  the  rules  regarding  the  i?/shisvadhyaya 
would  seem  to  have  been  fully  set  forth.    The  ^rauta-sutra  contains 


TI  ADHYAYA,    8  KUANDA,    I.  J  T, 

28.  When  (the  lesson)  is  finished,  he  takes  the 
young  Ku^a  shoots,  makes  of  cow-dung  a  pit  at 
their  roots,  and  sprinkles  water  on  the  Kusa.  (shoots) 
for  each  h)mn. 

29.  For  the  rest  of  the  day  standing  and  fasting. 


Kuan  DA  8. 

I.  In  the  afternoon,  having  obtained  by  begging 
fried  barley  grains,  he  shall  sacrifice  them  with  his 
hand  on  the  fire  according  to  the  rites  of  the  Afya 
oblations  with  the  text,  '  The  lord  of  the  seat,  the 

no  passage  which  could  be  the  one  here  referred  to;  we  may 
suppose,  therefore,  that  either  a  chapter  of  a  Prati^akhya  is  quoted 
here,  or  a  separate  treatise  on  the  special  subject  of  the  7?ishisva- 
dhyaya.  References  to  such  treatises  are  found  in  the  Sutra  texts 
in  several  instances,  of  which  the  most  important  is  that  in  the 
Gobhila-G/Zhya  I,  5,  13, '  On  what  day  the  moon  becomes  full,  the 
knowledge  thereof  is  contained  in  a  special  text;  that  one  either 
should  study  or  ascertain  when  the  Parvan  is  from  those  who  have 
studied  it.' 

28.  Narayawa :  'First  stand  the  Mantras,  then  the  Brahmawa, 
because  it  contains  the  viniyoga  (the  ritual  use  of  the  Mantras), 
then  the  Smr/ti  texts  such  as  ]Manu,  &c.  When  he  has  repeated 
these  texts  to  the  student,  after  the  end  of  the  Anuvay('ana,  the 
teacher  should  take  from  the  student  the  Kuja  blades  which  had 
been  taken  up  before  for  the  sake  of  the  Anuva/^ana  (see  Sutras  5 
seq.),'  &c. — The  teacher  is  made  the  subject  of  this  rule  also  by 
RamaX'andra.  On  yathasfiktam  Narayawa  observes  that  accord- 
ing to  some  teachers  these  water  oblations  were  directed  to  the 
i?/shis  of  the  different  hymns  (r?'shin  uddi^yeti  ke^it).  This  state- 
ment seems  to  be  countenanced  by  IV,  6,  6.  Comp.  the  note 
below  on  IV,  9,  i. 

29. 'This  rule  concerns  the  BrahmaHrin.'  Narayawa.  See  also 
Ajvalayana  I,  22,  11. 

8,  I.  This  is  the  Anuprava/('aniyahoma  treated  of  by  Ajvalayana  at 
I,  22,  12  seq.  There  it  is  stated  that  this  sacrifice  should  be  per- 
formed as  well  after  the  recitation  of  the  Savitri  as  after  the  other 


74  5ANKHAYANA-Gi2/HYA-sOTRA. 

wonderful'  (Rig-veda  I,  i8,  6  seq.),  verse  by  verse, 
down  to  the  end  of  the  hymn, 

2.  Causing  the  teacher  by  (the  gift  of)  food  to 
pronounce  auspicious  wishes. 

KHAiVDA   9. 

1.  In  the  forest,  with  a  piece  of  wood  in  his  hand, 
seated,  he  performs  the  Sandhya  (or  twiHght  devo- 
tion) constantly,  observing  silence,  turning  his  face 
north-west,  to  the  region  between  the  chief  (west) 
point  and  the  intermediate  (north-western)  point  (of 
the  horizon),  until  the  stars  appear, 

2.  Murmuring,  when  (the  twilight)  has  passed, 
the  Mahavyahmis,  the  Savitri,  and  the  auspicious 
hymns. 

3.  In  the  same  way  in  the  morning,  turning  his 
face  to  the  east,  standing,  until  the  disk  of  the  sun 
appears. 

10,  I.  When  (the  sun)  has  risen,  the  study  (of  the 
Veda)  goes  on. 

portions  of  the  Veda,  for  instance,  as  the  commentary  there  has  it, 
after  the  Mahanamnis,  the  Mahavrata,  and  the  Upanishad  have 
been  recited.  Naraya;/a  indicates  the  time  of  this  sacrifice  in  the 
words,  'On  that  same  fast-day  (chap.  7,  29)  in  the  afternoon.' 

2.  '  He  shall,  by  pronouncing  such  words  as  svasti  bhavanto 
bruvantu,  dispose  the  teacher  favourably  so  that  he  may  say 
svasti!'     Narayawa. 

9,  I.  On  the  Sandhya  ceremony  comp.  chiefly  Baudhayana  II,  7. 
Samitpawi  of  course  is  not  sa7«yatapa7/i,  as  Naraya;/a  explains 
it.  On  anvash/amade^a  comp.  Professor  Stenzler's  note  on 
Ajvalayana  III,  7,  4. 

2.  The  Svastyayanas  are  texts  such  as  Rig-veda  I,  89 ;  IV,  31. 

10,  I.  This  Sutra  evidently  should  be  placed  at  the  end  of  the 
ninth  chapter ;  comp.  IV,  6,  9.  The  fact  that,  as  the  commentary 
observes,  the  words  nitya/zz  vagyata-^  (chap.  9,  Sutra  i)  are  to  be 


11  ADIIYAYA,   lO  KHAA'DA,    4.  75 


KlIAA'DA    10, 

2.  Every  day  in  the  evening  and  in  the  morning, 

3.  He  estabhshes  the  fire  (in  its  proper  place), 
wipes  (with  his  hand  the  ground)  round  (it),  sprin- 
kles (water)  round  (it),  bends  his  right  knee, 

4.  (And  puts  fuel  on  the  fire  with  the  texts,)  *  To 
Agni  I  have  brought  a  piece  of  wood,  to  the  great 
6"atavedas ;  may  he,  Catavedas,  give  faith  and 
insight  to  me.     Svaha  ! 

'  Firewood  art  thou ;  may  we  prosper.  Fuel  art 
thou  ;  splendour  art  thou ;  put  splendour  into  me. 
Svaha ! 

'  Being  inflamed  make  me  prosperous  in  offspring 
and  wealth.     Svaha ! 

'  Thine  is  this  fuel,  Agni;  thereby  thou  shalt  grow 
and  gain  vigour.  And  may  we  grow  and  gain 
vigour.     Svaha ! ' 

supplied  here  also  points  in  the  same  direction.  That  this  Sutra 
has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Agnipari>i'arya,  of  which  the  tenth 
chapter  treats,  becomes  evident  also  from  Rama>^andra's  Paddhaii. 

4.  Naraya«a :  samidham  iti  mantralihgat  samidhaw  homa^, 
mantrap/-?thaktvat  karmapr/thaktvam  iti  nyaydt. 

In  the  Atharva-veda  XIX,  64,  i  the  MSS.  have  Agne  samidham 
aharsham.  Professors  Roth  and  Whitney  have  conjectured  in  this 
passage  agre  instead  of  Agne.  It  is  shown  by  our  passage  and 
the  corresponding  ones  in  the  other  Sutras  that  the  true  reading  is 
Agnaye.  Instead  of  aharsham  we  should  read  aharsham,  as 
all  the  parallel  texts  have.  In  the  passage  '  Firewood  art  thou ; 
might  we  prosper,'  there  is  a  play  upon  words  untranslatable  in 
English,  'edho^sy  edhishimahi.'  Perhaps  instead  of  samiddho 
ma;«  samardhaya  we  should  read  samr/ddho  mam  samar- 
dhaya.  As  the  Mantra  referred  to  the  Samidh-offering.samr/ddha 
could  very  easily  be  supplanted  by  the  participle  of  sam-idh.  In 
the  parallel  texts  indicated  p.  139  of  the  German  edition  it  should 
be,  Va^.  Sawh.  II,  14  a. 


76  5ANKHAYANA-G/?/HYA-StjTRA. 

5.  Having  then  sprinkled  (water)  round  (the  fire), 

6.  He  approaches  the  fire  with  the  verse,  '  May 
Agni  (vouchsafe)  to  me  faith  and  insight,  not-for- 
getting (what  I  have  learned)  and  memory ;  may 
this  praiseful  6^atavedas  give  blessing  to  us.' 

[7.  He  makes  with  ashes  the  tripu;^^/2ra  sign 
(the  sign  of  three  strokes)  which  is  set  forth  in  the 
(treatise  on  the)  Saupan/avrata,  which  is  revealed, 
which  agrees  with  the  tradition  handed  down  by  the 
ancients,  with  the  five  formulas  '  The  threefold  age ' 
(see  above,  I,  28,  9),  one  by  one,  on  five  (places), 
viz.  the  forehead,  the  heart,  the  right  shoulder  and 
the  left,  and  then  on  the  back.] 

8.  He  who  approaches  the  fire  after  having  sacri- 
ficed thus,  studies  of  these  Vedas,  one,  two,  three, 
or  all. 

KHAiVDA    11. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  directing  to  the  (special) 
observances. 

2.  The  rules  for  it  have  been  explained  by  the 
initiation. 

3.  He  does  not  recite  the  Savitri. 


7.  This  Sutra  is  wanting  in  one  of  the  Haug  MSS.  and  in  the 
^ambavya  MS. ;  Rama/C'andra's  Paddhati  takes  no  notice  of  it.  I 
take  it  for  a  later  addition.  It  should  be  noticed  that  the  words 
dakshi«askandhe  .  .  .  /I'a  pa9l>iasu  form  a  half  ^loka. 

11,  I.  On  the  four  Vratas,  of  which  the  -S'ukriya  precedes  the 
study  of  the  main  part  of  the  Veda,  the  6'akvara,  Vratika,  and 
Aupanishada  that  of  the  different  sections  of  the  Arawyaka,  see  the 
note  on  chap.  7,  i  and  the  Introduction,  p.  8.  On  the  name  of 
the  ^ukriya  RamaX'andra  says,  jukriyajabdo  vedava/('i,  tatsam- 
bandhad  vratam  api  jukriyam. 

2,  4.  See  the  note  on  chap.  6,  i.  2. 


II  ADHYAYA,    II   KIIAA'ZJA,   I3.  77 

4.  Some  say  that  the  handing  over  of  the  staff 
forms  the  end  (of  this  ceremony). 

5.  During  the  northern  course  of  the  sun,  in  the 
time  of  the  increasing  moon — 

6.  The  teacher  having  abstained  through  one  day 
and  one  night  from  sexual  intercourse  and  from 
eating  flesh — 

7.  With  the  exclusion  of  the  fourteenth  day  and 
of  the  eighth  (of  the  half-month), 

8.  And  of  the  first  and  last,  according  to  some 
(teachers), 

9.  Or  on  what  day  else  the  constellation  seems 
lucky  to  him,  on  that  day  he  shall  direct  (the  student) 
to  the  duties  of  holiness  according  to  the  ^S'ukriya 
rite. 

10.  Let  him  observe  (those)  duties  through  three 
days,  or  twelve  days,  or  one  year,  or  as  long  as  the 
master  may  think  fit. 

1 1.  The  ^'akvara  (observance),  however,  (is  to  be 
kept)  one  year. 

12.  (So  also)  the  Vratika  and  Aupanishada  (ob- 
servances). 

13.  When  the  time  has  elapsed,  when  the  duties 

4.  On  the  da;/</apradana,  see  chap.  6,  2. 

6.  The  pleonasm  brahma-('aryam  upetya  .  .  .  brahma-^'art 
should  be  removed  by  expunging  brahma/t'ari,  which  is  omitted  in 
the  ^ambavya  text.     Comp.  chap.  12,  Sutra  8  ;  VI,  i,  2. 

7.  Comp.  below,  IV,  7,  7. 

9.  In  the  6'ambavya  text  this  Sfltra  has  a  fuller  form.  It  runs 
there  thus,  '  ...  he  shall  direct  (the  student)  to  the  duties  of  holi- 
ness according  to  the  6'uk.riya  rite,  the  teacher  saying,  "Be  a  6'ukriya- 
brahmaX'arin;"  the  other  one  replying,  "I  will  be  a  ^ukriya-brah- 
maHrin."  Thus  also  at  the  other  observances  he  shall  pronounce 
each  lime  the  name  of  the  observance  to  which  he  directs  him.' 

10.  Comp.  above,  II,  5,  i. 

13.  The  Sawyu  Barhaspatya,  i.e.  the  verse  beginning  with  the 


78  5ANKIIAYANA-Gi27HYA-StjTRA. 

have  been  observed,  when  the  Veda  has  been  studied 
down  to  the  6'a;;2yu-Barhaspatya-(hymn),  let  (the 
teacher  then),  should  he  intend  to  instruct  (the 
student)  in  the  secret  (part  of  the  Veda),  ascertain 
the  time  (through  which  the  student  has  to  observe 
the  special  rites)  and  the  rules  to  be  observed,  from 
the  (special)  directions  (that  are  handed  down  on  this 
subject). 

KHAiVDA   12. 

I.  After  (the  student)  has  eaten  something  in  the 
morning,  in  the  afternoon,  to  the  north-east — 

words  tak  khz.in  yor  a  vrz';?imahe,  is  the  last  verse  of  the  Rig- 
veda  in  the  Bashkala  redaction.    See  below,  the  note  on  IV,  5,  9. 

On  kalaniyamaw/,  see  Narayawa's  note,  pp.  140  seq.  of  the 
German  edition. 

12,  I  seq.  The  Indian  tradition  (with  the  exception  only,  as  far 
as  is  known  to  me,  of  the  -Sambavya  commentary)  refers  the 
ceremonies  described  in  this  chapter,  like  those  treated  of  in  chap. 
II,  as  well  to  the  ^ukriya  as  to  the  .Sakvara  and  the  other  Vratas. 
This  is  not  correct.  The  eleventh  chapter  gives  the  rites  common 
to  the  four  Vratas ;  the  .S'ukriya  vrata  is  connected  with  no  special 
ceremonies  beside  those,  so  that  the  exposition  of  this  Vrata  is 
brought  to  an  end  in  that  chapter.  The  last  Sutra  of  chap.  1 1 
marks  the  transition  to  the  special  rites  which  are  peculiar  to  the 
three  other  Vratas,  and  are  connected  with  the  character  of  mystical 
secrecy  attributed  to  the  Ara«yaka,  and  thus  it  is  with  the  exclusion 
of  the  .S'ukriya  that  the  twelfth  chapter  refers  only  to  those  Vratas. 
The  difference  which  we  have  pointed  out  between  the  two  chapters 
finds  its  characteristic  expression  in  Sutras  9  and  11  of  chap.  11, 
compared  with  chap.  12,  13.  14;  in  the  former  Sutras  the  state- 
ments there  given  are  expressly  extended  to  the  6'ukriya,  the 
6'akvara,  the  Vratika,  and  the  Aupanishada,  while  in  the  latter 
passage  mention  is  made  first  of  the  Mahanamnis,  i.  e.  the  text 
corresponding  to  the  6'akvara  vrata,  and  then  the  uttarawi  pra- 
karawani  (the  following  sections)  are  referred  to,  i.  e.  the  Mahavrata 
and  the  Upanishad,  so  that  the  iS'ukriya  vrata  or  the  texts,  the  study 
of  which  is  entered  upon  by  that  Vrata,  are  left  out  here. 

There  is  a  good  deal  of  confusion  in  the  several  commentaries 


II  ADIIVAVA,    12  KHAA'Z)A,    2.  79 

2.  Having  sacrificed,  the  teacher  then  asks  him 
with  regard  to  those  deities  to  whom  he  has  been 
given  in  charge  (see  above,  chap.  3,  i),  'Hast  thou 
fulfilled  the  duties  of  holiness  before  Agni,  Indra, 
the  Sun,  and  the  Vii-ve  devas  ? ' 

with  regard  to  the  succession  of  the  different  ceremonies  taught  in 
this  chapter.  They  all  agree  in  stating  that  after  the  lapse  of  the 
year  through  which  the  Vrata  is  kept,  a  ceremony  is  performed 
called  Uddiksha«ika,  i.e.  the  giving  up  of  the  Diksha,  or  pre- 
paratory observance.  This  Uddikshawika  consists  chiefly  in  the 
teacher's  ascertaining  whether  the  student  has  fulfilled  the  duties 
involved  by  the  Vrata  (see  Sutras  2  and  3).  Besides  that,  there  is 
no  doubt  that  a  repetition  of  the  Upanayana  (chap.  11,  2)  also 
formed  part  of  the  preparatory  rites  for  the  study  of  the  Arawyaka. 
As  to  the  way  in  which  these  different  ceremonies  and  the  other 
rites  described  in  this  chapter  would  have  to  be  arranged  according 
to  our  text,  it  is  perhaps  best  to  follow  the  statements  given  in  an 
epitome  from  the  balavabodhanartham  i?;'shidaivata/^//ando- 
paddhati  (MS.  Berol. Chambers,  199  a,  fols.  13-16) ;  the  slight  con- 
fusion therein  is  not  difficult  to  get  rid  of.  There  we  read,  '  The 
^akvara,  however,  is  to  be  kept  one  year  (chap.  11,  11).  When 
the  Uddiksha?/ika  has  been  performed,  and  three  nights  (chap,  1 2, 
6)  or  one  day  and  one  night  (ibid.  7)  have  elapsed,  the  Upanayana 
should  be  performed  as  above  (chap.  11,  2),  with  this  difference 
that  at  the  end  of  the  formula  mama  vrate,  &c.  (chap.  4,  i)  one 
should  say,  "  May  Br^liaspati  join  thee  to  me  for  the  holy  observ- 
ance of  the  .Sakvara  through  one  year,  O  Devadattal"  (On  this 
formula,  resting  on  a  misunderstanding  of  chap.  4,  Sutra  2,  see  the 
Introduction,  p.  8.)  The  rest  is  the  same  as  at  the  6'ukriya.  Then, 
when  the  year  (chap.  11,  11)  has  elapsed,  and  the  Uddikshawika  has 
been  performed,  and  the  three  days  or  the  night  have  passed  (chap. 
1 2,  6.  7),  he  should  go  out  of  the  village  . . .  and  in  the  north-eastern 
direction,'  &c.  (here  follows  the  description  of  how  the  secret 
doctrines  should  be  taught  to  the  student,  according  to  6ahkh.  VI). 
The  confusion  showing  itself  in  the  double  mention  of  the  Uddik- 
shawika,  before  and  after  the  Upanayana,  should  no  doubt  be  put 
to  the  account  of  the  excerptor  or  perhaps  even  of  the  MS. ;  what 
the  meaning  of  the  original  Paddhati  was  is  sufficiently  shown  in 
the  remarks  on  the  following  Vratas,  for  instance,  on  the  Vratika 
(fol.  16),  'Now  follows  the  Vratika  vrata.     It  lasts  one  year  (chap. 


8o  5ANKHAYANA  GT^/HYA-sOtRA. 

3.  If  he  answers,  '  I  have  fulfilled  them,  sir  ! ' — 

4.  The  teacher  three  times  envelops,  from  the  left 
to  the  right,  with  a  fresh  garment  the  face  (of  the 
student)  who  is  standing  behind  the  fire,  in  front  of 
the  teacher,  with  his  face  to  the  east. 

5.  He  turns  the  skirt  (of  that  garment)  upwards  so 
that  it  cannot  slip  down, 

6.  (And  says  :)  *  Leaving  off  for  three  days  the 
putting  on  of  fuel,  the  going  for  alms,  the  sleeping 
on  the  ground,  and  the  obedience  to  the  teacher, 
fast  in  the  forest,  in  a  god's  house  or  in  a  place 
where  Agnihotra  is  performed,  keeping  silence,  with 
earnest  care.' 

II,  12).  When  the  6'akvara  has  reached  its  end  [here  we  find 
added  at  the  margin  of  the  MS.,  "  After  the  Uddikshawika  has  been 
performed."  These  words  ought  not  to  be  received  into  the  text ; 
in  the  corresponding  passage  on  the  Aupanishada  vrata  they  are 
not  found]  he  performs  the  whole  ceremony,  beginning  from  the 
smearing  (of  the  Sthaw^^ila  with  cow-dung),  the  drawing  of  the 
lines,  &c.,  as  at  the  Upanayana  .  .  .  and  then,  when  one  year 
has  elapsed,  he  performs  the  Uddikshamka,  and  the  rules  [given 
in  chap.  12,  9  seq.]  are  observed  as  above.'  I  think  that  here 
the  meaning  of  the  text  is  correctly  represented;  first  comes 
the  Upanayana,  then  follows  the  Vrata  lasting  one  year,  then  the 
Uddikshawika.  After  this  ceremony  the  teacher  gives  to  the 
student  the  directions  mentioned  in  chap.  12,  16;  then  follow  the 
three  days,  or  the  one  night  (chap.  12,  6.  7),  and  finally  they  both 
go  out  of  the  village  to  the  north-east,  and  in  the  forest  they  recite 
the  Rahasya. 

On  the  whole  ceremonies  connected  with  the  study  of  the  Ara- 
nyzka.  the  sixth  book  should  be  compared. 

5.  Narayawa  :  Vastrasya  da.sa/1  prantabhaga[m]  uparish/at  kn'tva. 
tatha  badhniyad  yatha  na  sambhrajyeta  adhastan  na  patati  talha 
vidheya;w. 

6.  The  things  which  the  student  here  is  ordered  to  leave  off  for 
three  days  are  the  same  that  are  mentioned  above,  chap.  6,  8,  as  his 
standing  duties.  According  to  Narayawa  this  would  be  the  Ade  ja 
mentioned  in  chap.  11,  13. 


II  ADHYAYA,    12  KUANDA,   lO.  8l 

7.  Here  some  (teachers)  prescribe  the  same  ob- 
servances only  for  one  night,  during  which  he  is  to 
stand. 

8.  The  teacher  refrains  from  eating  flesh  and  from 
sexual  intercourse. 

9.  When  those  three  days  or  that  night  has 
elapsed,  going  out  from  the  village  he  shall  avoid  to 
look  at  the  following  (persons  or  things)  that  form 
impediments  for  the  study  (of  the  Veda) : 

10.  Raw  flesh,  a  KajidsLla,  a  woman  that  has 
lately  been  confined,  or  that  has  her  courses,  blood, 
persons  whose  hands  have  been  cut  off,  cemeteries, 
and  all  sorts  of  corpse-like  (animals  ?)  which  enter 
(their  dens  ?)  with  the  mouth  first  (?),  keeping  them 
away  from  the  place  where  he  dwells. 

8.  Coinp.  chap,  11,  6. 

10.  With  Sutika  is  meant  a  woman  during  the  first  ten  days 
after  her  confinement,  for  which  period  the  axauX'a  lasts. — A  pa- 
has  ta  is  rendered  by  Narayawa  by  ^/nnnahasta;  the  comment 
on  the  6"ambavya-Gr/'hya  mentions  ayudhahkitahastawj-  X-a. 
The  translation  of  the  last  words  of  this  Sutra  (sarvawi  ^'a  java- 
r(ipa«i  yany  asye  na  [or  asyena?]  pravijeyu^  svasya  vasan 
nirasan)  is  absolutely  uncertain.  Naraya;/a  says  that  such  animals 
as  lions,  serpents,  &c.  are  designated  in  common  use  as  j-avaru- 
pa;/i.  (This  literally  means, '  having  the  form  of  a  corpse.'  Imme- 
diately afterwards  Narayawa  gives  a  nearly  identical  explanation  of 
javarQpa  as  different  from  the  one  staled  first.  So  perhaps  we 
may  conjecture  that  his  first  explanation  rests  on  a  reading  sarpa- 
rijpawi;  comp.  the  reading  sarvarupa  of  Paraskara.)  Of  these 
the  animals  entering  their  dwelling-places  wiih  the  mouth  first 
(asyena)  are  to  be  understood  here  as  forming,  when  looked  at,  an 
impediment  for  the  study.  Narayawa  then  says  that  other  authori- 
ties understand  j-ava  in  the  sense  of  a  dead  human  body;  then 
javarfipawi  are  beings  having  the  form  thereof  (tadrupa//i),  such  as 
dogs,  jackals,  &c.  The  words  yany  asyena  pravii'eyu//  signify 
that  the  study  is  impeded  also  on  the  sight  of  lions,  tigers,  &c. ;  for 
these  enter  their  dwelling-places  with  their  faces  first  (?  anu- 
mukhai//  kr/tva).  The  words  svasya  vasan  nirasan  mean, 
[29]  G 


82  ^ANKHAYANA-G727HYA-sCtRA. 

1 1.  Going  out  (from  the  village)  in  a  north-eastern 
direction  the  teacher  sits  down  on  a  clean  spot, 
turning  his  face  to  the  east. 

12.  When   the  sun   has   risen,  he  recites,  in  the 

A 

way  prescribed  for  the  Veda-study,  (the  Ara/zyaka 
texts  to  the  student)  who  is  to  keep  silence  and  who 
wears  a  turban. 

13.  This  rule  is  to  be  observed  only  for  the 
Mahanamni  verses. 

14.  At  the  sections  however  that  follow  (after  the 
Mahanamnis)  the  other  one  hears  while  the  teacher 
recites  them  for  himself. 

15.  He  gives  (to  the  teacher)  the  turban,  a  vessel, 
a  good  cow. 

16.  (The  teacher  accepts  the  gifts)  with  the  verses, 

according  to  Nar.,  '  when  he — i.  e.  the  teacher — goes  out  of  his 
dwelling-place.'  Rama>('andra  says  that  j-avarupa  either  means 
lions,  snakes,  and  other  dangerous  animals,  or  nails,  horns,  and 
other  such  things  that  fall  off  or  are  severed  from  the  body. 
The  text  of  the  ^ambavya  MS.  is  sarvawi  ^a'  jyamarfipawi 
yavanya  (?)  pravijeyu-^,  which  the  commentary  explains,  sarvams 
ka,  bhakshyavargara^  ^a.  I  think  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  the  text  of  -Sankhayana  is  correct  (except  that  some  doubt 
will  remain  as  to  asyena  or  asye  na),  the  more  so  as  the 
passage  reoccurs,  nearly  identically,  below  at  VI,  i,  4.  5.  As  to 
the  translation  we  can  only  go  so  far  as  to  venture  the  opinion 
that  the  6ahkhayana  text  does  not  admit  the  interpretation  given  by 
C'ayarama,  and  accepted  by  Professor  Stenzler  (who  compares 
Apastamba  I,  11,  27 ;  Gautama  XVI,  41)  in  Paraskara  II,  11,  3  for 
sarvarupa,  which  consequently  should,  in  our  opinion,  be  rejected 
also  in  that  passage  of  Paraskara.  For  ascertaining  the  true  mean- 
ing of  j-avarupa  we  shall  have  to  wait  until  new  parallel  passages 
have  been  discovered. 

12.  The  rules  for  the  Anuva-('ana  have  been  given  above  in 
chap.  7. 

13.  The  Mahanamni  verses  are  given  in  the  fourth  Ara«yaka  of 
the  Aitareyinas.     See  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  I,  p.  xliii. 


II  ADMYAYA,    1 3  KUANDA,    7.  83 

'Thou  him'  (Rig--veda  I,  icS,  5),  and,  'High  in  the 
sky'  (Rig-veda  X,  107,  2),  or  (he  accepts  them)  all 
with  the  Pra;/ava  (i.  e.  the  syllable  Om). 

17.  Here  some  prepare  a  mess  of  rice  for  the 
Vii-ve  devas  at  all  sections  (of  the  Ara;^yaka)  ; 

18,  For  the  fjods  to  whom  he  has  been  oriven  in 
charge,  according  to  Ma;^^ukeya. 

KlIAA'DA    13. 

1.  Now  (follow)  the  rules  regarding  the  staff. 

2.  Let  him  not  leave  a  passage  between  himself 
and  the  staff, 

3.  Now  should  any  one  of  these  things,  viz.  staff, 
girdle,  or  sacrificial  cord,  break  or  rend,  the  same 
penance  (takes  place)  therefore  which  (has  been 
prescribed)  at  the  wedding  with  regard  to  the 
chariot. 

4.  If  the  girdle  cannot  be  repaired,  he  makes 
another  and  speaks  over  it  (the  following  verses) : 

5.  '  Thou  who  knowest  the  distinction  of  pure  and 
impure,  divine  protectress  Sarasvati,  O  girdle,  pro- 
long my  vow  unimpaired,  unbroken. 

'  Thou,  Agni,  art  the  pure  bearer  of  vows.  Agni, 
carry  hither  the  gods  to  our  sacrifice  and  our  oblation. 

'  Bearing  the  vows,  the  infallible  protector  of  vows, 
be  our  messenger,  undecaying  and  mighty.  Giving 
treasures,  merciful,  Agni,  protect  us,  that  we  may 
live,  (7atavedas  ! ' 

6.  And  he  ties  the  sacrificial  cord  to  the  staff. 

7.  Here  it  is  said  also  : 

18.  Comp.  the  second  SQtra  of  this  chapter. 
13,  3.  See  above,  I,  15,  9  seq. 

G  2 


84  5ANKIIAYANA-G/e/HYA-S^TRA. 

8.  '  Let  him  sacrifice  the  sacrificial  cord  and  the 
staff,  the  crirdle  and  also  the  skin  in  water  after 
the  completion  of  his  vow  with  a  Varu?/a-verse  or 
with  the  essence  (of  the  Vedas,  i.  e.  the  syllable  Om).' 

KHAiVDA   14. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  Vai^vadeva  (sacrifice). 

2.  The  rite  of  the  sacrifice  has  been  explained. 

3.  Let  him  pour  oblations  of  prepared  Vai^vadeva 
food  in  the  evening  and  in  the  morning  into  the 
(sacred)  domestic  fire. 

4.  '  To  Agni  svaha !  To  Soma  svaha !  To 
Indra  and  Ajrni  svaha!  To  Vish;^u  svaha!  To 
Bharadvafa  Dhanvantari  svaha !  To  the  Vii-ve 
devas  svaha !  To  Pra^^apati  svaha !  To  Aditi 
svaha  !     To  Anumati  svaha !     To  Agni  Svish/akr/t 

8.  Naraya;/a  here  quotes  Rig-veda  I,  24,  6,  which  is  the  first 
verse  in  the  Rig-veda  addressed  to  Varu;/a  (i.  e.  to  Varu«a  alone, 
not  to  ]\Iitra  and  Varuwa,  &c.). 

14,  I.  The  rules  regarding  the  Vai>fvadeva  sacrifice  stand  here, 
as  I  have  already  pointed  out  in  the  German  edition,  p.  142,  in 
a  very  strange  position  amid  the  matter  that  concerns  the  student, 
and  before  the  description  of  the  ceremony  that  concludes  stu- 
dentship (the  Samavartana;  III,  i).  On  the  first  word  of  the 
chapter,  atha,  Naraya«a  observes  that  thereby  the  householder 
is  marked  as  the  subject  of  the  following  rules.  It  seems  rather 
forced  to  explain  the  position  of  this  chapter,  as  Narayawa  does, 
by  pointing  out  that  in  some  cases,  for  instance  when  the  teacher 
is  away  on  a  journey,  a  student  also  can  eventually  be  called 
upon  to  perform   the  Vaijvadeva  sacrifice  (comp.   below,    chap. 

17,  3)- 

2.  This  Sutra  shows,  according  to  Narayawa,  that  the  Vaii'va- 

deva  offering  does  not  follow  the  ordinary  type  of  sacrifice  (the 
Pratij-rute  homakalpa,  as  it  is  termed  above,  I,  9,  19),  but  the 
form  described  in  the  Agnikaryaprakarawa,  above,  chap.  10, 
3  seq. 


II  ADIIYAYA,    14  KIIAA^DA,    8.  85 

svaha  ! ' — havin"-  thus  offered  the  oblations  belonmnof 
to  those  deities, 

5.  He  then  shall  offer  Balis  (i.e.  portions  of  food) 
in  the  centre  of  the  floor  to  the  same  deities;  (then 
another  Bali  with  the  words,)  'Adoration  to  Brahman 
and  to  the  Brahma;^as ! '  and  (with  the  verse), 
'  Vastoshpati,  accept  us'  (Rig-veda  VII,  54,  i)  in  the 
centre  of  the  floor  to  Vastoshpati. 

6.  He  then  distributes  Balis,  from  the  left  to  the 
right,  through  the  different  quarters  (of  the  horizon, 
to  the  presiding  deities)  in  due  order  (with  the 
words), 

7.  'Adoration  to  Indra  and  to  those  belonging  to 
Indra!  Adoration  to  Yama  and  to  those  belonging 
to  Yama !  Adoration  to  Ya.runa.  and  to  those  be- 
longing to  Varu;2a!  Adoration  to  Soma  and  to  those 
belonging  to  Soma!  Adoration  to  Br/haspati  and  to 
those  belonging  to  Br/haspati !' 

8.  Then  (turned)  towards  the  disk  of  the  sun, 
'Adoration  to  Aditi  and  to  the  Adityas  !     Adoration 

5.  '  He  shall  offer  a  Bali  to  those  deities,  i.  e.  to  those  ten  deities 
to  whom  he  has  sacrificed,  to  Agni,  &c.  (see  Siatra  4),  addressing 
them  wiih  llic  word,  "  Adoration  (to  such  and  such  a  deity") — 
because  in  the  other  cases  the  word  "  adoration  "  (nama//)  has  been 
prescribed  for  the  Bali.'     Narayawa. 

6,  7.  The  distribution  of  Balis  begins  in  the  east,  which  is  the 
part  of  the  horizon  sacred  to  Indra ;  it  then  proceeds  to  the 
south,  the  west,  the  north,  which  are  sacred  respectively  to  Yama, 
Varuwa,  and  Soma.  Finally  the  Bali  belonging  to  Br/liaspati 
and  the  Barhaspatyas  is  offered,  according  to  Narayawa,  to  the 
north-east. 

8.  The  commentators  (see  p.  142  of  the  German  edition)  diflcr 
as  to  whether  adityamaw^/ala  means  the  disk  of  the  sun  towards 
which  this  Bali  should  be  offered,  or  a  place  or  an  apartment  of 
circular  form  (adityama;/</alarCipe  mawfl'alagare,  as  in  my  opinion 
we  ought  to  correct  the  reading  in  Narayaz/a's  note). 


86  ^ANKHAYANA-G/?7HVA-S<JTRA. 


to  the  Nakshatras,  to  seasons,  to  months,  to  half- 
months,  to  days  and  nights,  to  years  ! ' 

9.  '  To  Pushan,  the  path-maker ;  to  Dhatar,  to 
Vidhatar,  and  to  the  Maruts '  —  (thus)  on  the 
thresholds. 

10.  To  Vish;^u  on  the  grindstone. 

1 1.  *  To  the  tree  ' — (thus)  in  the  mortar. 

12.  'To  the  herbs'  —  (thus)  where  the  herbs  are 
kept. 

13.  'To  Par^anya,  to  the  waters' — (thus)  near 
the  water-pot. 

14.  'Adoration  to  ^'ri' — (thus)  in  the  bed  at  the 
head,  '  to  Bhadrakali '  at  the  foot. 

15.  In  the  privy,  'Adoration  to  Sarvannabhuti !' 

16.  Then  (he  throws  a  Bali)  into  the  air,  in  the 
evening  with  the  words,'  To  the  night-walkers,' in  the 
morning  with  the  words,  '  To  the  day-walkers,'  and 
with  the  verse, '  Which  gods  '  (Rig-veda  I,  139,  1 1). 

1 7.  To  the  unknown  deities  to  the  north,  and  to 
Dhanapati  (i.e.  the  Lord  of  treasures). 

18.  With  the  sacrificial  cord  suspended  over  the 
right  shoulder  he  pours  out  the  remnant  to  the  south 
with  the  verse,  '  They  whom  the  fire  has  burnt ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  15,  14). 

19.  When  he  has  made  his  offerings  to  gods, 
fathers  (i.e.  Manes),  and  men,  let  him  give  food  to  a 
6'rotriya  (i.e.  to  a  learned  Brahma;/a). 

20.  Or  let  him  give  alms  (of  food)  to  a  student. 

21.  Let  him  immediately  afterwards  offer  food  to 
a  female  under  his  protection,  to  a  pregnant  woman, 
to  boys,  and  to  old  people. 

21.  Comp.  Bohtlingk-Roth  s.  v.  suvasini,  and  Professor  Biihler's 
note  on  Gaulaina  \,  25. 


II  ADHYAYA,   1 5  KUANDA,    3.  87 


2  2.  Let  him  throw  (some  food)  on  the  ground  for 
the  does,  for  the  doer-butchers,  and  for  the  birds. 

23.  Let  him  eat  nothing  without  having  cut  off 
(and  offered  as  a  Bah)  a  portion  thereof. 

24.  (Let  him)  not  (eat)  alone, 

25.  Nor  before  (the  others). 

26.  With  regard  thereto  it  has  been  said  also  in 
the  J^i'/c,  '  In  vain  the  fool  gains  food'  (Rig-veda  X, 
117,  6). 

Khajvda  15. 

1.  Should  any  one  of  the  six  persons  (mentioned 
in  the  6'rauta-sutra  and  in  the  Sutras  4-9)  to 
whom  the  Arghya  reception  is  due,  visit  (him),  let 
him  make  (ready)  a  cow,  a  goat,  or  what  (sort  of 
food)  he  thinks  most  like  (thereto). 

2.  Let  the  Argha  not  be  without  flesh. 

3.  On  the  occasion  of  a  sacrifice  and  of  a  wedding 
let  (the  guest)  say,  '  Make  it  (ready).' 


22,  23.  Probably  these  Siitras  should  be  divided  after  iti. 

23.  'Purvaw  means,  he  should  not  eat  before  his  relations 
(bandhubhya/i  purvaw  prathamata//).'     Narayawa. 

15,  I.  This  Sutra  presupposes  the  6'rauta-sutra  IV,  21,  i  :  'To 
six  persons  the  Argha  reception  is  due,  viz.  to  the  teacher,  to  an 
officiating  priest,  to  the  father-in-law,  to  a  king,  to  a  Snataka,  to 
a  friend.'  Here  the  fourth  person  mentioned  is  the  jvajura, 
while  in  the  Grihya.  text  the  expression  vaivahya  is  used.  It  is 
difficult  not  to  believe  that  both  words  are  used  in  the  same  sense, 
and  accordingly  Naraya«a  says  vivahya-^  .yva^ura/z.  Comp.  Professor 
Stenzlcr's  note  on  Paraskara  I,  3,  i  ;  Apastamba  II,  8,  7  ;  Gau- 
tama V,  27. 

Samanyatamaw  sad/7jatama///  mashadikani  (makhadikam  the 
IMS.)  annam.     Narayawa. 

2,  3.  These  Sfttras  are  identical  with  Paraskara  I,  3,  29.  30. 
The  following  Siitra  of  Paraskara  stands  in  the  3'ahkhayana  text  as 


88  ^ANKHAYANA-G/?/HYA-SUTRA. 

4.  The  animal  (offered)  to  the  teacher  is  sacred  to 
Agni ; 

5.  If  offered  to  an  officiating  priest,  to  Brzhaspati ; 

6.  If  to  the  father-in-law,  to  Pra^apati  ; 

7.  If  to  a  king-,  to  Indra  ; 

8.  If  to  a  friend,  to  Mitra  ; 

9.  If  to  a  Snataka,  to  Indra  and  Agni  ; 

10.  Even  if  he  performs  more  than  one  Soma 
sacrifice  during  a  year,  let  only  priests  who  have 
received  (from  him)  the  Arghya  reception  officiate 
for  him,  not  such  who  have  not  received  it. 

1 1.  Here  it  is  said  also  : 


Siitra  10.  Probably  Paraskara  here  represents  the  text  which  both 
Sutrakaras  follow,  more  exactly,  and  the  enumeration  given  by 
6'ankhayana  in  Sutras  4-9  of  the  different  categories  of  Arghyas 
with  the  corresponding  deities,  is  an  addition  to  that  original  stock 
of  rules. 

Apparently  the  two  Sutras  2  and  3  stand  in  contradiction  to  each 
other,  as  Sutra  2  seems  to  prescribe  that  at  the  Argha  meal  in 
every  case  flesh  should  be  given  to  the  guest,  and  Sutra  3  specifies 
only  two  occasions  on  which  the  killing  of  the  Argha  cow  cannot 
be  dispensed  with.  Perhaps  the  meaning  is  this,  that  it  is  not 
necessary,  except  in  the  cases  of  a  sacrifice  and  of  a  wedding,  to 
kill  a  cow  expressly  for  that  purpose,  but  that  in  any  case,  even  if 
the  cow  offered  to  the  guest  be  declined  by  him,  the  host  should 
take  care  that  some  flesh  be  served  at  that  meal.  So  says  Narayawa 
in  his  note  on  Ajvalayana-Gnliya  I,  24,  33,  '  Pa^ukarawapakshe 
tanma?«sena  bho^anam,  utsar^anapakshe  mawsantarcwa.'  Similarly 
the  Buddhists  distinguish  between  eating  flesh  and  eating  the  flesh 
of  an  animal  expressly  killed  in  order  to  entertain  that  very  guest. 

6.  The  literal  translation  ofvaivahya  would  be  'a  person  related 
by  marriage.'     But  comp.  the  note  on  Sutra  i. 

8.  Priya  of  course  does  not  mean  ^amatar,  as  is  stated  in  a 
number  of  commentaries.     Gobhila  says,  priyo^tithi//. 

II.  Other  persons,  for  instance  a  king,  can  claim  the  Argha  re- 
ception not  more  than  once  a  year.  Comp.  Apastamba  II,  8,  7 ; 
Gautama  V,  28,  29,  &c. 


II  ADHYAYA,    I  7  KIIAiVDA,   I.  89 


KUANDA    16. 

1.  'At  the  Madhuparka  and  at  the  Soma  sacrifice, 
at  the  sacred  rites  for  fathers  (Manes)  and  gods 
only  animals  may  be  killed,  not  elsewhere :  thus 
has  Manu  said. 

2.  '  Both  his  teacher  and  his  father,  and  also  a 
friend  who  docs  not  stay  in  his  house  as  a  guest : 
whatever  these  dispose,  that  let  him  do ;  such  is 
the  established  custom. 

3.  '  Let  him  not  consider  as  a  guest  a  person 
living  in  the  same  village,  or  one  that  comes  in 
returning  from  a  journey;  (but  let  him  consider  as  a 
guest  only)  one  who  has  arrived  at  his  house  where 
the  wife  or  the  fires  (of  the  host)  are. 

4.  '(The  fire  of)  the  Agnihotra,  bulls,  and  a  guest 
that  has  come  in  at  the  right  time,  children  and 
persons  of  noble  families  :  these  burn  up  him  who 
neglects  them. 

5.  'A  bull,  the  Agnihotra,  and  a  student,  these 
three  prosper  only  if  they  eat;  there  is  no  prosperity 
for  them,  if  they  do  not  eat. 

6.  '  Day  by  day  the  domestic  deities  approach 
the  man  who  performs  the  domestic  rites,  in  order 
to  receive  their  share ;  (that)  let  him  pour  out 
to  them. 

KlIAA^DA    17. 

I.  '  Even  if  a  man  constantly  gather  grass  and  per- 
form the  Agnihotra,  a  Brahma^^a  who  stays  (in  his 

16,  3.  Comp.  Gautama  V,  40,  &c. 

4.  On  the  right  time  for  the  arrival  of  a  guest,  see  Gautama, 
loc.  cit. 


90  5ANKHAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 


house)  without  receiving  honour  takes  away  all  his 
good  works. 

2.  '  One  should  give  (even)  if  it  were  only  a 
water-pot ;  one  should  sacrifice  (even)  if  it  were  a 
piece  of  wood ;  (even)  down  to  one  hymn  or  to  one 
Anuvaka  the  Brahmayaf^a  is  enjoined. 

3.  '  When  on  a  journey  let  him  not  fast ;  (during 
that  time)  the  wife  keeps  the  vow.  Let  his  son,  his 
brother,  or  his  wife,  or  his  pupil  offer  the  Bali 
oblation. 

4.  *  Those  who  perform  this  Vaii-vadeva  sacrifice 
in  the  evening  and  in  the  morning,  they  will  prosper 
in  wealth  and  (long)  life,  in  fame  and  offspring.' 

KHAiVDA    18. 

1.  A  student  who  is  going  to  set  out  on  a  journey, 
speaks  thus  to  his  teacher  : 

2.  'Of  inhalation  and  exhalation' — (this  he  says) 
in  a  low  voice  ;  '  Om,  I  will  dwell ' — this  aloud. 

3.  (The  teacher)  in  a  low  voice  (replies),  '  To 
inhalation  and  exhalation  I,  the  wide-extended  one, 
resort  with  thee.  To  the  protecting  god  I  give  thee 
in  charge.  God  Savitar ;  this  student  belongs  to 
thee ;  I  give  him  in  charge  to  thee ;  protect  him  ; 
do  not  forsake  him.' 

4.  'Om,  hail!'  the  teacher  aloud.  'Hail!'  the 
teacher  aloud. 

Here  ends  the  Second  Adhyaya. 


18,  2.  Perhaps  vatsyami  (I  will  dwell)  is  a  sort  of  euphemism 
for  pravatsyami  (I  will  go  away). 


Ill  ADHYAYA,    I    KUANDA,    10.  QI 


AdIIYAYA    III,    KllANDA    1. 

1.  A  bath  (shall  be  taken  by  the  student)  when  he 
is  going  to  return  home  (from  his  teacher). 

2.  'A  bull's  hide' — this  has  been  declared.  On 
that  hide  he  makes  him  sit  down  and  have  his  hair 
and  beard  cut  and  the  hair  of  the  body  and  the 
nails. 

3.  Having  had  (the  cut-off  hair-ends,  &c.)  thrown 
away  together  with  rice  and  barley,  with  sesamum- 
seed  and  mustard-seed,  with  Apamarga  and  Sada- 
pushpi  flowers, 

4.  Having  sprinkled  him  (w^ith  water)  with  the 
ApohishMiya-hymn  (Rig-veda  X,  9), 

5.  Having  adorned  him, 

6.  Having  dressed  him  with  two  garments  with 
(the  verse),  *  The  garments  both  of  you '  (Rig-veda 

I.  152,  i), 

7.  He  then  puts  on  him  a  golden  ornament  (with 
the  words),  '  Giving  life  and  vigour '  (Va^^asaneyi 
Sa;;Hiita  XXXIV,  50). 

8.  With  (the  verse),  'Mine,  Agni,  be  vigour' 
(Rig-veda  X,  128,  i),  the  veiling  (of  the  head  is 
done). 

9.  With  (the  verse),  '  House  by  house  the  shining 
one'  (Rig-veda  I,  123,  4)  (he  takes)  the  parasol, 

10.  With  (the  verse),  '  Rise  up'  (Rig-veda  X,  18, 
6),  the  shoes, 


1,  2.  Comp.  above,  I,  16,  i,  and  the  note  there. 
4.  Narayawa  says  here,  ena»2  mawavakam  abhishi^'ya  abhishekaw 
snana/«  karayitva.     Comp.  Paraskara  II,  6,  9  seq. 


92  5ANKHAYANA-Gi27IlYA-sCTRA. 

11.  With  (the  verse),  '  Long  be  thy  hook'  (Rig- 
veda  VIII,  17,  10)  he  takes  a  bamboo  staff. 

12.  Let  him  sit  that  day  in  soHtude. 

1 3.  With  (the  verses),  *  O  tree  !  with  strong  Hmbs,' 
and, 'A  ruler  indeed'  (Rig-veda  VI,  47,  26;  X,  152,1) 
let  him  mount  the  chariot. 

14.  (Before  returning  home)  let  him  first  approach 
a  place  where  they  will  perform  Argha  for  him  with 
a  cow  or  a  goat. 

15.  Or  let  him  return  (making  his  start)  from  cows 
or  from  a  fruit-bearing  tree. 

16.  With  (the  verses),  'Indra,  give  us  best  goods,' 
and,  'Be  friendly,  O  earth'  (Rig-veda  II,  21,  6; 
I,  22,  15)  he  descends  (from  the  chariot). 

1 7.  Let  him  eat  that  day  his  favourite  food. 

18.  To  his  teacher  he  shall  give  (that)  pair  of 
garments,  the  turban,  ear-rings  and  jewel,  staff  and 
shoes,  and  the  parasol. 


Kkanda  2. 

1 .  If  he  wishes  to  have  a  house  built,  he  draws  with 
an  Udumbara  branch  three  times  a  line  round  (the 
building-ground)  with  (the  words),  '  Here  I  include 
the  dwellings  for  the  sake  of  food,'  and  sacrifices  in 
(its)  centre  on  an  elevated  spot, 

2.  (With  the  texts,)  '  Who  art  thou  ?    Whose  art 


12.  Pratilina  evidently  means  the  same  thing  that  is  so  often 
expressed  in  the  Buddhist  texts  by  pa/isallina. 

18.  The  pair  of  garments  are  those  referred  to  in  Sutra  6;  on 
the  turban  see  Sutra  8,  On  staff  and  shoes  comp.  Sutras  10,  11 ; 
on  the  parasol,  Sutra  9. 

2,  I  seqq.  On  the  house  of  the  Vedic  Indians,  comp.  Zimmcr, 
Allindisches  Leben,  pp.  148  seqq. 


Ill  ADIIYAYA,    2  KHAA^DA,    9.  93 

thou  ?     To  whom   do    I    sacrifice  thee,  desirous  of 
(dwelling  in  the)  village  ?     Svaha  ! 

'  Thou  art  the  gods'  share  on  this  (earth).  From 
here  have  sprung  the  fathers  who  have  passed  away. 
The  ruler  has  sacrificed,  desirous  of  (dwelling  in  the) 
village,  not  omitting  anything  that  belongs  to  the 
gods.     Svaha  1 ' 

3.  Having  had  the  pits  for  the  posts  dug, 

4.  He  pours  water-gruel  into  them, 

5-  And  with  (the  verse),  '  This  branch  of  the 
immortal  one  I  erect,  a  stream  of  honey,  promoting 
wealth.  The  child,  the  young  one,  cries  to  it ;  the 
cow  shall  low  to  it,  the  unceasingly  fertile  one ' — he 
puts  an  Udumbara  branch  which  has  been  besmeared 
with  ghee  into  the  pit  for  the  right  door-post. 

6.  '  This  branch  of  the  world  I  establish,  a  stream 
of  honey,  promoting  wealth.  The  child,  the  young 
one,  cries  to  it ;  the  cow  shall  low  to  it  that  has  a 
young  calf ' — thus  to  the  left. 

7.  In  the  same  way  at  the  two  (pits)  to  the  south, 
to  the  west,  and  to  the  north. 

8.  With  (the  verse),  '  This  branch  of  this  tree, 
that  drops  ghee,  I  erect  in  the  immortal.  The  child, 
the  young  one,  cries  to  it ;  cows  shall  flock  to  it, 
unceasingly  fertile  ones  ' — he  erects  the  chief  post. 

9.  '  May  the  young  child  come  to  it,  may 
the  calf .  .  .  .  ;  may  they  come  to  it  with  a  cup  of 
Parisrut,  with  pots  of  curds. 

9.  On  parisrut,  see  Zimmer,  Altindisches  Leben,  p.  281.  The 
words  bhuvanas  pari  give  no  sense;  Paraskara  probably  gives 
the  true  reading,  a  vatso^agadai/;  saha  (III,  4,  4  ;  conip.  Sutra 
8  :  VasGwj  L\  Rudran  Adityan  Lanaw^agadai/z  saha;  ^agada  is 
explained  in  Gayarama's  commentary  by  anuga,  anu/^ara).  The 
word  ^agada  of  course  was  exposed  to  all  sorts  of  corrupiions; 


94  i-ANKHAYANA-G/e/HYA-sOTRA. 


KnAiVDA    3. 

1.  'Stand  here,  O  post,  firm,  rich  in  horses  and 
cows,  .  .  .  .  ;  stand  safely,  dropping  ghee  ;  stand 
here,  fixed  in  the  ground,  prosperous,  long-lasting {?), 
amid  the  prosperity  of  people  who  satiate  themselves. 
May  the  malevolent  ones  not  reach  thee ! 

'Hither  are  called  the  cows;  hither  are  called 
goats  and  sheep  ;  and  the  sweet  essence  (?)  of  food 
is  called  hither  to  our  house. 

'  Stand  fast  in  the  Rathantara  ;  recline  on  the 
Vamadevya  ;  establish  thyself  on  the  Br/hat ' — with 
(these  texts)  he  touches  the  chief  post. 

2.  When  the  house  has  been  built  conformably 
(to  its  proper  dimensions),  he  touches  the  posts. 

3.  The  two  (posts)  to  the  east  with  (the  words), 
'  Truth  and  faith  ! ' 

4.  Those  to  the  south  with  (the  words), '  Sacrifice 

and  gift ! ' 

5.  Those  to  the  west  with  (the  words), '  Strength 

and  power ! ' 

6.  Those  to  the  north  with  (the  words),  *  The 
Brahman  and  the  Kshatra ! 

7.  '  Fortune  the  pinnacle,  law  the  chief  post ! 

thus  the  text  of  Ajvalayana  has  ^ayata;/z  saka ;  the  Atharva-veda 
(III,  12,  7)  ^agata  saha;  and  from  this  ^agat  to  the  bhuvana 
found  in  our  text  the  way  is  not  very  long. 

3,  I.  According  to  Narayawa  the  verse  given  in  chap.  2,  9  forms 
one  Mantra  with  those  in  3,  i.  The  meaning  of  silamavati  is 
uncertain.  The  word  reoccurs  in  Rig-veda  X,  75,  8.  Paraskara 
(III,  4,  4)  has  sfinrAavati.  On  tilvila,  comp.  Rig-veda  V,  62, 
7.  The  following  word  is  quite  uncertain  both  as  to  its  reading 
and  its  meaning.  Comp.  p.  143  seq.  of  the  German  edition.  On 
kilala,  comp.  Zimmer,  loc.  cit.  p.  281. 

7.  Comp.  Paraskara  III,  4,  18. 


Ill  ADIIYAYA,    4  KllANDA,    8.  95 


8.  '  Day  and  night  the  two  door-jambs  !' 

9.  '  The  year  the  roof!' 

10.  With  (the  verse),  'A  bull,  an  ocean'  (Rig-veda 
V,  47,  3)  let  him  bury  an  anointed  stone  under  the 
pinnacle. 

KlIAiNDA    4. 

1.  At  the  sacrifice  to  Vastoshpati — 

2.  Having  established  the  (sacred)  domestic  fire 
outside  with  (the  words),  '  I  place  (here)  Agni  with 
genial  mind ;  may  he  be  the  assembler  of  goods. 
Do  no  harm  to  us,  to  the  old  nor  to  the  young ; 
be  a  saviour  to  us,  to  men  and  animals!' — 

3.  Having  put  a  new  water-pot  on  fresh  eastward- 
pointed  Ku5a-grass, 

4.  And  spoken  over  it  (the  words),  '  Unhurt  be 
our  men,  may  our  riches  not  be  squandered  !' — 

5.  He  sacrifices  three  oblations  in  the  forenoon 
with  the  Stotriya  text  of  the  Rathantara  with  re- 
petition and  Kakubh-forming ; 

6.  (Three  oblations  with  the  Stotriya)  of  the 
Vamadevya  at  midday; 

7.  Of  the  Br/hat  in  the  afternoon  ; 

8.  The  four  Mahavyahr/tis,  the  three  verses, 
'Vastoshpati!'  (Rig-veda  VH,  54,  1-3),  (the  single 
verses,) '  Driving  away  calamity,'  (and)  'Vastoshpati, 

4,  I.  The  sacrifice  to  Vastoshpati  is  celebrated  when  the  sacri- 
ficer  enters  his  new  house. 

2.  Comp.  above,  I,  7,  9. 

5-7.  On  the  way  of  reciting  a  Pragatha,  so  as  to  form  three 
verses,  see  Indische  Studien,  VIII,  25;  Zeitschrift  der  deutschon 
Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XXXVIII,  476.  The  Stotriya  of  the  Rathan- 
tara is  Rig-veda  VII,  32,  22  seq. ;  that  of  the  Vamadevya,  IV,  31, 
1-3  ;  that  of  the  Br/hat,  VI,  46,  i  seq. 


96  ^ANKHAYANA-G^/HYA-StjTRA. 

a  firm  post' (Rig-veda  VII,  55,  I ;  VIII,  17,  14),  and 
to  (Agni)  Svish/akr^'t  a  tenth  oblation  of  cooked 
food  at  night. 

9.  Taking  with  himself  his  eldest  son  and  his  wife, 
carrying  grain,  let  him  enter  (the  house  with  the 
words), 

'  Indra's  house  is  blessed,  wealthy,  protecting ; 
that  I  enter  with  my  wife,  with  offspring,  with  cattle, 
with  increase  of  w^ealth,  with  everything  that  is 
mine.' 

Khaa'da  5. 

1.  'To  every  able  one,  to  every  blissful  one,  to 
you  I  turn  for  the  sake  of  safety,  of  peace.  Free 
from  clanger  may  we  be.  May  the  village  give  me 
in  charge  to  the  forest.  All !  give  me  in  charge  to 
the  great  one,' — thus  (he  speaks)  when  leaving  the 
village. 

2.  '  May  the  forest  give  me  in  charge  to  the  village. 
Great  one  !  give  me  in  charge  to  the  all ' — thus 
(he  speaks)  when  entering  the  village,  not  without 
(carrying)  something  (with  himself,  such  as  fuel, 
flowers,  &c.) 

3.  I  enter  the  blessed,  joyful  house,  which  does 
not  bring  death  to  men  ;  manly  (I  enter)  that  which 
is  rich  in  men.  Bringing  refreshment,  dropping 
ghee  (we  enter  the  house)  in  which  I  shall  joyfully 
rest ' — this  verse  is  constantly  to  be  pronounced 
(when  he  enters  the  house). 

5,  3.  For  anyeshv  aha?fi  we  should  read  perhaps  yeshv  ahaw. 
Ajvalayana-.S'raut.  II,  5,  17  has  teshv  aha?«. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    7    KUANDX,    5.  97 

Khaa'da  G. 

1.  One  who  has  not  set  up  the  (sacred  6'rauta) 
fires,  when  setting  out  on  a  journey,  looks  at  his 
house. 

2.  (He  murmurs  the  text,)  '  Do  ye  both,  Mitra  and 
Varu;^a,  protect  this  house  for  me ;  unscathed,  un- 
disturbed, may  Pushan  guard  it  till  our  return  ;' 

3.  And  murmurs  (the  verse),  '  Upon  the  path  we 
have  entered'  (Rig-veda  VI,  51,  16). 

Khaa^da  7. 

1.  When  he  then  returns  from  his  journey,  he 
looks  at  his  house  (and  says), 

2.  '  House,  do  not  fear,  do  not  tremble  ;  bringing 
strength  we  come  back.  Bringing  strength,  joyful 
and  wise,  I  come  back  to  thee,  to  the  house,  rejoicing 
in  my  mind. 

'  That  of  which  the  traveller  thinks,  that  in  which 
dwells  much  joy,  that  I  call  the  house.  May  it^know 
us  as  we  know  it. 

'Hither  are  called  the  cows;  hither  are  called 
goats  and  sheep ;  and  the  sweet  essence  {?)  of  food 
is  called  hither  to  our  house.' 

3.  Having  approached  the  (sacred)  domestic  fire 
with  the  verse,  '  This  Agni  is  glorious  to  us,  this  is 
highly  glorious.  Worshipping  him  (?)  may  we  suffer 
no  harm  ;  may  he  bring  us  to  supremity ' — 

4.  Let  him  pronounce  auspicious  words. 

5.  When  accepting  the  water  for  washing  the  feet 
he  says,  •  The  milk  of  Vira^  art  thou  ;  may  I  obtain 


7,  2.  On  kilala,  see  chap.  3,  i. 

5.  Padya  vira^'-  is  the  Vir%  metre,  so  far  as  it  consists  of 

[29]  H 


0 


98  ^ankhayana-g/^hya-sOtra. 

the  milk  of  Vira^;  in  me  (may)  the  milk  of  Padya 
Vira^  (dwell) ! ' 

KHAiVDA    8. 

1.  When  one  who  has  not  set  up  the  (sacred 
^'rauta)  fires,  is  going  to  partake  of  the  first-fruits 
(of  the  harvest),  let  him  sacrifice  to  the  Agraya/^a 
deities  with  (Agni)  Svish/akr/t  as  the  fourth,  and 
with  the  word  Svaha,  on  his  (sacred)  domestic  fire, 

2.  Having  recited  over  (the  food)  which  he  is 
going  to  eat  (the  formula),  '  To  Prac^apati  I  draw 
thee,  the  proper  portion,  for  luck  to  me,  for  glory  to 
me,  for  food  to  me ! ' — 

3.  He  thrice  eats  of  it,  sprinkling  it  with  water, 
with  (the  verse),  '  From  the  good  you  have  led  us  to 
the  better,  ye  gods  !  Through  thee,  the  nourishment, 
may  we  obtain  thee.  Thus  enter  into  us,  O  potion, 
bringing  refreshment ;  be  a  saviour  to  us,  to  men 
and  animals ! ' 

4.  With  (the  verse),  '  This  art  thou,  breath ;  the 
truth  I  speak.  This  art  thou ;  from  all  directions 
thou  hast  entered  (into  all  beings).  Thou  driving 
away  old  age  and  sickness  from  my  body  be  at  home 
with  me.  Do  not  forsake  us,  Indra  !' — he  touches  the 
place  of  the  heart ; 

Padas ;  in  this  connection,  of  course,  the  phrase  is  intended  besides 
to  convey  the  meaning  of  '  the  splendour  which  dwells  in  the  feet." 
Comp.  Paraskara  I,  3,  12  and  Professor  Stenzler's  note  there.  My 
German  translation  of  this  Siltra  of  6'ahkhayana  rests  on  a  misun- 
derstanding. 

8,  I.  The  Agraya«esh/i  is  the  corresponding  rite  of  the  6'rauta 
ritual.  Comp.  Indische  Studien,  X,  343.  The  deities  of  that 
sacrifice  are  Indra  and  Agni;  the  Vijve  devas;  Heaven  and 
Earth. 

3.  In  the  text  read  for  tvaya^vasena,  tvaya*vasena. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    10    KHAiVDA,    I.  99 

5.  With  (the  words),  '  The  navel  art  thou  ;  do  not 
fear  ;  the  knot  of  the  breathing  powers  art  thou  ;  do 
not  loosen  thyself,'  (he  touches)  the  navel ; 

6.  With  the  verse,  '  Bliss  with  our  ears  '  (Rig-veda 
I,  89,  8),  (he  touches)  the  limbs  as  stated  (in  that 
verse) ; 

7.  Worshipping  the  sun  with  the  verse,  *  Yonder 
eye' (Rig-veda  VII,  66,  i6). 

KHAiVDA   9. 

1 .  '  May  the  noisy  (goddesses)  keep  you  away 
from  slaughtering  hosts.  May  the  entire  share, 
O  cows,  that  belongs  to  this  lord  of  cows,  suffer  no 
harm  among  you — (and) 

'May  Pushan  go  after  our  cows'  (Rig-veda  VI, 
54,  5) — this  he  shall  speak  over  the  cows  when  they 
go  away  (to  their  pasture-grounds). 

2.  'May  Pushan  hold'  (Rig-veda  VI,  54,  10),  when 
they  run  about. 

3.  *  May  they  whose  udder  with  its  four  holes  is 
full  of  sweet  and  ghee,  be  milk-givers  to  us  ;  (may 
they  be)  many  in  our  stable,  rich  in  ghee' — and, 
'  The  cows  have  come '  (Rig-veda  VI,  28),  when  they 
have  come  back. 

4.  The  last  (verse)  when  he  puts  them  in  (into 
the  stable). 

5.  The  hymn,  'Refreshing  wind'  (Rig-veda  X, 
169),  (he  recites  over  the  cows),  when  they  are  gone 
into  the  stable. 

KUANDA    10. 

I.  The  new  moon  that  follows  after  the  Phalguna 

9,  I.  The  noisy  ones  are  the  winds;  comp.  the  passage  of 
6'ahkha}ana-6'rauta-s(atra,  quoted  p.  144  of  the  German  edition. 

II  2 


lOO  5ANKHAYANA-Gi2/HYA-SUTRA. 


full  moon,  falls  under  (the  Nakshatra)  Revati :  on 
that  (new  moon  day)  he  shall  have  the  marks  made 
(on  his  cattle), 

2.  With  (the  words),  '  Thou  art  the  world,  thou- 
sandfold prospering.  To  Indra  may  exertion  (?) 
give  thee.  Inviolate  art  thou,  unhurt,  sap,  food, 
protection.  For  as  many  (cows)  I  shall  do  this 
now,  for  more  (than  these)  may  I  do  it  in  the  latest 
year.' 

3.  Of  that  (cow)  that  calves  first  let  him  sacrifice 
the  biestings  with  the  two  verses,' Yearly  the  milk  of 
the  cow'  (Rig-veda  X,  8y,  17.  18). 

4.  If  she  brings  forth  twin-calves,  let  him  sacrifice 
with  the  Mahavyahr/tis,  and  give  the  mother  of  the 
twins  (to  the  Brahma/zas). 

Khandx  11. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  Vr/shotsarga  (i.e.  setting  a 
bull  at  liberty). 

2.  On  the  Karttika  full  moon  day  or  on  that 
day  of  the  A^vayu^a  (month)  that  falls  under  (the 
Nakshatra)  Revati — 

3.  He  sacrifices,  after  having  kindled  amid  the 
cows  a  well-inflamed  fire,  A/ya  oblations  (with  the 
words), 

4.  'Here  is  delight;    take  delight  here.     Svaha ! 


10,  2.  The  reading  of  tva  jramo  dadat  is  doubtful.  See  the 
Various  Readings  in  the  German  edition. 

11,  I.  A  t)art  of  this  chapter  is  nearly  identical  with  the  corre- 
sponding section  of  the  KaMaka-gr/hya ;  see  Jolly's  article,  Das 
Dharma-sutra  des  Vish«u,  &c.  (Sitzung  der  philos.  philol.  Classe  der 
Bairischen  Academic,  7  Juni,  1879),  p.  39.  Comp.  also  Paraskara 
III,  9  ;  Vish/m  LXXXVI,  and  Jolly's  remarks,  in  Deutsche  Rund- 
schau X,  p.  428. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    II    KHAA^DA,     1 6.  lOI 


Here    is    still-standing;     here    is    (your)    own    still- 
standincT,     Svaha ! 

'  I  have  let  the  calf  join  its  mother.  May  the 
calf,  sucking  its  mother's  breast,  support  increase  of 
wealth  amonof  us.     Svaha!' 

5.  With  the  verse,  '  May  Pushan  go  after  our 
cows' (Rig-veda  VI,  54,  5)  he  sacrifices  from  (a  mess 
of  sacrificial  food)  belonging  to  Pushan. 

6.  Having  murmured  the  Rudra-(hymns), 

7.  (He  takes)  a  one-coloured,  two-coloured,  or 
three-coloured  (bull), 

8.  Or  one  that  protects  the  herd, 

9.  Or  that  is  protected  by  the  herd, 

10.  Or  it  may  also  be  red. 

11.  It  should  have  all  its  limbs  complete,  and  be 
the  finest  (bull)  in  the  herd. 

12.  Having  adorned  that  (bull), 

13.  And  the  four  best  young  cows  of  the  herd, 
having  adorned  those  too, 

14.  (He  says,)  'This  young  (bull)  I  give  you  as 
your  husband ;  sporting  with  him,  your  lover,  walk 
about.  Do  not  desert  us  (?),  being  joined  (with  us) 
from  your  birth.  In  increase  of  wealth,  in  food  may 
we  rejoice.     Svdha  ! ' 

15.  When  (the  bull)  is  in  the  midst  (of  the  cows), 
he  recites  over  (them),  '  Refreshing,'  &c.  (Rig-veda 
X,  169,  I  seq.)  down  to  the  end  of  the  Anuvaka. 

16.  With  the  milk  of  all  of  them  he  shall  cook  milk- 
rice  and  feed  Brahma;/as  with  it. 


6.  Rig-veda  I,  43.  114  ;  II,  33;  VII,  46. 

14.  The  translation  'do  not  desert  us,'  rests  on  the  conjecture 
mavasthata;  see  the  Various  Readings,  and  the  note  on  p.  145 
of  the  German  edition. 


102  6:ANKHAYANA-G/?/HYA-StjTRA. 


KHAiVDA    12. 

1.  After  the  Agrahaya/zi  (or  the  full  moon  day  of 
the  month  Margai-irsha)  (follow)  the  three  Ash/akas 
in  the  second  fortnight  (of  the  Margai"irsha  and  of  the 
two  following  months). 

2.  At  the  first  of  these  he  sacrifices  vegetables, 

3.  With  (the  verse),  '  She  who  shone  forth  first  is 
this  (earth)  ;  she  walks,  having  entered  into  this 
(earth).  The  wife  has  brought  forth  (children),  the 
new-creating  mother.  May  the  three  powers  follow 
her.     Svaha!' 

4.  Now  (the  oblation  for  Agni)  Svish/akr/t, 

5.  With  (the  verses),  '  She  in  whom  Yama,  the 
son  of  Vivasvat,  and  all  gods  are  contained,  the 
Ash/aka  whose  face  is  turned  to  all  sides,  she  has 
satiated  my  desires. 

'They  call  thy  teeth  "the  pressing-stones;"  thy 

12,  I.  On  the  Ash/aka  festivals,  of  which  some  texts  reckon 
three,  while  others  have  four,  comp.  Weber,  Naxatra  (second 
article),  pp.  337,  341  seq. ;  Biihler,  S.  B.  E.,  II,  p.  214;  Ludwig, 
Rig-veda,  vol.  iv,  pp.  424  seq.;  Atharva-veda  III,  10.  The  last 
Ash/aka,  which  is  celebrated  in  the  dark  fortnight  of  Magha,  is 
called  Ekash/aka ;  this  Ash/aka  is  called  the  '  wife  of  the  year,' '  the 
image  of  the  year,'  '  the  disposer  of  the  days.'  If  the  Phalguna 
month  is  reckoned  as  the  first  of  the  year,  this  Ash/aka  precedes 
the  year's  beginning  only  by  a  few  days;  there  are  also  some  Vedic 
passages  which  point  to  the  Ekash/aka's  following  shortly  after  the 
beginning  of  the  year;  see  Weber,  loc.  cit.,  p.  342. 

3.  Instead  of  navaknt  the  parallel  texts  (except  the  Mantrabrah- 
ma«a  II,  2,  12)  have  navagat,  which  is  explained  by  nfitanavivS- 
havati  (Ludwig,  loc.  cit.);  the  'three  powers'  are  understood  by 
Madhava  (in  the  commentary  on  Taitt.  Sawh.  IV,  3,  11)  as  Agni, 
Surya,  and  A'andra. 

5.  After  pavamana//  there  is  evidently  a  word  wanting  that 


in    ADIIYAYA,    13    KHANDA,    4.  IO3 

udder  is  (Soma)  Pavamdna  ;  .  .  .  ,  are  the  months 
and  half-months.  Adoration  to  thee,  O  glad-faced 
one !     Svaha !' 

KUANDA    13. 

1.  At  the  middle  (Ash/aka)  and  in  the  middle  of 
the  rainy  season, 

2.  The  four  Mahdvyihr/tis  (and)  the  four  (verses), 
'  They  who  have  thirsted'  (Rig-veda  X,  15,  9  seq.) : 
having  quickly  recited  (these  verses)  he  shall  sacri- 
fice the  omentum ; 

3.  Or  (he  shall  do  so)  with  the  verse,  '  Carry  the 
omentum,  G'atavedas,  to  the  Manes,  where  thou 
knowest  them  in  the  world  of  virtue.  May  streams 
of  fat  flow  to  them  ;  may  the  wishes  of  the  sacrificer 
be  fulfilled.     Svaha  ! ' 

4.  (Then  follow)  the  four  Mahavyahr/tis  (and) 
the  four  (verses),  '  They  who  have  thirsted '  (see 
Sutra  .2)  :  (thus  is  offered)  an  eightfold  oblation  of 
cooked  food,  together  with  the  cut-off  portions. 

indicated  the  limb  of  the  Ash/aka's  body  identified  with  the  months 
and  half-months. 

13,  I.  On  madhyavarsha,  comp.  Weber,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  331, 
337.  Naraya/za  understands  not  'in  the  middle  of  the  rainy 
season,'  but  '  in  the  middle  of  the  year  '  (see  his  note,  p.  1 46  of  the 
German  edition).  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  word  madhya- 
varshe,  given  by  the  JMSS.  here  and  in  Paraskara  III,  3,  13,  and 
explained  by  Narayawa,  is  a  corrupt  reading  which  we  should 
correct  into  maghyavarshe  (' the  festival  celebrated  during  the 
rainy  season  under  the  Nakshatra  Maghas'),  or  something  like  that. 
The  MSS.  of  Ajvalayana-Gr/liya  II,  5,  9  have  maghyavarshaw,  ma- 
ghavarshaw,  mfidhyavarshaw.  Vish;/u  (LXXVI,  i,  comp.  LXXVIII, 
52,  and  Professor  Jolly's  note.  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  VII, 
p.  240)  mentions  '  the  three  Ash/akas,  the  three  Anvash/akas, 
a  Magha  day  which  falls  on  the  thirteenth  of  the  dark  half  of 
the  month  Praush///apada.'  Comp.  Manu  III,  273,  varshasu  Li 
maghasu  X-a;  Ya^navalkya  I,  260. 


104  SANKHAYANA-Gi?/IIYA-Sl)TRA. 


5.  Or,  '  Interposed  are  the  mountains  ;  interposed 
is  the  wide  earth  to  me.  With  the  sky  and  all  the 
points  of  the  horizon  I  interpose  another  one  instead 
of  the  father.     To  N.  N.  svaha ! 

'  Interposed  to  me  are  the  seasons,  and  days  and 
nights,  the  twilight's  children.  With  the  months 
and  half-months  I  interpose  another  one  instead  of 
the  father.     To  N.  N.  svaha  ! 

'  With  the  standing  ones,  with  the  streaming  ones, 
with  the  small  ones  that  flow  about :  with  the  waters, 
the  supporters  of  all  I  interpose  another  one  instead 
of  the  father.     To  N.  N.  svaha  ! 

*  Wherein  my  mother  has  done  amiss,  going  astray, 
faithless  to  her  husband,  that  sperm  may  my  father 
take  as  his  own ;  may  another  one  fall  off  from  the 
mother.  To  N.N.  svaha!' — these  four  (verses) 
instead  of  the  Mahavyahmis,  if  (the  sacrificer)  is  an 
illegitimate  child. 

6.  Or  milk-rice  (should  be  offered). 

7.  On  the  next  day  the  Anvash/akya  ceremony 
(i.e.  ceremony  following  the  Ash/aka)  in  accordance 
with  the  rite  of  the  Vindaphy^zya^ua.. 

KHAiVDA   14. 

1 .  On  the  last  ( Ash/aka)  he  sacrifices  cakes, 

2.  With  the  words,  'The  Ukthya  and  the  Atiratra, 
the  Sadya/^kri  together  with  the  metre — Ash/aki ! 

5.  Instead  of 'N.N.'  (the  text  has  the  feminine  amushyai)  the 
sacrificer  inserts  the  name  of  his  mother.  For  masas,  ardhama- 
sas  I  propose  to  read,  masais,  ardhamasais. 

7.  On  Anvash/akya,  comp.  Biihler,  S.  B.  E.,  XIV,  p.  55 ;  Jolly, 
loc.  cit.,  p.  59. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    14    KIIAiVDA,    6.  IO5 

Preparer  of  cakes !    Adoration  to  thee,  O  glad-faced 
one,     Svaha ! ' 

3.  A  cow  or  a  goat  is  the  animal  (to  be  sacrificed), 
or  a  mess  of  cooked  food  (should  be  offered). 

4.  Or  he  may  optionally  offer  food  to  a  cow. 

5.  Or  he  may  optionally  burn  down  brushwood  in 
the  forest  and  say, '  This  is  my  Ash/aka.' 

6.  But  let  him  not  neglect  to  do  (one  of  these 
things).  But  let  him  not  neglect  to  do  (one  of  these 
things). 

Here  ends  the  Third  Adhyaya. 

14,  3-6.  This  is  one  of  the  passages  which  the  author  has  taken 
iinchanged  from  a  more  ancient  Sutra  ;  see  Asv.  II,  4,  8-1 1  ; 
Gobhila  IV,  i  (end  of  the  chapter).  The  Sutras  do  not  refer,  as 
their  po.ition  would  seem  to  indicate,  to  the  third,  but  to  the 
second  Ash/aka. 

5.  Comp.  Weber,  loc.  cit.,  p.  342,  note  i. 


106  5ANKHAYANA-Gi?/HYA-s{iTRA. 


Adhyaya  IV,  Kkanda  1. 

1.  Let  him  offer  (K^raddha  oblations)  every  month 
to  the  fathers. 

2.  Havine  invited  an  uneven  number  of  Brah- 
ma?2as,  versed  in  the  Veda,  at  least  three,  to  sit 
down  as  (representing)  the  fathers, 


1,1.  Khawf/as  1-4  contain  the  rules  regarding  the  6'raddha  obla- 
tions directed  to  the  Manes.  The  dinners  offered  in  connection 
with  these  6'raddha  sacrifices  to  Brahma^as  and  also  — though 
of  this  of  course  no  notice  is  taken  in  Vedic  texts — to  ^Sramawas 
stood  in  the  first  line  among  the  exhibitions  of  liberality  of  lay 
people  towards  priests  and  monks.  Thus  we  find  among  the 
stock  phrases  that  constantly  reoccur  in  the  Pali  Pi/akas,  the  men- 
tion of  Samawas  and  Brahmawas  '  who  have  eaten  the  food  given 
to  them  out  of  faith'  (saddhadeyyani  bho^anani  bhuw^itva) — 
wherein  the  '  food  given  out  of  faith '  (saddhadeyya)  either  chiefly 
or  exclusively  means  the  6'raddha  dinners,  which  are  so  called 
because  the  sacrificer  gives  them  'full  of  faith '  (jraddhasam- 
anvita,  Manu  III,  275)  to  the  Brahma?/as  and  through  them  to 
the  Manes. 

The  principal  form  of  ^raddha  is  that  treated  of  jn  chap,  i, 
which  is  designated  in  other  texts  (see,  for  instance,  Ajvalayana- 
Gr/hya  IV,  7,  i)  as  parvawa  .rraddha.  There  are,  however, 
besides  the  par  van  of  the  new  moon,  other  times  also  considered 
as  admissible  for  the  performing  of  this  monthly  ^raddha;  see 
Gautama  XV,  2  seq.;  Apastamba  II,  16,  &c.;  and  comp.  on  the 
A-addhas  in  general  the  passages  quoted  by  Professor  Jolly,  Das 
Dharma-sutra  des  Vish«u  (Sitzung  der  Bair.  Akademie,  phil.  Classe, 
7  Juni,  1879),  pp.  46  seq. ;  Max  MuUer,  '  India,  what  can  it  teach 
us?'  pp.  234  seq.,  374  seq. 

2.  '"As  the  fathers  "  means  :  he  invites  the  youngest,  middle- 
aged,  and  eldest  Brahma7/as  to  sit  down  in  the  place  of  the  father, 
the  grandfather,  and  the  great-grandfather '  (Naraya«a).  A  similar 
explanation  of  pitrzVat  is  mentioned  by  Narayawa  on  A^valayana- 


IV    ADIIYAYA,    I    KHAiVDA,    8.  IO7 

3.  And  having  strewn  sesamum  into  an  uneven 
number  of  water-pots, 

4.  He  shall  pour  them  out  over  the  hands  of  the 
Brahmawas,  assigning  (this  gift)  to  them  with  the 
words,  '  N.  N. !    This  to  thee !' 

5.  After  this  they  should  be  adorned; 

6.  And  after  he  has  (respectfully)  spoken  to  them, 
and  has  put  food  into  the  fire, 

7.  Assigning  (the  food)  to  them  with  the  words, 
'  N.  N.!    This  to  thee !'  he  shall  cause  them  to  eat. 

8.  While  they  are  eating,  he  shall  murmur  the 
Mahavyahmis,  the  Savitri,  the  Madhuvatiya-verses 
(Rig-veda  I,  90,  6  seq.),  and  verses  addressed  to 
the  Manes  and  to  (Soma)  Pavamana. 

Grthya.  IV,  7,  2.  My  German  translation  of  this  Sutra  ought  to  be 
altered  accordingly. 

Besides  the  Brahmawas  mentioned  in  this  Sutra,  who  represent 
the  fathers,  according  to  all  the  commentaries,  other  Brahmawas 
had  to  be  invited  as  representing  the  Vijve  devas.  Narayawa  gives 
detailed  statements  as  to  the  number  of  the  paitr?'ka  and  of  the 
daivika  Brahma7;as  to  be  invited,  and  though  at  first  sight  a  Euro- 
pean reader  would  rather  be  inclined  to  doubt  whether  at  the 
6>addha  ceremony,  as  the  author  of  the  text  intended  to  describe 
it,  any  Brahmawas  at  all  had  to  be  present  except  the  paitrzTcas, 
the  Sutra  2,  5  shows  that  the  commentators  are  quite  right  in  their 
statements  regarding  both  categories  of  Brahmawas. 

5-7.  It  would  be  more  natural  to  alter  the  division  of  the 
SOtras,  so  as  to  bring  amantrya  in  the  fifth,  anna?"*  >{'a  in  the 
seventh  Sutra.  In  this  case  we  should  have  to  translate : 
5.  After  this,  having  (respectfully)  spoken  to  them  who  have  been 
adorned  (by  him  with  flowers,  ornaments,  «fec.)  ;  6.  And  having 
put  (food)  into  the  fire,  7.  And  having  assigned  the  food  to  them, 
&c.,  he  shall  cause  them  to  eat. — The  respectful  address  mentioned 
in  the  fifth  Sutra  consists,  according  to  Narayawa,  in  the  announce- 
ment, '  Ye  Brahma7;as,  I  will  put  (food)  into  the  fire  1 '  (comp.  A^v.- 
Gr/hya  IV,  7,  18),  which  he  subsequently  does  with  the  formulas, 
'To  Agni  Kavyavahana  svaha !  To  Soma  Pitr/mat  svaha  1  To 
Yama  Ahgirasvat  Pit/Vmat  svaha  1'  Comp.  Baudhayana  II,  14,  8. 


I08  i-ANKHAYANA-GiJ/HYA-S^'TRA. 

9.  When  they  have  finished  with  eating,  he  shall 
offer  the  lumps  (of  flour). 

10.  Before  (their  dinner  he  shall  offer)  the  lumps, 
according  to  some  (teachers). 

1 1 .  Behind  (these  he  places  the  lumps)  for  their 
wives,  putting  something  between  (these  and  the 
preceding  ones). 

12.  To  the  Brahma;/as  he  shall  announce  the 
remnants. 

13.  The  rites  of  the  putting  (of  food)  into  the 
fire  (see  Siitra  6),  &c.  have  been  declared  (in  the 
K^rauta-sutra)  by  the  F'mda.pitrty2i£-ila. 

Khatvda  2. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  Ekoddish/a  (i.e.  the  ^'raddha 
ceremony  directed  to  a  single  dead  person), 

2.  With  one  strainer, 

3.  One  (pot  of)  Argha-water, 

4.  One  lump  (of  flour). 

5.  No  inviting  (takes  place  here),  nor  the  putting 

9.  As  to  the  way  in  which  the  Pi^^^as  should  be  offered,  Nara- 
ya«a  refers  to  the  iS'rauta-sutra  (IV,  4). 

10,  II.  Findan  evidently  belongs  to  the  tenth  Sutra,  not,  as  the 
Indian  tradition  takes  it,  to  the  eleventh.  Between  the  Pi«</as  of 
the  fathers  and  those  belonging  to  the  mothers  he  puts,  according 
to  Naraya;?a,  for  instance,  Darbha  grass. 

13.  iSrauta-sutra  IV,  3  seq. 

2,  I.  Eka  uddish/o  yasmin  jraddhe  tad  ekoddish/am 
(Nar.).  This  is  the  kind  of  -5'raddha  sacrifice  which  is  to  be  per- 
formed for  one  twice-born  during  the  first  year  after  his  death  ;  see 
Manu  III,  247  ;  Y%navalkya  I,  250. 

3.  This  rule  about  the  Argha  water  corresponds  to  those  given 
with  regard  to  the  Parvawa  ^'raddha  in  the  Sutras  3  and  4  of  the 
preceding  chapter. 

5.  'Because  the  avahana  (inviting)  is  forbidden  here,  it  follows 


IV    ADIIYAVA,    3    KIIAiVDA,     I.  IO9 

(of  food)  into  the  fire,  nor  (do)  the  Vi^ve  devas  (take 
part  in  this  ceremony).  '  Rehshed  ?' — thus  are  they 
to  be  asked  whether  they  are  satiated.  *  May  it 
approach  (the  fathers),'  instead  of  '  imperishable.' 

6.  '  Be  satisfied,'  when  sending  them  away. 

7.  Thus  through  one  year,  when  one  has  died. 

8.  And  (then)  omission  of  the  fourth  one. 

KllANDA   3. 

I.  Now  (follows)  the  Sapi//^ikara;^a  (i.e.  reception 
of  a  dead  person  into  the  community  of  Pi;/^a- 
offerings  with  the  other  Manes). 


that  it  must  take  place  at  the  Parvawa  6'raddha '  (Nar.).  According 
to  RamaX-andra's  Paddhati  he  shall  say  to  the  Brahma«as,  '  I  will 
invite  hither  the  fathers;'  and  when  they  give  their  consent,  he 
invites  them  with  Rig-veda  X,  16,  12.  Comp.  Ya^jlavalkya  I,  232 
seq.,  &c.  Regarding  the  Vijve  devas  comp.  the  note  on  chap,  1,2; 
as  to  the  tir;ptaprajna  (the  question  whether  they  are  satiated) 
comp.  Manu  III,  251;  Yagil.  I,  240.  At  the  Parva//a  ^raddha, 
after  the  Brahmawas  have  finished  their  dinner  and  rinsed  their 
mouths,  and  after  the  Vindas  have  been  offered,  the  sacrificer  says, 
'  May  what  has  been  given  at  this  ^raddha  to  our  father  N.  N., 
who  belongs  to  the  gotra  N.N.,  be  imperishable !'  (comp.  Ya^«.  I, 
242.)  This  phrase  is  to  be  altered  at  the  Ekoddish/a  ^raddha  in 
the  way  indicated  in  this  Siitra. 

8.  After  the  Ekoddish/a  6'raddha  has  been  performed  for  a  dead 
person  during  the  first  year  after  his  death,  he  is  to  be  admitted,  by 
the  SapiWikarawa  ceremony,  among  the  other  INIanes,  and  receives 
thenceforward  his  VwdA  together  with  them  at  the  ordinary  Par- 
va«a  6'raddha.  As  the  ritual  of  this  .Sraddha  requires  that  the 
number  of  the  '  fathers '  worshipped  should  be  three,  the  accession 
of  a  new  person  makes  necessary  the  omission  of  the  pra-pra- 
pilamaha,  who  has  now  become  fourth  among  the  fathers. 

3,  I.  It  appears  to  me  that  this  whole  chapter  is  a  later  addition 
to  the  original  text.  The  last  Sfitra  of  the  preceding  chapter, 
treating  of  the  omission  of  the  fourth  '  father,'  which  forms,  as 
shown  in  the  preceding  note,  a  consequence  of  the  Sapiwa'ikarawa, 


1 1  o  ^ankhayana-g/j/hya-siOtra. 


2.  When  one  year  has  elapsed,  or  three  half- 
months, 

3.  Or  on  a  day  when  something  good  happens, 

4.  He  fills  four  water-pots  with  sesamum,  scents, 
and  water, 

5.  Three  for  the  fathers,  one  for  the  (newly)  dead 
person, 

6.  And  pours  the  pot  that  belongs  to  the  (newly) 
dead  person  out  into  the  pots  of  the  fathers  with 
the  two  verses,  '  They  who  commonly '  (Va^asaneyi 
Sawhita  XIX,  45.  46). 

7.  Thus  also  the  lump  (of  flour). 

8.  This  is  the  Sapi;^^ikara;2a. 

Khaa^da  4. 

I.  Now  (follows)  the  Abhyudayika  (i.e.  the  ^'rad- 
dha  ceremony  referring  to  good  luck). 


supposes  this  ceremony  to  be  known  and  to  require  no  special 
explanation.  Had  the  intention  of  the  author  been  to  treat  of  the 
Sapi;;f/ikara;za,  this  would  have  been  the  right  place  for  mentioning 
the  /^aturthavisarga,  and  not,  as  we  really  read  it,  the  end  of  the 
chapter  treating  of  the  Ekoddish/a.  As  pointing  in  the  same  direc- 
tion I  will  mention  that  the  6ambavya-Gnhya,  while  giving  the 
first,  second,  and  fourth  chapter  of  this  Adhyaya,  omits  the  third. 
Finally  it  seems  decisive  to  me  that  the  fifth  (Parij'ish/a)  book  of 
the  ^-ahkhayana-Gr/hya  treats  of  the  Sapiwrt'ikarawa  in  a  whole 
chapter  (V,  9),  which  shows  that  the  text  itself,  as  the  author  of 
the  Parijish/a  read  it,  gave  no  exposition  of  this  ceremony. 

2.  Narayawa  says  that  tripaksha  means  either  three  pakshas, 
i.  e.  one  month  and  a  half,  or  one  paksha  deficient  by  three  days, 
i.  e.  twelve  days.  We  need  not  say  that  the  latter  explanation  is 
inadmissible ;  it  evidently  rests  on  a  wrong  conclusion  drawn  from 
a  passage  of  another  Sutra  quoted  by  him,  in  which  it  is  stated  that 
the  Sapi«^ikara«a    should  be   performed   sawvatsarante  dva- 

da^ahe  va. 

4,  I.  The  Abhyudayika  ^raddha  has  to  be  performed  on  such 


IV    ADIIYAYA,    4    KHAJVZJA,     1 4.  Ill 

2.  In  the  fortnight  of  the  increasing  moon,  on  an 
auspicious  day, 

3.  After  the  sacrifice   to  the  mothers  has  been 
performed, 

4.  And  an  even  number  of  (Brahma;^as)  versed  in 
the  Veda  have  been  invited  to  sit  down  ; 

5.  In  the  forenoon  ; 

6.  The  rite  is  performed  from  left  to  right. 

7.  The  murmuring  with  the  omission  of  the  verses 
belonging  to  the  Manes. 

8.  The  Darbha  blades  are  straight. 

9.  Barley  is  to  be  used  instead  of  sesamum. 

10.  The  lumps  are  mixed  with  curds,  jujube  fruits, 
fried  grain. 

1 1.  On  inviting  (the  Manes,  he  should  say),  '  The 
Nandimukha  (glad-faced  ?)  Manes  will  I  invite.' 

12.  'May  the    Nandimukha   Manes  be  rejoiced,' 
instead  of '  imperishable.' 

13.  'The  Nandimukha  Manes  will  I  make  speak,' 
when  he  makes  (the  Brahma;zas)  speak. 

14.  '(Was  it)  well  done?' — thus  are  they  to  be 
asked  whether  they  are  satiated. 

occasions  as  the  birth  of  a  son,  the  marriage  of  a  son  or  a  daughter, 
the  performance  of  ceremonies  such  as  the  namakarman,  X:uf/a- 
karman,  &c.     See  Ya^Ttavalkya  I,  249. 

3.  A  6Vaddha  ceremony  directed  to  the  mothers  here  precedes 
that  consecrated  to  the  fathers. 

6.  Professor  Stenzler's  translation  of  Yao-favalkya,  loc.  cit.  (pra- 
dakshi«avr/tka  =  die  Ehrfurcht  bcobachtend),  has  to  be  corrected 
according  to  this  SQtra. 

7.  See  chap,  i,  8.  9,  See  chap,  i,  3. 

1 1.  Concerning  the  'invitation' (avahana) sec  the  note  on  chap.  2,5. 

12.  See  chap.  2,  5  and  the  note  there. 

13.  '  When  he  causes  them  to  say  Svadha.'  Naraya«a.  Comp. 
Asv.-Gnhya.  IV,  7,  30. 

14.  Comp.  chap.  2,  5. 


I  I  2  SANKHAYANA-G/i/HYA-SUTRA. 

15.  The  rest  is  the  same  (as  in  the  other  kinds  of 
KSraddha  rites),  as  far  as  it  is  not  prohihited  (by 
contrary  rules). 

Khaa^da  5. 

1 .  Now  (follows)  the  Upakara/^a  (i.  e.  the  ceremony 
by  which  the  annual  course  of  study  is  opened). 

2.  When  the  herbs  appear,  under  the  Nakshatra 
Hasta  or  6'rava;m, 

3.  Let  him  make  oblations  of  the  flour  of  fried 
barley  and  of  grains,  mixed  with  curds  and  ghee, 
with  the  (whole)  Veda,  verse  by  verse  :  thus  say 
some  (teachers). 

4.  Or  with  the  first  verses  of  the  Sliktas  and 
Anuvakas. 

5.  With  the  first  verses  of  the  Adhyayas  and  of 
the  sections  belonging  to  the  (different)  Rishis,  ac- 
cording to  Ma;^^ukeya. 

6.  But  Kaushitaki  has  said  : 

7.  '  I  praise  Agni  the  Purohita'  (Rig-veda  I,  i,  1), 
this  one  verse, 

8.  *  The  Kushumbhaka  (mungoose  ?)  has  said  it ;' 
*  If  thou  criest,  O  bird,  announce  luck  to  us  ; '  '  Sung 
by  6^amadagni ; '  '  I  n  thy  abode  the  w4iole  world  rests ; ' 

5,  I.  As  to  the  Upakarawa,  see  the  statements  of  Professor 
Weber  in  his  second  article  on  the  Nakshatras,  Abhandlungen  der 
Berliner  Akademie,  1861,  p.  338,  and  of  Professor  Biihler  in  his 
notes  on  Apastamba,  S.  B.  E.,  II,  pp.  no,  in. 

2.  The  Nakshatra  ^ravawa  is  evidently  considered  as  particu- 
larly fit  for  this  occasion  because  of  its  name  containing  an  allusion 
to  jruti,  &c. 

4.  I  have  followed  Narayawa,  but  perhaps  I  ought  to  have  trans- 
lated, '  Suktas  or  Anuvakas,'  and  in  the  fifth  Siitra,  'Adhyayas  or 
the  sections,  &c.' 


IV  ADHYAYA,    5  KHANDA,   1 3.  II3 

'  Come  to  our  sacrifice,  O  you  that  are  worthy  of 
sacrifice,  with  care;'  'Whosoever,  be  he  ours,  be  he 
alien;'  'Look  on,  look  about;'  'Come  here,  Agni, 
the  Maruts'  friend;'  '  The  oblation,  O  king,  cooked 
for  thee  :'  each  time  two  verses, 

9.  '  That  blessing  and  bliss  we  choose ' — this  one 
verse  (the  first  and  last  verse  of  each  Ma;^fl^ala). 

10.  (Taking  something)  of  the  remnants  of  the 
sacrificed  (food)  they  partake  of  that  sacrificial  food 
with  this  (verse),  '  I  praised  Dadhikravan'  (Rig- 
veda  IV,  39,  6). 

1 1 .  They  sip  water,  sit  down, 

12.  Murmur  the  Mahavyahretis,  the  Savitri,  and 
the  auspicious  hymns  commencing  from  the  beginning 
of  the  Veda, 

1 3.  And  cause  the  teacher  to  pronounce  auspicious 
wishes, 

9,  According  to  Kaushitaki,  the  oblations  are  made  with  the  first 
and  last  n'ia.s  of  each  Maw^ala.  The  last  ri'k  of  the  tenth  Ma.nda.ld. 
quoted  here,  ta/^  l:/ia.m  yor  a  vrz'wimahe,  is  different  from  the 
verse  with  which  our  Sawhita  (the  6'akala  Sawhita  of  the  Rig-veda) 
closes.  It  is  well  known  that  ta/l'  k/i^?u  yor  a  v?-/;/imahe  is  the 
last  verse  in  the  Bashkala  6'akha  which  was  adopted  by  the  ^Sankha- 
yana  school  (comp.  Indische  Sludien,  IV,  431;  Weber,  Verzeich- 
niss  der  Berliner  Sanskrit-Handschriften,  p.  314,  &c. ;  Indische 
Literaturgeschichte,  second  edition,  Nachtrag,  p.  2).  It  was  also 
known  long  since  that  the  Bashkala  Sakha,  of  the  Rig-veda  con- 
tains eight  hymns  more  than  the  6'akala  6'akha.  The  A^arawavyQha 
Bhashya  (comp.  Dr.  von  Schrocder's  Introduction  to  his  excellent 
edition  of  the  IMaitrayawi  Sawhita,  vol.  i,  p.  xxiv),  known  to  me 
through  the  kindness  of  Professor  Weber,  tells  which  eight  hymns 
these  are.  There  it  is  said  (folio  22  of  Professor  Weber's  IMS.) 
that  in  the  Bashkala  Sawhita  there  followed  after  VIII,  48  the  first 
two  of  the  Valakhilya  hymns,  after  VIII,  94  the  Valakhilya  hymns 
3-7,  and  at  the  end  of  the  whole  collection  the  so-called  saw^jr^ftana 
hymn  (see  Professor  Max  Miiller's  edition,  vol.  vi,  p.  32),  which  ends 
with  the  very  verse  quoted  in  our  Siitra,  ta/t  k/inffi  yor  a  vri- 
wimahe. 

[29]  I 


114  S'ANKHAYANA-G/^/HYA-StjTRA. 

14.  Of  this  (ceremony)  it  is  also  said, 

15.  'Desirous  (of  acquiring)  for  the  hymns  in- 
exhaustible vigour,  reverence,  and  also  soundness, 
the  Ri^\\s,  by  the  power  of  their  austerities,  have 
discovered  the  Upakarman. 

1 6.  '  Therefore  a  constant  performer  of  the  six 
kinds  of  works  should,  in  order  that  his  Mantras 
might  be  successful,  perform  the  Upakarman — so  they 
say — if  he  wishes  for  success  of  his  (holy)  works. 

17.  'At  the  time  of  the  Upakarman  and  of  the 
Utsarga  an  interruption  (of  the  Veda-study)  shall 
take  place  for  (three  days  and)  three  nights,  likewise 
at  the  Ash/akas  for  one  day  and  one  night,  and  so  on 
the  last  night  of  each  season.' 

Kha^vda  6. 

1.  On  the  first  day  of  the  bright  fortnight  of 
Magha, 

2.  To  the  north-east, 

3.  In  a  place  covered  with  herbs, 

4.  Having  murmured  the  hymns  sacred  to  the 
Sun,  'Upwards  that  6^atavedas'  (Rig-veda  I,  50), 
'The  bright  face  of  the  gods'  (I,  115),  'Adoration 
to  Mitra's  (eye)'  (X,  37),  '  From  the  sky  (where  he 
dwells)  may  Stjrya  protect  us'  (X,  1 58), 

16.  The  six  kinds  of  works  are,  performing  sacrifices  (ya^g^ana), 
officiating  at  the  sacrifices  of  others  (ya^^^ana),  studying  the  Veda 
(adhyayana),  teaching  the  Veda  to  others  (adhyapana),  giving  (dana), 
and  accepting  gifts  (pratigraha).     Narayawa. 

17.  Concerning  the  Utsarga,  see  chap.  6.  This  -Sloka  occurs 
also  Manu  IV,  119  with  the  reading  kshepa«am  instead  ofksha- 
pawam  ('kshapawaw/  y^/;andasaw  virama  anadhyaya^,'  Narayawa). 
Kshapawam  is  correct. 

6,  I .  This  Khawrt'a  treats  of  the  Utsarga,  i.  e.  the  ceremony  per- 
formed at  the  end  of  the  term. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    7   KllANDA,   7.  I  I  5 


5.  And  having  thrown  clods  of  earth  (on  the 
ground)  to  the  different  quarters  (of  the  horizon), 
from  the  left  to  the  right,  with  the  hymn,  *  A  ruler 
indeed'  (Rig-veda  X,  152),  verse  by  verse, 

6.  And  having  satiated  (with  water)  the  ^zshis,  the 
metres,  the  deities,  faith  and  insight,  and  the  fathers 
man  by  man, 

7.  They  interrupt  (the  study  of)  the  hymns  for 
six  months  and  a  half, 

8.  Or  for  five  and  a  half. 

9.  But  if  they  (wish  to)  recite  them  (nevertheless), 
let  the  recitation  go  on  after  a  pause  of  one  day  and 
one  niirht. 

Kuan  DA  7. 

1.  Now  the  interruption  (of  the  Veda  recitation): — 

2.  In  the  case  of  prodigies  until  the  same  time 
(next  day), 

3.  And  in  the  case  of  other  miracles ; 

4.  In  the  case  of  lightning,  thunder,  and  rains 
(the  recitation  shall  be  interrupted)  till  the  twilight 
has  thrice  passed; 

5.  At  a  K^raddha-dinner  for  one  day  ; 

6.  If  a  death  (of  relations)  or  birth  has  happened, 
for  ten  days ; 

7.  On  the  fourteenth  days  (of  the  fortnights),  the 
new  moon  days,  and  the  Ash/aka  days, 

6.  On  the  tarpa»a,  comp.  chaps.  9  and  10. 

7,  2.  The  translation  of  akalam  given  in  my  German  edition 
(Wahrcnd  der  betreffcnden  Zeit)  is  wrong  :  comp.  the  commentary 
there  quoted  at  p.  150;  Gautama  XVI,  22;  Professor  Stenzlefs 
note  on  Paraskara  II,  11,  2. 

6.  Agha;«  sapi«</asodakayor  marawaw.    Narayawa. 

7.  According  to  Narayawa  the  ki\  at  the  end  of  this  Sutra  would 

I  2 


Il6  5ANKHAYANA-Gi?/riYA-sOTRA. 

8.  And  on  misty  days, 

9.  And  when  the  teacher  has  died,  for  ten  days  ; 

10.  When  he  has  heard  of  it,  for  three  days  ; 

11.  And  (on  the  death)  of  those  whose  family- 
head  he  is. 

12.  On  receiving  (gifts)  as  at  the  6'raddha. 

13.  On  (the  death  of)  a  fellow-student ; 

14.  When  he  has  followed  (the  funeral  of)  a  dead 
person, 

15.  And  when  he  has  laid  down  the  lumps  of 
flour  to  the  fathers. 

16.  At  night  ; 

1 7.  During  twilight ; 

18.  On  the  full  and  change  of  the  moon ; 

19.  After  sunset ; 

20.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  a  ^'lidra  ; 

21.  When  the  sound  of  a  Saman  is  heard  ; 

22.  On  a  burial  ground  ; 

be  intended  to  convey  the  meaning  that  on  the  pratipad  days  of 
each  fortnight  the  study  should  also  be  interrupted. 

8.  The  translation  of  nabhya  is  quite  conjectural.  Naraya«a 
gives  a  different  meaning  to  this  word;  comp.  p.  150  of  the 
German  edition. 

1 1 .  A>('aryaputradaya/;.     Naraya^za. 

21.  The  reason  why  the  recitation  of  the  Rig-veda  is  forbidden 
when  the  sound  of  a  Saman  is  heard,  becomes  manifest,  for  in- 
stance, from  Apastamba  I,  10,  7,  where  the  discontinuance  of  the 
Veda-study  is  prescribed  when  the  barking  of  dogs,  the  braying  of 
asses,  the  cry  of  a  wolf,  &c.,  the  sound  of  musical  instruments,  of 
weeping,  and  of  a  Saman  is  heard.  Loud  sounds  like  these  would 
disturb  the  recitation  of  Rik  or  Ya^us  texts.  A  very  curious  opi- 
nion has  been  recently  brought  forward  by  Professor  Aufrecht  (see 
his  edition  of  the  Rig-veda,  second  edition,  vol.  ii,  p.  xxxviii)  that 
the  incompatibility  of  the  recitation  of  Rik  hymns  and  of  Samans 
'  beruht  auf  der  Kenntniss  von  der  Willkiir  und  der  zum  Theil 
unwurdigen  Weise,  in  welcher  der  alte  Text  des  Rig-veda  in  diesem 
Gesangbuche  (i.  e.  the  Samavcdar/(-ika)  behandelt  ist.' 


IV  ADIIYAYA,    7  KUANDA,  47.  II7 

23.  In  a  wilderness  which  belongs  to  the  village ; 

24.  In  a  village  where  a  corpse  is  ; 

25.  On  seeing  forbidden  sights; 

26.  On  hearing  what  is  forbidden  ; 

27.  On  smelling  a  foul  smell ; 

28.  If  a  high  wind  blows  ; 

29.  If  a  cloud  emits  (heavy)  rain  ; 

30.  On  a  carriage  road  ; 

31.  And  while  the  sound  of  a  lute  is  heard  ; 

32.  While  being  on  a  chariot  ; 

2,3.  (In  the  neighbourhood)  of  a  dog  as  (in  that) 
of  a  ^udra ; 

34.  Having  climbed  up  a  tree; 

35.  Having  descended  into  a  pit ; 

36.  (Immersed)  in  water; 

37.  While  anybody  cries  ; 

38.  While  suffering  bodily  pain  ; 

39.  While  he  is  naked  ; 

40.  Whilst  impure  with  the  remnants  of  food  ; 

41.  On  a  bridge  ; 

42.  On  the  occasion  of  the  shaving  of  the  hair 
and  the  beard  until  the  bath ; 

43.  While  being  rubbed  ; 

44.  While  bathing  ; 

45.  When  having  sexual  intercourse  ; 

46.  While  being  anointed  ; 

47.  (In  the  neighbourhood)  of  a  man  who  has  to 
touch  corpses  (a  corpse-bearer,  &c.),  of  a  woman  that 
has  recently  been  confined,  or  that  has  her  courses, 
as  (in  the  neighbourhood)  of  a  ^Sudra  ; 

23.  Gramarawye  gramam  (read,  grama?)  evarawyaw  vanaw  tatra 
nSdhiyita.     Narayawa. 

29.  Except  during  the  rainy  season.     Naraya«a. 

45.  Narayawa  also  understands  maithuna,  and  I  think  that  the 
German  translation  ought  to  be  corrected  accordingly. 


Il8  5ANKIIAYANA-G/^HYA-SUTRA. 

48.  With  veiled  hands  ; 

49.  In  an  army  ; 

50.  In  presence  of  a  Brahma;^a  who  has  not  had 
his  meal,  and  of  cows  (that  have  eaten  nothing)  ; 

51.  When  (these  impediments)  have  passed,  let 
them  (continue  to)  recite  (the  Veda). 

52.  Should  any  of  these  cases  arise  against  his 
will,  let  him  (continue  to)  recite  after  having  held  his 
breath  and  looked  at  the  sun. 

53.  (The  same  rules  hold  good,)  except  (those 
regarding)  lightning,  thunder,  and  rain,  for  (the  study 
of)  the  Kalpa.  During  the  five  months  and  a  half 
(they  have  to  behave)  as  while  it  rains. 

54.  Thereof  it  is  also  said, 

55.  '  Food,  water,  roots  and  fruits,  and  whatsoever 
else  6'raddha-food  there  may  be  :  even  when  he  has 
(only)  accepted  thereof,  the  study  should  be  inter- 
rupted ;  the  Brahma?2a's  hand  is  his  mouth ;  so  it  is 
taught.' 


53.  I  think  that  this  Sutra  contains  two  different  rules  which 
have  to  be  separated,  viz.  i.  vidyutstanayitnuvarshavar^awz 
kalpe;  2.  varshavad  ardhashash///eshu.  The  first  of  these 
rules  would  extend  the  cases  of  anadhyaya  mentioned  in  this 
chapter  to  the  study  of  the  Kalpa-sutra,  except  the  cases  of  light- 
ning, rain,  &c.  The  second  would  refer  to  the  five  months  and  a 
half  following  on  the  Utsarga  ceremony  (comp.  chap.  6,  8),  and 
would  imply  that  during  this  time  the  same  texts  are  to  be  studied 
or  not,  according  as  their  study  is  allowed  or  forbidden  during 
rainfall :  i.  e.  the  study  of  the  Sawhita  is  to  be  discontinued,  while 
that  of  the  Kalpa  is  allowed  to  go  on.  RamaX'andra  and  Nara- 
yawa  differ  from  this  interpretation;  see  p.  151  of  the  German 
edition. 

55.  Comp.  Manu  IV,  117;  Vasish///a  XIII,  16. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    8  KHAA^DA,    1 6.  II9 


KHAiVZ»A    8. 

1.  And  to  (students)  who  have  been  duly  initiated 
he  shall  set  forth  (the  Veda) ; 

2.  The  teacher  sitting  to  the  east  or  to  the  north, 
the  other  one  to  the  south,  with  his  face  turned  to 
the  north. 

3.  Or  two  (students  shall  be  so  seated). 

4.  But  more  (than  two)  as  there  is  room  (for  them). 

5.  He  should  not  sit  on  a  high  seat  in  presence  of 
a  Guru, 

6.  Nor  on  the  same  seat  (with  him), 

7.  Nor  with  outstretched  feet, 

8.  Nor  stretching  his  arms  under  his  knees, 

9.  Nor  leaning  his  body  (against  a  support), 

10.  Nor  forming  with  his  feet  a  lap, 

1 1.  Nor  holding  his  feet  like  an  axe. 

12.  After  (the  student)  has  said,  'Recite,  sir!'  the 
teacher  shall  cause  him  to  pronounce  the  syllable  Om. 

13.  '  Om,'  replies  the  other. 

14.  Thereafter  let  him  recite  uninterruptedly. 

15.  When  he  has  recited,  he  embraces  (his  teacher's 
feet), 

16.  Says,  'We  have  finished,  sir!'  and  (goes  away) 
accordinof  to  his  business.  , 

8, 1.  Nyayenaj-ishyadharmewa  upeUl//  praptas  tebhya^  jishycbhyo 
vartayed  adhyayanam  aidrya./i  pravartayct.     Naraya//a. 

11.  Ivan\fi3.m  ku///arikaiiipa/«  kr/lva  na  paZ/tcd  ity  arlha/^. 
Naraya«a. 

12.  The  words  adhihi  bho  (recite,  sir!)  are  pronounced  by 
the  student ;  this  follows  from  the  passages  quoted  in  the  note  on 
II,  5,  10.  Narayawa  slates  that  those  words  are  pronounced  by  the 
teacher  (a/taryo  guru//  jishyam  adhyapanarlham  adhihi  bho  3  iti 
jabdam  uktva  .  .  .). 


I  20  5ANKHAYANA-G22/HYA-S^TRA. 

17.  (He  shall  say,)  '  Leave !  Pause  meanwhile  ! ' 
according  to  some  (teachers). 

18.  Let  no  one  step  between  (a  teacher  and 
students)  who  study. 

19.  Let  no  one  change  his  place  during  the 
recitation. 

20.  Should  any  fault  be  committed,  let  him  fast 
three  days,  or  one  day  and  one  night,  repeat  the 
Savitri  as  long  as  he  can,  and  give  something  to  the 
Brahma;2as ;  then  after  an  interruption  of  one  day 
and  one  night  the  study  should  go  on. 

KUANDA   9. 

1.  Having  bathed, 

2.  And  having  submerged  himself  at  the  time 
prescribed  for  the  bath,  he  satiates  the  deities  : 

19.  The  translation  of  atmanaw  vipariharet  is  conjectural; 
comp.  also  N£iraya?;a's  note,  p.  151  of  the  German  edition. 

9,  I.  It  is  not  expressly  stated  in  our  text  for  what  occasion  the 
tarpa^^a  (i.e.  satiating  of  deities,  i?zshis,  &c.  with  water-offerings), 
which  is  treated  of  in  chap.  9-10,  shall  be  prescribed.  The  com- 
parison of  Baudhayana  11,  9  might  perhaps  lead  us  to  believe  that 
the  ceremony  in  question  is  to  be  performed  whenever  the  sacrificer 
takes  a  bath.  But  the  two  texts  which  are  most  closely  connected 
with  ours,  the  6'ambavya  and  Ai'valayana  Grzliyas,  seem  to  point 
clearly  to  another  conclusion.  The  -Sambavya-sutra  transposes 
the  rules  about  the  tarpawa  to  the  place  which  would  correspond 
to  Sutra  II,  7,  28  of  our  text.  The  passage  of  the  -Sambavya- 
sfitra  runs  thus:  mule  kundz/n  kr/tva  yathoktam  adbhi^ 
parishi?iy^aty  athemas  (so  the  MS.)  tarpayati  Agni^  Pra^a- 
patir  Virupaksha-^,  &c.  It  ends:  pitara/^  pitamaha//  pra- 
pitamaha/i  Paila/2  Kaho/a>^  KaushitakaA  (sic)  Kaho/aya 
Kaushitakaye  svadhastv  iti  pratipurusha/^  (sic)  pitrfms 
tarpayitva.  The  last  words  are  taken  from  the  SiJtra  IV,  6, 
6  of  our  text.  Thus  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  6'ambavya 
intended   to  prescribe   the   tarpawa  for   the   conclusion   of  the 


IV  ADIIYAyA,    9  KIIAA^ZJA,  3.  12  1 


3.  'Agni  may  satiate  himself;  Vayu  may  satiate 
himself;  SCirya  may  satiate  himself;  Vish;m  may 
satiate  himself;  Pra^apati  may  satiate  himself;  Viru- 
paksha  may  satiate  himself;  Sahasraksha  may  satiate 
himself ;  Soma,  Brahman,  the  Vedas,  the  gods,  the 
y?/shis,  and  all  the  metres,  the  word  Om,  the  word 
VASiiAr,  the  Mahavyahr/tis,  the  Savitrt,  the  sacri- 
fices, heaven  and  earth,  the  Nakshatras,  the  air, 
days  and  nights,  the  numbers,  the  twilights,  the 
oceans,  the  rivers,  the  mountains,  fields,  herbs,  trees, 
Gandharvas  and  Apsaras,  the  serpents,  the  birds, 
the  Siddhas,  the  Sadhyas,  the  Vipras,  the  Yakshas, 
the  Rakshas,  the  beings  that  have  these  (Rakshas, 
&c.)  at  their  end,  may  satiate  themselves. 

'  I  satiate  the  ^'ruti ;  I  satiate  the  Smr/ti ;  I 
satiate  the  firmness ;   I  satiate  the  delight ;   I  satiate 


vedadhyayana.  The  same  can  be  said  of  A^valayana,  who  also 
by  the  position  which  he  assigns  to  the  tarpawa  sections  (III,  4) 
brings  it  into  a  similar  connection  with  the  vedadhyayana  (see 
Narayawa's  commentary  on  ksv.,  loc.  cit.).  We  may  also  refer  to 
the  treatise  about  the  study  of  the  Arawyaka,  which  is  appended  to 
the  ^ahkhayana-G/vliya  as  its  sixth  book;  there  the  tarpawa  is 
mentioned  quite  in  the  same  connection  (VI,  6, 10  seq.).  I  believe, 
therefore,  that  in  our  text,  chapters  9  and  10  have  found  their  place 
here  as  a  sort  of  supplementary  addition  to  chap.  6,  6,  just  as  in 
the  first  book  the  list  of  Nakshatras  seems  hkewise  appended  to 
the  Sutra  I,  25,  5. 

According  to  Narayawa,  snata//  in  the  first  Sfitra  would  refer  to 
the  bath  which  forms  part  of  the  Samavartana  ceremony  (see  III, 
I,  i),  so  that  it  would  be  the  Gr/hastha,  who  has  taken  the  Sama- 
vartana bath,  to  whom  the  following  rules  refer. 

3.  Comp.  the  similar  lists  of  A^valayana,  Grihya.  Ill,  4  ;  ^am- 
bavya,  quoted  in  my  German  edition  of  6'ankhayana,  p.  153  ;  and 
Baudhayana  II,  9  (S.  B.  E.,  vol.  xiv,  pp.  252  seq.).  The  last 
seems  to  be  the  most  modern. 

It  should  be  observed  that  the  section  of  the  list  contained  in 
this  Sfitra,  as  well  as  that  given  below,  chap.  10,  3,  is  divided  into 


122  5ANKHAYANA-Gi?/HYA-sOTRA. 


the  success  ;  I  satiate  the  thought ;  I  satiate  beHef 
and  insight,  and  the  memory,  cows  and  Brahma^^as, 
movable  and  immovable  things.  All  beings  may 
satiate  themselves!' — so  far  with  the  sacrificial  cord 
suspended  over  the  left  shoulder. 

KHAiVDA   10. 

1.  Now  with  the  sacrificial  cord  suspended  over 
the  right  shoulder, 

2.  Looking  in  the  direction  that  belongs  to  the 
Manes  (i.e.  the  south) : 

3.  'The  (7?/shis)  of  the  hundred  (i?/Zas),  the 
(/?zshis)  of  the  middle  (Ma/^rt'alas),  Gmsamada, 
Vi^vamitra,  G'amadagni,  Vamadeva,  Atri,  Bharad- 
va^a,  Vasish///a,  the  Pragathas,  the  (i^zshis)  of  the 
Pavamana  hymns,  the  (/?zshis)  of  the  short  hymns 
and  of  the  long  hymns,  Sumantu,  6^aimini,  Vai- 
^ampayana,  Paila,  the  Sutras,  the  Bhashyas,  Gargya, 
Babhru,  Babhravya,  MAiidn,  Ma;^^avya,  Gargi  Va- 

two  parts,  in  the  first  of  which  the  name  of  the  being  to  be  wor- 
shipped is  given  in  the  nominative  case,  with  the  verb  tr/pyatu, 
while  in  the  second  it  stands  in  the  accusative,  with  the  verb  tar- 
pay  ami.  The  first  part  of  this  section  contains  tlie  names  of  gods 
and  of  divine  beings,  such  as  the  rivers,  the  mountains,  &c. ;  in  the 
second  part  are  found  abstract  quahties  or  notions,  such  as  mati, 
dhrzti,  j-ruti.  Similarly  in  chapter  10,  3  the  Vedic  poets,  a  few 
ancient  teachers,  and  wise  women,  such  as  Gargi  or  Sulabha,  form 
the  first  part  of  the  list,  and  then  follow,  in  the  accusative  case,  the 
names  of  such  doctors  as  ^ahkhayana,  A^valayana,  6'akalya.  In 
A^valayana's  SiJtra  of  the  first  of  our  two  sections  only  the  first 
part  reoccurs,  the  second  is  omitted,  while  the  second  section  is 
found  there  in  its  entirety,  with  the  same  diff"erence  of  names 
given  in  the  nominative  and  accusative  cases.  The  conjectures, 
however,  which  I  had  once  based  on  this  difference  (see  my  German 
edition,  pp.  152,  153)  as  to  the  distinction  of  a  more  ancient  part  of 
the  list,  and  of  later  supplements,  are  perhaps  too  hazardous. 


IV  ADHYAYA,     II   KHA^VDA,    lO.  1 23 


/^aknavi,  Va^ava  Pratitheyi,  Sulabha  Maitreyi  (may 
satiate  themselves). 

'(I  satiate)  Kahola  Kaushitaki,  Mahakaushitaki, 
Suya^7^a  KSahkha)ana,  A^valayana,  Aitareya,  Mahai- 
tareya,  Bharadvafa,  6^atukar;^ya,  Paihgya,  Maha- 
pa  ngya,  Bashkala,  Gargya,  6'akalya,  Ma;/^ukeya, 
Mahadamatra,  Audavahi,  Mahaudavahi,  Sauyami, 
6'aunaki,  6^akapu;;i,  Gautami ;  and  whatsoever  other 
teachers  there  are,  may  they  all  satiate  themselves. 

4.  '  The  fathers  man  by  man. 

5.  '  The  ancestry  of  the  father  may  satiate  itself. 

6.  '  The  ancestry  of  the  mother  may  satiate  itself.' 

K  HAND  A   11. 

1.  Let  him  not  look  at  a  naked  woman,  except 
during  sexual  intercourse, 

2.  Nor  (look)  at  the  sun  while  it  rises  or  sets, 

3.  At  an  enemy, 

4.  At  an  evil-doer, 

5.  At  a  person  that  has  to  touch  dead  bodies. 

6.  Let  him  not  talk  with  a  woman  who  has  recently 
been  confined  or  who  has  her  courses, 

7.  Nor  with  those  (mentioned  before). 

8.  Let  him  not  eat  food  from  which  its  strength  is 

taken  away. 

9.  Let    him    not    do   his   work  with    implements 

wasted  by  use. 

10.  Let  hini  not  eat  together  (with  his  wife). 


11,  I  seq.  Rules  of  conduct  for  a  Snataka,  i.e.  a  man  who  has 
completed  his  studentship. 

7.  Etai//  purvoktai/i  anaptadibhir  na  sa/^ivadet.     Narayawa. 

10.  Narayawa  states  that  '  with  his  wife '  is  to  be  supplied  to  this 
SGtra,  which  indeed  is  rendered  probable  through  the  comparison 
of  Gautama  IX,  32  ;  Manu  IV,  43,  &c. 


1 24  5ANKHAYANA-G7^/HYA-SUTRA. 


11.  Nor  remnants  (of  food). 

12.  Remnants  of  (food  belonging  to  the)  Manes, 
gods,  guests,  and  servants  he  may  eat. 

1 3.  Gleaning  ears  of  corn,  receiving  alms  unasked 
for,  or  for  which  he  has  asked  the  good,  performing 
sacrifices  for  others,  are  the  means  of  livelihood  ; 

14.  (Of  these)  each  preceding  one  is  the  more 
respectable. 

15.  Or  if  (his  livelihood)  cannot  be  gained  (in  one 
of  the  ways  mentioned),  let  him  follow  the  occupation 
of  a  Vaii'ya. 

16.  (He  shall  be)  careful  about  his  duties  towards 
Manes  and  gods. 

17.  In  due  time  (he  shall)  have  intercourse  with 

his  wife. 

18.  He  shall  not  lie  down  (to  sleep)  in  the  day-time, 

19.  Nor  during  the  first  or  the  last  watch  of  the 
night. 

20.  Let  him  not  sit  on  the  bare  ground. 

21.  He  shall  constantly  perform  the  prescribed 
duties  reeardinof  the  use  of  water. 

2  2.  (And  constantly)  have  his  sacrificial  cord  sus- 
pended over  his  left  shoulder. 

23.  Let  him  not  abandon  his  teacher, 

24.  Except  on  (his  teacher's)  command, 

25.  Or  with  (his)  permission. 

KHAiVDA   12. 

I.  Every  day  he  shall  respectfully  salute  his 
teacher, 

II,  Here  also  Narayawa  understands  bharydya  bhukta- 
jesham. 

15.  Comp.  Professor  Biihler's  note  on  Gautama  X,  5,  S.  B.  E., 
vol.  ii,  p.  225. 

1 9,  Ratre/^  pGrvaprahare  ratre/^  paj/cimaprahare  kd..     Naraya«a. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    12  KIIAiVDA,   I  5.  12$ 


2.  And  his  Gurus, 

3.  A  6'rotriya  when  meeting  him, 

4.  When  he  returns  from  a  journey,  (also)  one 
who  is  not  a  ^'rotriya. 

5.  In  the  words,  'I  am  N.N.,  sir!'  pronouncing 
his  own  name,  crossing  his  hands  (so  as  to  seize 
with  his  right  hand  the  right  foot,  and  with  his  left 
hand  the  left  of  the  other  person). 

6.  (The  person  who  has  been  thus  saluted,  in  reply 
addressing  him  with  his  name,)  '  N.N.!'  and  seizing 
his  hands,  pronounces  a  wish  to  him. 

7.  Let  him  not  go  to  a  sacrifice  without  being 
chosen  (thereto). 

8.  And  let  him  beware  of  (doing)  wrong. 

9.  Let  him  not  go  to  assemblies  of  people. 

10.  If  he  has  come  upon  (such  assemblies),  let 
him  not  point  out  (anything  evil)  against  (any- 
body). 

1 1.  He  shall  not  be  a  reviler,  nor  slanderous,  nor 
a  wanderer  from  house  to  house,  nor  a  prattler. 

12.  He  shall  not  walk  alone, 

13.  Nor  naked, 

14.  Nor  with  veiled  hands. 

15.  Gods'-houses  (he  shall  walk  round)  keeping 
the  right  side  turned  to  them. 

12,  5.  Narayawa:  'As  to  how  that  respectful  salutation  (abhi- 
vadana)  should  be  performed,  he  says  .  .  .  with  his  own  right  hand 
he  touches  the  right  foot  of  the  A/tarya  or  other  person  (whom  he 
salutes),  and  with  his  left  hand  the  left  foot  (comp.  Manu  II,  72) 
(and  says),  "  I  am  N.  N.  (amuka^arman)  of  the  Gotra  N.  N.,  sir  ! 
I  offer  my  respectful  salutation  !"  ' 

6.  '  The  A/Jarya  or  other  person  seizes  the  hands  of  the  saluting 
person,'  &c.     Naraya«a. 

10.  See  Naraya;/a's  commentary,  p.  154  of  the  German 
edition. 


126  5ANKIIAYANA-Gi?/HYA-S0TRA. 


1 6.  Let  him  not  run. 

17.  Let  him  not  spit. 

18.  Let  him  not  scratch  himself. 

19.  Let  him  not  look  on  urine  and  excrements. 

20.  Let  him  sit  with  veiled  head, 

21.  Not  on  the  bare  (ground), 

22.  If  he  has  only  one  garment,  suspending  his 
sacrificial  cord  on  his  ear, 

23.  Not  turning  his  face  to  the  sun, 

24.  Nor  his  rump, 

25.  In  the  day-time  with  his  face  to  the  north,  at 
niofht  to  the  south. 

6  d  26.   He  shall  not  (eject)  phlegm  into  water,  nor  in 

the  neighbourhood  (of  water). 

27.  He  shall  not  climb  up  a  tree. 

28.  He  shall  not  look  down  into  a  well. 

29.  He  shall  not  go  to  an  execution-place, 

30.  And  in  no  case  to  a  cemetery. 

31.  Let  him  bathe  day  by  day  with  his  clothes  on. 

32.  When  he  has  bathed,  let  him  put  on  another 
garment  before  he  is  dry. 

KHANDX   13. 

1.  Under  (the  Nakshatra)  Rohi;zi  he  shall  have 
the  ploughing  done. 

2.  Before  it  is  done,  he  shall  offer  at  the  eastern 
boundary  of  his  field  a  Bali  to  Heaven  and  Earth. 

3.  With  a  verse  sacred  to  Heaven  and  Earth  and 
with  the  words,  'Adoration  to  Heaven  and  Earth!' 
(he  performs  his)  worship  (to  Heaven  and  Earth). 

1 6.  According  to  Narayawa  we  should  have  to  supply,  '  while  it 
is  raining,'  which  is  countenanced  by  a  number  of  parallel  texts, 
for  instance,  Ajv.-Gr/hya  III,  9,  6. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    I5  KIIAA'DA,   2.  12/ 

4.  When  the  plough  is  being  put  into  motion  first, 
let  a  Brahma?^a  touch  the  plough  reciting  this  (verse), 
'  For  luck  may  us  the  plough-shares'  (Rig-veda  IV, 

57.  8). 

5.  '  Through  the  lord  of  the  field ' — with  (this 
hymn)  (Rig-veda  IV,  57),  verse  by  verse,  to  the 
different  directions  (of  the  sky),  from  left  to  right, 
worship  is  done. 

Khaa^ka  14. 

1.  When  going  to  cross  water,  he  performs  the 
Svastyayana  (ceremony  for  lucky  progress). 

2.  He  sacrifices  thrice  with  his  joined  hands  full 
of  water  into  the  waters,  with  the  words, '  Adoration 
to  the  Sea,  the  child  of  the  reed !  Adoration  to 
Varu;^a,  the  lord  of  righteousness  !  Adoration  to  all 
rivers ! ' — 

3.  Murmuring,  '  May  Vi^vakarman,  the  father  of 
them  all,  relish  the  food  offered.' 

4.  Against  the  stream  for  flowing  (waters) ;  up 
into  the  air  for  standing  ones. 

5.  Should  he  while  crossing  apprehend  any  danger, 
let  him  murmur  the  hymn  of  Vasish///a, '  The  eldest 
of  which  is  the  sea'  (Rig-veda  VII,  49);  this  (will 
serve  to  him  as)  a  boat. 

KlIAiVDA  15. 

1.  The  6'rava7m  (oblation)  he  offers  on  the  full 
moon  day  that  falls  under  (the  Nakshatra)  6'ravish- 
///as,  of  the  flour  of  fried  barley,  or  of  cooked  food, 

2.  With  (the  words),  'To  Vish;^u  svaha!  To  (the 
Nakshatra)  Sr3.v3.n3.  svaha !  To  the  full  moon  of 
6'rava«a  svaha !  To  the  rainy  season  svaha  !' 


128  5ANKHAYANA-Gi2/HYA-S{JTRA. 


;.  Having  established  the  (sacred)  domestic  fire 
outside,  and  having  mixed  together  fried  grain  and 
the  flour  of  fried  barley  with  butter,  he  sacrifices — 

4.  With  (the  words),  'To  the  Lord  of  the  celestial 
Serpents  svaha !    To  the  celestial  Serpents  svaha ! ' 

5.  Having  placed  to  the  north  of  the  fire  a  new 
water-pot  on  eastward-pointed,  fresh  Ku^a  grass, 

6.  With  (the  words), '  May  the  Lord  of  the  celestial 
Serpents  wash  himself !  May  the  celestial  Serpents 
wash  themselves  ! ' — he  pours  water  into  it. 

7.  With  (the  words), '  May  the  Lord  of  the  celestial 
Serpents  comb  himself !  May  the  celestial  Serpents 
comb  themselves  ! ' — he  makes  movements  with  a 
comb. 

8.  With  (the  words), '  May  the  Lord  of  the  celestial 
Serpents  paint  himself !  May  the  celestial  Serpents 
paint  themselves ! ' — he  pours  out  portions  of  paint. 

9.  With  (the  words), '  May  the  Lord  of  the  celestial 
Serpents  tie  (this)  to  (himself)!  May  the  celestial 
Serpents  tie  (this)  to  themselves! ' — he  offers  flowers. 

10.  With  (the  words),  'May  the  Lord  of  the  celes- 
tial Serpents  clothe  himself!  May  the  celestial 
Serpents  clothe  themselves  ! ' — he  offers  a  thread. 

11.  With  (the  words),  'May  the  Lord  of  the  celes- 
tial Serpents  anoint  (his  eyelashes)!  May  the  celestial 
Serpents  anoint  (their  eyelashes) ! ' — he  spirts  out 
(small  portions  of  collyrium)  with  a  young  Ku^a 
shoot. 

12.  With  (the  words),  'May  the  Lord  of  the  celes- 
tial Serpents  look  (at  himself)!  May  the  celestial 
Serpents  look  (at  themselves) ! ' — he  makes  them 
look  in  a  mirror. 


15,  7.  For  this  signification  of  phawa,  comp. ^ullavagga  V,  2,  3. 


IV  ADIIYAYA,   15  KIIAA'DA,   2  2.  1 29 

13.  With  (the  words),  'Lord  of  the  celestial  Ser- 
pents, this  is  thy  Bali !  Celestial  Serpents,  this  is 
your  Bali ! ' — he  makes  a  Bali-offering. 

14.  In  the  same  way  for  the  aerial  (Serpents). 

15.  For  those  dwelling  in  the  directions  (of  the 
horizon). 

16.  For  the  terrestrial  ones. 

17.  (He  repeats  these  Mantras)  thrice  each  time, 
the  first  (part)  with  higher  voice  each  time, 

18.  The  second  (part)  with  lower  voice  each  time. 

19.  In  this  way  he  shall  offer  day  by  day  with  the 
spoon,  in  small  portions,  a  Bali  of  the  flour  of  fried 
barley  with  water,  down  to  the  Pratyavaroha;^a  (or 
the  ceremony  of  the  'redescent'),  at  night,  keeping 
silence. 

20.  And  (his  wife)  shall  put  (it)  down  silently. 

21.  The  close  of  the  ceremony  is  the  same  as  the 
beginning. 

22.  With  (the  verse),  'The  good  protectress '  (Rig- 
veda  X,  63,  10),  let  him  ascend  the  (high)  couch. 

17,  18.  The  text  has  U/('^aistaram — u/('/('aistaram,  and  m^- 
aistarawz — ni^'aistaram.  Naraya?2a(comp.lhetextofhisscholion, 
p.  155  of  the  German  edition)  understands  this  in  a  different  way; 
he  says  that  in  the  water-pot  mentioned  in  the  fifth  Sutra  two 
different  sthanas  are  to  be  distinguished,  a  higher  part  of  it  and  a 
lower  (uttaradharataya).  Now  when  the  sacrificer,  for  instance,  as 
prescribed  in  Sfltra  6,  invites  the  Lord  of  the  celestial  Serpents,  and 
the  celestial  Serpents  to  wash  themselves,  the  pouring  out  of  water 
would  have  to  be  performed  first  thrice  for  the  Lord  of  the  celes- 
tial Serpents  in  the  higher  place,  then  thrice  for  the  celestial  Ser- 
pents in  the  lower  place. 

19.  On  the  Pratyavarohawa  see  chap,  17. 

20.  Narayawa  :  vagyamayukta  ya^g^amanapatni  evam  balidravyS- 
dikam  upasadayet. 

22.  '  From  the  ^ravam  till  the  Agrahaya/zi  (see  chap.  17,  i)  one 
shall  not  sleep  on  the  ground  out  of  fear  of  the  snakes.'  Narayawa. 

[29]  K 


1 30  <SANKHAYANA-GR/HYA-StjTRA. 


KHAiVDA  16. 

A 

1.  On  the  full  moon  day  of  Ajvayu^a  a  milk-rice 
oblation  to  Indra. 

2.  Having  sacrificed  A^ya  with  (the  words),  '  To 
the  two  Ai^vins  svaha  !  To  the  two  A^vayu^  svaha ! 
To  the  full  moon  of  A^vayu^a  svaha !  To  the  autumn 
svaha !  To  Pa^upati  sv^ha !  To  the  tawny  one 
svaha ! ' — 

3.  He  shall  sacrifice  a  mixture  of  curds  and  butter 
with  this  hymn, 'The  cows  came  hither'  (Rig-veda 
VI,  28),  verse  by  verse. 

4.  That  night  they  let  the  calves  join  their  mothers. 

5.  Then  feeding  of  the  Brahma/^as. 

Khanda  17. 

1.  On  the  Agrahaya;^!  full  moon  day  he  shall  re- 
descend, 

2.  (Or)  under  (the  Nakshatra)  Rohi;^i,  or  under 
the  ProshZ/^apadas. 

3.  In  the  morning,  having  taken  a  handfull  of  ^'ami 
leaves,  MadhCika  flowers,  reeds,  Apamarga  plants, 
and  of  ^'irisha,  Udumbara,  Ku^a  shoots,  and  jujube 
fruits,  and  an  earth-clod  (taken)  out  of  a  furrow, 

4.  Having  put  (all  that)  into  a  water-pot, 

16,  3.  Ghri\a.m\sra,m  dadhi  pr/shatakam.  Naraya?/a.  Comp. 
the  Gr/Tiya-saOTgraha  II,  59. 

17,  I.  The  Pratyavarohawa  (i.e.  redescent)  here  described  is 
the  ceremony  performed  at  the  end  of  the  time  during  which 
sleeping  on  high  bedsteads  is  prescribed  (chap.  15,  22).  Beginning 
from  the  5'ravam  full  moon  till  the  Pratyavaroha«a,  the  offerings  to 
the  Serpents  mentioned  above  have  to  be  repeated  every  day 
(chap.  15,  19);  the  Pratyavarohawa  is  the  concluding  ceremony  of 
these  rites  devoted  to  the  Serpents. 


IV  ADHYAYA,   l8  KIIAA^DA,   3.  I3I 


5.  And,  after  he  has  quickly  repeated  the  Maha- 
vyahr/tis  and  the  Savitri,  having  repeatedly  immersed 
(it)  therein  with  this  hymn,  '  May  he  burn  away 
from  us  pain' (Rig-veda  I,  97),  he  shall  drive  away 
the  evil  from  the  persons  standing  under  his  protec- 
tion, from  left  to  right,  and  pour  out  (the  water)  to 
the  north. 

6.  A  Madhuparka  is  the  fee  for  the  sacrifice. 

Kuan  DA  18. 

1.  '  INIay  summer,  winter  and  spring,  autumn  and 
rainy  season  be  well-ordered  to  us.  May  we  be 
under  the  safe  protection  of  these  seasons,  and  may 
they  last  (to  us)  through  a  hundred  years.     Svaha ! 

'  Beat  away,  O  white  one, with  thy  foot,  with  the  fore- 
foot and  with  the  hind-foot,  these  seven  daughters 
of  \''aru;^a  and  all  that  belong  to  the  king's  tribe. 
Svaha ! 

*  To  the  white  one,  the  son  of  Vidarva  svaha  !  To 
Vidarva  svaha !  To  Takshaka  Vai^aleya  svaha  !  To 
Vi^ala  svaha !' — with  (these  words)  he  sacrifices  (obla- 

A 

tions)  of  A^ya. 

2.  'May  a  good  winter,  a  good  spring,  a  good 
summer  be  bestowed  (on  us).  May  the  rains  be  to 
us  happy  rains ;  may  the  autumns  be  blessed  to  us.' 

3.  With  (the  verse),  '  Blessing  on  us,  Mitra '  (Rig- 
veda  I,  90,  9),  he  sweeps  (the  floor)  with  a  Pakua 
branch, 

5.  6'ara«}ebhyo  gr^Tiebhya//  (read,  gr/liyebhya//)  sarvebhya-^ 
sakiuat,  &c.     Naraya//a. 

18,  I.  This  chapter  continues  the  description  of  the  Pratyavaro- 
hawa  begun  in  the  preceding  chapter. 

Rai^abandhavai/i,  as  our  text  has,  should  be  corrected  into 
ra^abandhavi//;  comp.  Ajv.  II,  3,  3. 

K  2 


132  5ANKHAYANA-G/27HYA-SUTRA. 

4-  Sprinkles  (it  with  water)  with  (the  verse), '  From 
the  sea  the  wave'  (Rig-veda  IV,  58,  i), 

5.  And  spreads  out  a  layer  (of  straw)  with  (the 
verse),  '  Be  soft,  O  earth'  (Rig-veda  I,  22,  15). 

6.  They  then  lie  down  on  their  sides,  the  eldest 
one  to  the  right  hand — 

7.  With  (the  words), '  In  the  Brahman  I  establish 
myself,  in  the  Kshatra,'  on  (their)  right  (sides) ; 

8.  With  (the  words), '  Among  the  horses  I  establish 
myself,  among  the  cows,'  on  (their)  left  (sides) ; 

9.  With  (the  words), '  Among  the  cattle  I  establish 
myself,  in  prosperity,'  on  (their)  right  (sides) ; 

10.  With  (the  words),  '  Among  offspring  I  establish 
myself,  in  food,'  on  (their)  left  (sides). 

11.  With  (the  verse),  'Arise,  the  living'  (Rig- 
veda  I,  113,  16),  they  arise. 

12.  During  that  night  they  He  on  that  layer. 

13.  Afterwards  where  they  like. 

KHAiVDA   19. 

1.  On  the  full  moon  day  of  Aaitra, 

2.  (Taking)  jujube  leaves,  and  making  of  meal 
(images)  of  couples  of  animals  as  it  happens. 

3.  A  figure  with  prominent  navel  to  Indra  and 
Agni. 

4.  Balls  to  Rudra. 

5.  According  to  custom  the  Nakshatras  and 
(their  ?)  images  (?).  According  to  custom  the 
Nakshatras  and  (their  ?)  images  (?). 

Here  ends  the  Fourth  Adhyaya. 

19,  2-5.  Several  points  in  the  translation  of  these  Siltras  are 
uncertain.  See  the  extracts  from  the  commentary  of  Naraya^/a, 
pp.  156  seq.  of  the  German  edition. 


V  ADIIYAYA,   I   KHAiVDA,    7.  1 33 


Adiiyaya  V,  Khaa^da  1. 

1.  Now  when  he  intends  to  set  out  on  a  journey, 
he  makes  (his  sacred)  fire  enter  into  himself,  (or)  into 
the  two  kindling  sticks,  or  into  (an  ordinary)  log  of 
wood, 

2.  Once  with  (the  text),  'Come,  enter  into  my 
Pra/^as,'  twice  silently. 

3.  Or  with  (the  verse),  *  This  is  thy  womb'  (Rig- 
veda  III,  29,  10)  he  warms  the  two  kindling  sticks, 

4.  Or  an  (ordinary  log  of)  wood. 

5.  And  before  sunset  the  kindling  (by  attrition), 

6.  And  at  the  time  of  the  Vaijvadeva  sacrifice. 

7.  Having  carried  a  common  fire  to  a  place  that  has 
been  smeared  (with  cowdung),  which  is  elevated,  and 


1,  I.  The  ceremony  of  Samaroha/^a,  by  which  the  duties 
towards  the  sacred  fire  are  suspended,  by  causing  the  fire  to  'enter' 
into  the  sacrificer's  body,  or  into  the  two  Arawis,  or  into  another 
piece  of  wood,  is  already  mentioned  in  several  passages  of  the 
Brahma«a  texts ;  comp.  the  quotations  given  by  Professor  Weber, 
Indische  Studien,  IX,  31 1.  Comp.  besides  Ajvalayana-^rauta-sutra 
III,  10;  6'ankhayana-6'raut.  II,  17.  The  Samarohawa  into  the 
sacrificer's  own  body  is  done  by  warming  the  hands  at  the  sacred 
fire ;  see  Asv.,  loc.  cit.,  Siitra  6.  In  the  ^ahkhayana-^rauta-sutra 
the  corresponding  rule,  which  regards  there  of  course  the  Ahitagni, 
runs  thus,  '  If  he  performs  the  Samaroha«a,  he  warms  his  hands  at 
the  Garhapatya  fire,  and  then  touches  his  Pra«as  with  the  words, 
'^Come,  enter  into  my  Pranas."  '  On  the  two  other  cases,  see  the 
Siitras  3  and  4.  Sutras  2,  3,  5  are  taken  word  for  word  from  the 
.Srauta-sfitra. 

2.  This  Sfltra  refers  only  to  the  case  where  he  causes  the  fire 
to  enter  into  himself, 

5.  Comp.  the  commentary  on  A^v.-6'raut.,  loc.  cit.  8.  He  makes 
the  fire  redcscend  from  his  body  or  from  the  Arawis  by  performing 
the  IManlhana  (kindling  the  fire  by  attrition  of  the  Arawis). 

7.  The  ]Mantra  alluded  to  here  is  given  in  the  ^rauta-sfitra.     It 


134  5ankhayana-g/2/hya-siOtra. 

which  has  been  sprinkled  (with  water),  he  makes  (the 
sacred  fire)  redescend  (from  its  receptacle,  with  the 
formula),  '  Redescend !' 

8.  If  the  fire  goes  out,  he  sacrifices  the  two 
Sarvapraya^/^itta  oblations  (oblations  for  general 
expiation)  and  (other  oblations)  with  (the  formulas), 
'  Protect  us,  Agnl,  that  we  may  prosper.  Svaha ! 
Protect  us  that  we  may  obtain  all  wealth.  Svaha ! 
The  sacrifice  protect,  O  resplendent  one !  Svaha  I 
Protect  everything,  O  hundredfold  wise  one. 
Svaha ! ' 

9,  In  the  case  of  a  breach  of  his  vow  let  him  fast 
and  sacrifice  (an  oblation)  of  A^f^ya  with  (the  verse), 
*  Thou,  Agnl,  art  the  lord  of  the  vow'  (Rig-veda 
VIII,  II,  i). 

KHANDA    2. 

1.  Now  about  (the  consecration  of)  ponds,  wells, 
and  tanks. 

2.  In  the  bright  fortnight,  or  on  an  auspicious 
TIthI, 

3.  Having  cooked  barley-grains  with  milk, 

4.  He  shall  sacrifice  with  the  two  (verses),  '  Thou 

runs  thus,  '  Redescend,  O  (?atavedas ;  carry  again  offerings  to  the 
gods,  knowing  us.  Long  Hfe,  offspring,  weakh  bestow  on  us ; 
uninjured  shine  in  our  dwelling  I ' 

8-9.  These  Sutras  stand  in  no  connection  with  the  Samaroha;/a 
treated  of  before. 

On  the  two  Sarvapraya^/i'itta  oblations  see  above,  T,  9,  12  and  the 
note  there. 

The  vow  spoken  of  in  Sutra  9  Naraya72a  refers  to  the  restrictions 
regarding  the  food  which  the  sacrificer  and  his  wife  are  to  eat  on 
the  Upavasatha  days,  connected  with  the  festivals  of  the  full  and 
new  moon. 

A 

2,  I  seq.  Comp.  Ai'valayana-Parijish/a  IV,  9. 


V  ADHYAYA,    3  KHAiVDA,    3.  1 35 

hast  US,  Agni'  (Rig-veda  IV,  i.  4.  5),  (and  widi  the 
verses),  'We  propidate  thy  wrath'  (I,  24,  14),  'This 
my  prayer,  Varu;^a'  (I,  25,  19),  '  Loosen  the  highest, 
Varum'  (I,  24,  15),  'This  prayer  of  the  man  who 
exercises  himself  (VIII,  42,  3), 

5.  (And  with  the  words),  '  The  domestic  one,  he 
who  goes  away  from  the  house,  the  refreshing  one, 
he  who  goes  into  the  kennel,  he  who  dwells  in  the 
kennel,  he  who  comes  out  of  it,  the  greedy  one,  the 
destroyer  of  enemies' — to  the  different  directions  (of 
the  horizon),  beginning  with  that  belonging  to  Va- 
ru;/a  (i.  e.  the  west),  from  left  to  right. 

6.  In  the  centre  he  makes  oblations  with  milk  with 
(the  verses),  '  Having  eyes  all  around'  (Rig-veda 
X,  81,  3),  'This  has  Vish;zu'  (Rig-veda  I,  22,  17), 

7.  Plunging  (into  the  water)  with  (the  verse), 
'Whatever  here'  (Rig-veda  VII,  89,  5). 

8.  A  cow  and  a  pair  of  clothes  is  the  fee  for  the 
sacrifice. 

9.  Then  feeding  of  the  Brahma;^as. 

Khaa'da  3. 

1.  Now  at  (the  consecration  of)  a  garden  :  having 
established  the  (sacred)  fire  (in  that  garden), 

2.  (And)  having  prepared  a  mess  of  cooked  food, 
He   shall   sacrifice   with    (the   formulas),   '  To 


1 


5.  These  are  names  of  Agni  dwelling  in  the  waters;  see 
Paraskara  II,  6,  10;  Mantrabrahmawa  I,  7,  i.  Several  of  the 
names  are  here  misspelled  ;  thus  Gr^liya,  ApagrzTiya  should  be,  no 
doubt,  Gohya,  Upagohya,  which  is  the  reading  given  in  Pdraskara, 

loc.  cit. 

3,  I  seqq.  Comp.  Ajvalayana-Pari;fish/a  IV,  10.^  Narayawa  uses 
for  the  ceremony  here  described  the  expressions  AramapratishMa, 
Aramotsarga. 


I  It  6  A'ANKHAYANA-Gi?7HYA-SUTRA. 


Vish;^u  svaha!  To  Indra  and  Agni  svaha !  To 
Vi^vakarman  svaha!'  (and  with  the  verses),  'Whom 
the  men'  (RIg-veda  III,  8,  6  seq.),  verse  by  verse. 

4.  He  recites  over  (the  garden),  '  O  tree  with  thy 
hundred  branches'  (Rig-veda  III,  8,  11). 

5.  The  fee  for  the  sacrifice  is  gold. 

Khan  DA  4. 

1.  Now  if  a  half-monthly  sacrifice  has  not  been 
performed,  one  or  the  other  of  them,  then  a  mess  of 
rice  (is  to  be  offered  as  an  expiation), 

2.  With  (the  words),  *  To  Agni  Vai^vanara  svaha  ! 
To  Aeni  Tantumat  svaha!' 

3.  In  the  case  of  an  intermission  of  the  (morning 
or  evening)  oblations — 

4.  (He  shall  make  expiatory  oblations),  in  the 
evening  with  (the  formula),  '  Enllghtener  of  the 
darkness,  adoration!    Svaha!' 

5.  In  the  morning  with  (the  formula), '  Enllghtener 
of  the  morning,  adoration  !  Svaha!' 

6.  After  he  has  sacrificed  as  many  oblations  as  there 
had  been  sacrifices  (left  out),  the  sacrifice  (itself  goes 
on)  as  (stated)  above. 

Khatvda  5. 

1.  If  a  dove  or  an  owl  sits  down  (on  his  house), 

2.  Let  him  sacrifice  with  (the  hymn),  *  O  gods,  the 
dove'  (RIg-veda  X,  165),  verse  by  verse. 


4,  6.  Narayawa  :  'After  he  has  thus  taken  and  sacrificed  as  many 
Sruvas  full  of  A^ya  as  there  were  sacrifices  omitted  through  his 
guilt,  the  morning  and  evening  sacrifices  have  to  be  performed  as 
(slated)  above  (I,  3,  10)  with  oblations  of  rice  or  barley.' 


V  ADIIYAVA,    7  KIIAiVDA,   2.  1 37 

3.  If  he  has  seen  a  bad  dream  or  an  occurrence 
boding  misfortune, 

4.  Or  when  the  cawing  of  a  crow  is  heard  in  (the 
dead  of)  night, 

5.  And  in  the  case  of  other  prodigies, 

6.  Let  him  cook  rice-grains  with  milk, 

7.  With  the  milk  of  a  cow  that  has  a  calf  of  the 
same  colour  (with  her  own), 

8.  But  in  no  case  of  a  black  (cow), 

9.  And  let  him  sacrifice  with  the  night-hymn  (Rig- 
veda  X,  127),  verse  by  verse. 

10.  Having  eaten  the  remnants  of  those  oblations 
with  the  Mahavyahmis, 

11.  And  having  recited  over  his  ears  (the  verse), 
'  Blessing  with  our  ears'  (Rig-veda  I,  89,  8), 

1 2.  And  over  himself  (the  verse),  '  May  a  hundred 
autumns  be  before  us,  ye  gods'  (ibid.  9), 

13.  He  shall  give  something  to  the  Brahma;/as. 

KhaA'Da  6. 

1.  When  a  disease  has  befallen  him, 

2.  Let  him  offer  boiled  rice-c^rains  with  Gave- 
dhuka-grass  with  (the  hymn),  '  These  (prayers)  to 
Rudra,  the  strong  one,  with  braided  hair'  (Rig-veda 
I,  114),  verse  by  verse. 

KllANDA   7. 

1.  If  (his  wife)  gives  birth  to  a  child,  without  the 
Simantonnayana  having  been  performed, 

2.  (Or  if)  the  6^atakarman  has  not  been  performed 
(for  the  child). 


7,  1.  On  the  Simantonnayana,  see  I,  22. 

2.  The  Calakarman  has  been  described  I,  24. 


138  ^ANKIIAYANA-GJJ/HYA-stjTRA. 

3.  He  places,  when  ten  days  have  elapsed  since 
(the  delivery),  the  little  child  in  the  mother's  lap, 

4.  And  after  he  has  sacrificed  with  the  Maha- 
vyahr/tis,  the  sacrifice  (that  had  been  omitted,  is 
performed)  as  (stated)  above. 

Kuan  DA  8. 

1.  If  a  post  puts  forth  shoots, 

2.  Let  him  prepare  a  mess  of  cooked  food  and 
offer  the  boiled  rice  with  the  two  (verses), '  In  that 
way  bringing  forth  deeds'  (6rauta-sutra  III,  17,  i), 
'  Of  tawny  shape,  weighty,  a  giver  of  vigour'  (Rig- 
veda  II,  3, -9). 

3.  Should  the  pot  for  the  Pra;^ita  water,  the  A^-a- 
pot,  or  any  other  earthen  (vessel)  be  damaged  and 
leak, 

4.  He  sacrifices  the  two  Sarvapraya^/'itta  obla- 
tions and  recites  the  three  verses, '  He  who  without' 
(Rig-veda  VIII,  i,  12  seq.),  over  the  broken  (vessel). 

5.  Should  the  two  (Kui"a  blades  which  are  used  as) 
strainers  be  spoiled  before  the  completion  of  the 
sacrifice, 

6.  Let  him  sacrifice  the  Sarvaprayai"/v'itta  and  make 
new  ones  with  (the  verse), '  In  the  w^ater,  Agni'  (Rig- 
veda  VIII,  43,  9). 

Khaa^da  9. 
I.   Now  (follows)  the  Sapi;^(2'ikara;^a. 

3.  On  the  ten  days,  comp.  I,  25,  i  and  the  note  there. 

8,  3.  On  the  Pramta  water,  see  above,  I,  8,  8.  25. 

4.  Comp.  I,  9,  12  and  the  note  there. 

5.  Sec  I,  8,  14  seqq.  6.  See  Sutra  4. 

9,  I  seqq.  Comp.  above,  IV,  3  and  the  notes  there. 


V  ADHYAVA,     lO  KIIAA'DA,   3.  I  39 

2.  Let  him  fill  four  water-pots  (for  the  INIanes) 
from  the  father  upwards, 

3.  And  prepare  in  the  same  way  lumps  (of  flour), 

4.  And  let  him  distribute  the  first  lump  on  the 
(other)  three  with  (the  verses), '  They  who  commonly, 
concordantly  (dwell)  In  Yama's  realm,  the  fathers  : 
for  them  be  space,  freedom,  adoration,  sacrifice  esta- 
blished amonc:  the  STods. 

'  They  who  commonly,  harmoniously  (dwell),  the 
living  among  the  living,  mine :  may  their  prosperity 
fall  to  my  lot  in  this  world  through  a  hundred 
years' — 

And  with  the  two  (verses),  '  Equal  the  design' 
(Rig-veda  X,  191,  3.  4). 

5.  In  the  same  way  the  vessels  with  Argha  water. 

6.  In  the  same  way  for  the  mother,  for  a  brother, 
and  for  a  wife  that  has  died  before  (her  husband), 
adding  (the  lump  belonging  to  that  person)  to  those 
(other)  lumps. 

KHAiVDA   10. 

1.  If  the  bees  make  honey  in  his  house, 

2.  Let  him  fast  and  sacrifice  a  hundred  and  eight 
pieces  of  Udumbara  wood,  which  are  besmeared  with 
curds,  honey,  and  ghee,  with  the  two  (verses),  '  No 
(harm)  to  us  In  our  offspring'  (Rig-veda  I,  1 14,  8.  9). 

3.  And  let  him  murmur  the  hymn,  '  For  welfare 
may  Indra  and  Agnl'  (Rig-veda  VII,  35);  and  (the 
same  hymn  should  be  used)  at  all  (ceremonies),  such 

2,  On  these  four  vessels,  sec  IV,  3,  4  scq. 

5.  These  are  the  vessels  mentioned  in  the  second  SQtra. 

10,  3.  This  is  a  supplementary  rule  belonging  to  the  exposition 
of  the  general  type  of  sacrifice.  On  the  '  Pratijruta'  sacrifice,  see 
I,  7,  I  seqq. ;  I,  9,  19. 


1 40  SANKHAYANA-Gi?7HYA-sC^TRA. 


as  that  of  the  sacrifice  after  assent  has  been  declared 
(see  above,  I,  7,  i). 

4.  After  he  has  sacrificed  seventeen  one  span  long 
pieces  of  Pala^a  wood,  he  then  seizes  the  Sruva. 

5.  Fifteen  at  the  full  and  new  moon  sacrifices. 

6.  At  the  Ash/aka  ceremony  In  the  middle  of  the 
rainy  season  there  may  optionally  be  three  (pieces  of 
wood) ;  the  sacrifice  as  at  the  Pitr/*ya^;7a. 

Khanda  11. 

1.  If  an  anthill  arises  in  his  house,  the  house 
should  be  abandoned. 

2.  Then,  after  having  fasted  three  nights  (and 
days),  he  should  perform  the  great  expiation. 

Here  ends  the  Fifth  Adhyaya. 


4.  See  I,  9,  I.  3. 

6.  Comp.  Ill,  13,  I  with  the  note. 

11,  2.  Narayawa  understands  the  'great  expiation'  as  a  rite 
directed  to  Gane^a  and  to  the  planets  (comp.  Ya^;7avalkya  I, 
276  seq.,  292,  &c.) ;  that  this  ceremony  was  known  aheady  to  the 
author  of  this  Sutra  seems  very  doubtful.  Another  '  mahai-anti '  is 
frequently  mentioned  in  the  Kau^ika-sutra  (quoted  in  Bohtlingk- 
Roth's  Dictionary);    comp.  my  German  edition   of  6'ahkhayana, 


VI  ADHYAYA,    I   KUANDA,   5.  I41 


AdHYAYA  VI,    KllANDA  1. 

1.  Now,  after  having  paid  reverence  to  Brah- 
man, to  the  Brahmar/shi,  to  (those  who  descend 
from)  Brahman's  womb,  to  Indra,  Pra^apati,  Vasish- 
//^a,  Vamadeva,  Kahola  Kaushitaki,  IMahakaushitaki, 
Suya^;7a  ^S'aiikhayana,  Ai-valayana,  Aitareya,  Mahai- 
tareya,  Katyayana,  ^'a/yayana,  6'akal}a,  Babhru,  Ba- 
bhravya,  Mandu,  ]\Ia;^^avya,  and  to  all  the  teachers  of 
the  past,  we  will  henceforth  explain  the  rules  for  the 
Ara;^yaka  as  forming  the  subject  of  Svadhyaya  (pri- 
vate recitation  of  a  text). 

2.  The  teacher  abstains  through  one  day  and  one 
night  from  sexual  intercourse  and  from  eating  flesh. 

3.  Raw  flesh,  a  ICandala.,  a  woman  that  has  lately 
been  confined,  or  that  has  her  courses,  seeing  blood 
or  persons  whose  hands  have  been  cut  off:  (these 
persons  and  things  he  shall  know  form)  impediments 
for  the  study. 

4.  And  of  the  corpse-like  (animals  ?). 

5.  Those  which  enter  (their  dens  ?)  with  the 
mouth  first  (?). 

1,  I  scqq.  Comp.  the  general  remarks  on  this  sixth  book  in  the 
Introduction,  p.  11. 

For  the  names  in  the  opening  invocation,  comp.  above,  IV,  10  ; 
on  the  Vratas  and  the  study  of  the  different  Arawyaka  sections  chiefly 
treated  of  in  this  book,  see  above,  II,  11.  12,  and  tlic  Introduction, 
p.  8. 

2.  Comp.  II,  II,  6. 

3-5.  Comp.  II,  12,  10,  and  the  note  of  Narayawa,  p.  160  of  the 
German  edition. 


142  i'ANKHAYANA-G/J/HYA-SUTRA. 

6.  When  he  has  vomited,  or  when  his  beard  has 
been  shaved, 

7.  When  he  has  eaten  flesh  or  partaken  of  a 
^'raddha  or  birth  dinner, 

8.  During  the  days  that  immediately  follow  on 
(days  of)  study  in  the  village, 

9.  Three  nights  (and  days),  if  (he  has  been)  put 
out  of  order, 

10.  (Or  has  been  violently)  seized  by  others, 

11.  And  during  the  second  half  of  the  days  that 
precede  (?)  the  Parvan  days, 

12.  And  if  fire-flames,  lightning,  thunder,  (heavy) 
rains,  and  great  clouds  appear, 

13.  And  if  a  storm  (blows)  that  carries  away 
pebbles,  as  long  as  that  lasts. 

2,  I.  During  four  months  after  the  full  moon  of 
Asha(^/^a  let  him  not  study. 

2.  Especially  the  ^'akvari  verses  (are  concerned 
by  what  has  been  declared).     Such  are  the  rules. 

Khanda  2. 

3.  Let  them  go  to  a  clean  spot  in  the  north-eastern 
direction,  that  receives  its  light  from  the  east. 

4.  The  drawing  of  water  (should  be  done)  before 
sunrise, 

6.  Comp.  IV,  7,  42.     See  also  Ait.  Ara//yaka  V,  3,  9. 

7.  Comp.  IV,  7,  5. 

2,  2.  It  seems  to  me  that  this  Sutra  should  be  divided  into  two 
(after  sakvarya/i),  so  that  the  words  iti  niyama^  would  corres- 
pond to  iti  bhashikam,  chap.  2,  13. 

3.  Comp.  II,  12,  II.  Perhaps  the  Petersburg  Dictionary  is 
right  in  proposing  for  prag^yotisham  the  translation,  vor 
Anbruch  des  Lichtcs.  Naraya/za  says,  prak  purastat  ^yotir 
yasmin  tam  .  .  .  prade^am. 


VI  ADIIYAYA,    3  KIIAiVDA,   2.  1 43 

5.  And  the  entering  into  the  circle  with  this  verse, 
'She  who  smells  of  salve'  (Rig-veda  X,  146,  6). 

6.  The  circle  should  have  its  entrance  to  the  east 
or  to  the  north  ;  it  should  be  (praised  as)  excellent 
among  the  people,  not  too  spacious,  not  too  narrow. 

7.  The  final  expiation  (should  extend)  to  the 
Vamadevya. 

8.  And  the  invitation  to  resume  the  recitation  (is 
done  in  the  following  way) : 

9.  After  they  have  sipped  water  that  stands  out- 
side the  circle, 

10.  Let  them  resume  the  recitation,  having  per- 
formed the  expiation. 

1 1.  If  the  vessel  used  in  the  expiation  is  damaged, 
sprinkling  (with  water  forms)  the  expiatory  act  (to 
be  performed  for  it). 

12.  (That)  sprinkling,  however,  (one  should  per- 
form) holding  gold  or  a  bunch  of  Darbha  grass  in 
his  hand. 

13.  So  far  what  pertains  to  the  general  rules. 

KHANDA   3. 

1.  Now  after  they  have  entered  the  circle — 

2.  The  teacher  sits  down  with  his  face  to  the 
east,  the  others,  according  to  their  rank,  (sit  down) 
towards  the  south,  with  their  faces  to  the  north. 

5.  The  Ma«r/ala  is  a  circular  space  marked  by  a  line  of  water. 

6.  I  am  doubtful  whether  we  should  read  va  ^anagriyam  and 
translate  as  I  have  done  in  accordance  with  the  note  of  Naraya«a, 
or  if  the  reading  should  be  va^^anagriyam,  'not  in  the  presence 
of  people,'  so  that  ^anagriya  would  mean^ananam  agre. 

7.  On  the  expiation  (janti)  comp.  chap.  3,  12. 

3.  2,  3.  Comp.  IV,  8,  2-4. 


144  SANKHAYANA-G/2/HYA-s{jTRA. 

3.  If  that  is  impossible,  with  their  faces  to  all 
directions. 

4.  Let  them  expect  the  rising  of  the  sun, 

5.  And  when  they  behold  it  in  its  splendour, 

6.  Let  them  with  (the  words),  'Recite,  sir!'  seize 
with  their  hands,  holding  the  right  hand  uppermost, 
the  feet  of  the  teacher,  which  have  been  washed, 
with  the  right  (hand)  the  right  (foot),  with  the  left 
the  left, 

7.  And  having  then  put  (the  hands)  into  the 
vessel  used  for  the  expiation,  into  water  in  which 
pieces  of  Durva  stalks  are,  let  them  begin  their 
study,  when  their  hands  have  ceased  to  drip. 

8.  This  is  the  rite.  But  when  they  are  tired,  let 
one  of  them  bring  it  about  that  the  vessel  used  for 
the  expiation  be  not  empty. 

9.  And  all  (should  do  so)  at  the  beginning  and 
the  end  of  (each)  Adhyaya. 

10.  (All)  that  is  done  continuously,  without  inter- 
ruption. 

11.  Now  the  expiation. 

12.  The  syllable  Om,  the  Mahavyahr/tis,  the 
Savitri,  the  Rathantara,  the  Br/hat,  the  Vamadevya ; 
Br^'hat  and  Rathantara  with  repetition  and  Kakubh- 
forming. 


6.  Comp,  above,  11,  5,  10,  &c. 

7.  The  translation  of  apinvamanai;^  pa«ibhi>^  is  conjectural. 
Naraya?za's  explanation  of  apinvamana  by  SLsamsri'shia  is  in- 
admissible. 

10.  Narayawa  explains  this  Sutra  in  the  following  way.  If  it  is 
impossible,  for  any  reason,  to  recite  the  whole  text,  only  the  begin- 
ning and  the  concluding  words  of  each  Adhyaya  (see  Siltra  9)  are 
to  be  repeated;  and  these  should  be  recited  witliout  interruption  so 
as  to  form  one  continual  text. 

12.  Comp.  above,  III,  4,  5. 


VI  ADHYAVA,    4  KUANDA,    I.  1 45 


13.  These  (holy  words  and  verses)  are  (thus) 
made  to  attain  (the  number  of)  ten. 

14.  '  Of  decades  consists  the  Vira^  ' — thus  says 
the  Brahma;/a. 

KlIAA'DA    4. 

I.  '  Unerring  mind,  vigorous  eye  (is)  the  sun,  the 
noblest  of  the  stars.  Inauguration,  do  no  harm  to 
me!' — with  (these  words)  they  look  at  Savitrz  (i.  e. 
the  sun), 

13.  The  Gayatri  is  one  verse ;  the  Rathantara  and  the  Brih^t 
are  Pragathas  which  are  changed  in  the  usual  way  into  Tr//fas;  the 
Vamadevya  is  one  Tr/X'a  :  thus  the  number  of  ten  is  obtained. 

14.  Kaush.  Brahma«a  17,  3  ;   19,  5. 

4,  I.  The  formula  'Adabdha;«  mana//,'  &c.  has  to  be  recited 
before  each  of  the  single  Arawyaka  texts  (the  ^S'akvari  verses,  the 
Mahavrata,  &c.);  to  this  formula  are  added,  before  or  after  it,  as  the 
case  may  be,  other  texts  specified  in  the  Sutras  2-8.  Of  these  there 
can  be  no  doubt  about  the  meaning  of  Siilras  7,  8,  treating  of 
the  introductory  formulas  of  the  Sav^hita  section  (Kaush.  Ar. 
VII-VIII)  and  of  the  Mantha  section  (ibid.  IX)  :  before  the 
text  adabdham,  &c.  are  to  be  added,  in  the  first  case  the  for- 
mula r/taw  vadishyami,  &c.,  in  the  second  case  two  J^ikas 
addressed  to  Savitr/.  These  formulas  and  verses  have  been  re- 
ceived into  the  Arawyaka  text  and  are  found  there  in  the  order  here 
stated,  at  the  beginning  of  books  VII  and  IX.  The  meaning 
of  the  words  sawhitana/;/  tu  pfirvam  (Siitra  7)  having  thus 
been  established,  I  can  see  no  reason  why  wc  should  not  inter- 
pret the  words  jakvariwaw  tu  pfirvam  (Siitra  3)  quite  in  the 
same  way.  Thus  the  introductory  benediction  for  the  recital  of 
the  .Sakvari  verses  would  consist,  firstly  of  the  verses  stated  in 
Sulra  4,  then  of  the  formula  adabdham,  &c.;  those  verses 
would  have  to  be  repeated  again  after  the  6'akvari  verses  (end  of 
Siilra  4).  The  recitation  of  the  Mahavrata  (Sfitras  i,  2)  and  of 
the  Upanishads  (SGtra  5)  is  preceded  by  adabdham,  &c.,  and 
then  by  the  four  verses  stated  in  Siitra  2.  The  interpretation  which 
Narayawa  gives  of  this  SOtra  is  not  quite  the  same  as  that  which 
I  have  here  proposed;  see  p.  163  of  the  German  edition. 

[29]  L 


146  5ANKHAYANA-G/2/HYA-StjTRA. 


2.  One  (verse),  '  You  both  the  gladdening  one ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  131,  4),  and  the  three  (verses), '  Bless- 
ing to  us  on  the  paths'  (Rig-veda  X,  63,  15-17) 
(are  to  be  repeated  before  the  recitation)  of  the 
Mahavrata  (chapter). 

3.  But  (at  that)  of  the  ^Sakvari  (verses)  before 
(the  formula  mentioned  in  the  first  Siitra) : 

4.  The  three  Tr/Z'as,  '  To  him,  the  thirsty  one ' 
(Rig-veda  VI,  42,  1-3),  'The  wealthiest  (Soma),  O 
wealthy  one'  (VI,  44,  1-3), '  Him  who  does  no  harm 
to  you'  (VI,  44,  4-6),  (the  verse),  'To  him,  to  him 
the  sap  of  the  herb'  (VI,  42,  4),  (and  the  verse), 
'Verily  thou  art  a  hero'  (VIII,  81,  28) — thus  for  the 
^'akvari  (verses)  before  and  afterwards. 

5.  Now  for  the  Upanishad  (texts) — 

6.  The  same  (recitation)  as  for  the  Mahavrata. 

7.  For  the  Sa?;/hitas,  however,  before  (the  text 
given  in  the  first  Siltra  the  formula  has  to  be 
recited),  '  I  shall  speak  right,  I  shall  speak  truth 
(&c.)' — this  is  the  difference  (in  the  case  of  the 
Sawhitas), 

8.  Now  for  the  Mantha  the  two  verses  (have  to 
be  recited)  before  (the  formula  given  in  the  first 
Sutra),  '  This  we  entreat  of  Savitar,' '  That  glorious 
(splendour)  of  Savitar'  (Rig-veda  V,  82,  i  ;  III, 
62,  10). 

4.  According  to  the  reading  of  some  MSS.  we  should  have  to 
translate,  or  (the  verse), '  Verily,'  &c. 

7.  On  the  Sa7«hitas  (Kaush.  Ar.  VII,  VIII)  see  Max  Muller,  Rig- 
veda  Prati^akhya,  pp.  4  seq. ;  Ait.  Ara^zyaka  III  (pp.  305  seqq.,  ed. 
Bibl.  Ind. ;  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  I,  pp.  247  seq.). 

8.  Regarding  the  description  of  the  Mantha  sacrifice  (Kaush.  Ar. 
IX)  which  has  to  be  performed  by  one  who  wishes  to  attain  great- 
ness, comp.  6'atap.  Brahmawa  XIV,  9,  2 ;  AVnnd.  Up.  V,  2,  4  ; 
Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  I,  p.  75. 


VI  ADHYAYA,    5  KHAA'DA,   3.  1 47 

9.  With  (the  formula), '  Unerring  mind '  (see  Sutra 
i),  then  follow  the  expiatory  formulas  that  belong- 
to  the  (different)  sections. 

10.  (All)  this  on  one  day. 

KlIAA^DA    5. 

Kha;/^a  4,  ii.  Now  if  the  time  for  rising  has 
come,  they  drive  away  (all)  evil, 

1 2.  Perform  the  standing  expiation, 

13.  And  look  at  the  sun  with  (the  words),  '  From 
here  I  take  out  the  brightness  (?).' 

Kha;/^a  5,  i.  'That  (I  place)  within  myself — 
with  (these  words  they  turn  their  thoughts  to  the 
universal)  Self  that  is  placed  (within  themselves  ?) — 
three  times  repeated  (?). 

2.  With  (the  formula), '  May  happiness  rejoice  in 
me  and  glory ;  may  happiness  rejoice  with  me  and 
glory  ;— 

3.  '  Together  with  Indra,  with  the  hosts,  with  power, 
with  glory,  with  strength  I  will  rise ' — he  rises  up. 

II,  12.  Narayawa  has  the  following  note:  'The  evil  which  is 
attached  to  their  body,  such  as  dirt,  they  drive  away,  i.  e,  they 
remove  it  by  means  of  their  reciting  (of  the  sacred  texts),  and  then 
they  perform  the  standing  expiation  which  has  been  declared 
above,  which  begins  with  the  syllable  Om  and  with  the  I\Iaha- 
vyahr/tis'  (see  chap.  3,  12). 

5,  I.  Narayawa  says  that  dadhe  is  supplied  to  this  INIantra  from 
the  preceding  Sutra,  and  so  indeed  the  Mantra  is  given  in  the 
Aitareya  recension.  The  translation  of  abhinihita/«  trir  hitam 
is  merely  tentative;  see  Narayawa's  note,  p.  165,  of  the  German 
edition.  Perhaps  abhinihitaw  should  be  taken  in  its  grammatical 
value,  and  the  Sutra  should  be  translated,  '"That  (I  place)  into 
myself  (atmani)" — with  these  words  (they  look)  at  themselves, 
pronouncing  (the  word  atmani)  with  Abhinidhana,  three  times 
repeated  {?).'  On  abhinidhana,  comp.  Professor  Max  Muller's 
edition  of  the  Rig-vcda  Pralijakhya,  i)p.  cxvii  seqq. 

L  2 


1 48  5ANKHAYANA-Gi27HYA-sCTRA. 


4.  '  May  happiness  rise  to  me  ;  may  glory  rise  to 
me ' — when  he  has  risen. 

5.  'Hereby  I  shake  off  the  hater,  the  rival,  the 
evil  one,  and  the  bringer  of  misfortune ' — with  (this 
formula)  having  shaken  the  end  of  the  garment, — 

6.  The  hymn,  'Away  those  to  the  east'  (Rig-veda 
X,  131),  the  two  (verses),  'And  may  Indra  have 
mercy  upon  us'  (II,  41,  11.  12),  the  one  (verse), '  Of 
what  we  are  in  fear,  O  Indra'  (VIII,  50,  13) — (when 
these  texts  have  been  murmured),  they  look  with 
(the  verse),  'A  ruler  indeed,  great  art  thou'  (X, 
152,  i)  to  the  east ;  with  (the  verse), '  The  giver  of 
bliss'  (X,  152,  2)  to  the  south,  turned  to  the  right; 
with  (the  verse), 'Away  the  Rakshas'(X,  152,  3) 
to  the  west;  with  (the  verse),  'Destroy,  O  Indra, 
our'  (X,  152,  4)  to  the  north,  turned  to  the  left; 
with  (the  verse), '  Away,  O  Indra'  (X,  152,  5)  to  the 
sky,  turned  to  the  right. 

Khaa^da  6. 

1.  Having  worshipped  the  Sun  with  (the  verses), 
'  Savitr/  from  the  west/  '  This  eye '  (Rig-veda  X, 
36,  14;  VII,  66,  16), 

2.  They  turn  away,  come  back,  sit  down. 

3.  With  (the  words), '  As  the  water  is  appeased' — 
they  draw  water  out  of  the  vessel  used  for  the 
expiation, 

4.  Pour  it  out  on  the  ground, 

5.  Spread  (some)  of  that  (water  over  the  ground) 
with  (the  words),  'As  the  earth  (is  appeased),' — 

6,  2.  Naraya«a  explains  vyavartamana/^  by  paravartama- 
nadharmayukta//. 

5.  Perhaps  we  should  read  asyam  (scil.  pr/thivyam)  abhi- 


VI   ADHYAYA,    6  KIIAA^DA,   1 6.  1 49 

6.  He  (then)  smears  it  on  his  right  shoulder  with 
(the  words),  '  Thus  may  peace  dwell  in  me,' 

7.  In  the  same  way  a  second  time. 

8.  In  the  same  way  a  third  time. 

9.  '  Piece  by  piece  thou  art  produced  ;  piece  by 
piece  thou  risest  up;  bring  welfare  to  us,  O  house  !' — 
with  (this  text  they)  take  pieces  of  Durva  stalks  (out 
of  the  vessel  of  water),  put  them  on  their  heads, 

10.  (And  make  water-offerings  with  the  formulas), 
*  May  Agni  satiate  himself;  may  Vayu  satiate  him- 
self; may  Surya  satiate  himself ;  may  Vish/^u  satiate 
himself;  may  Pra^apati  satiate  himself;  may  Virti- 
paksha  satiate  himself;  may  Sahasraksha  satiate 
himself;  may  all  beings  satiate  themselves.' 

1 1.  (Then)Sumantu,  6^aimini,Vai5ampayana,  Paila, 
and  the  other  teachers  (receive  their  offerings). 

12.  (Then)  every  one  (worships  in  the  same  way) 
his  fathers. 

13.  With  (the  text),  'To  the  sea  you'  (^'raut.  IV, 
II,  11)  they  pour  out  the  water, 

14.  Murmur  the  Vamadevya, 

15.  And  separate  according  to  their  pleasure. 

16.  (The  final  benedictory  formula  runs  thus), 
'  Through  the  power  of  wisdom,  of  KS"ruti  and  Smmi, 
as  handed  down  by  tradition,  through  (that  power) 
which  has  its  measure  in  (the  Vedic  texts)  that  have 
been  gone   through (?),  and  which   is   possessed   of 

karshanti,  and  translate,  'they  draw  (lines  of  that  water)  on  this 
(earth).' 

6.  Ndrayawa  says  that  all  the  students  are  to  do  so. 

10.  Comp.  above,  IV,  9.  On  the  way  in  which  this  Tarpawa  is 
to  be  performed,  Naraya«a  refers  to  the  Siitra  II,  7,  5. 

11.  Comp.  above,  IV,  10. 

12.  Comp.  above,  IV,  10,  4-6. 


150  .9ANKHAYANA-Gi?7IIYA-S^TRA. 

undisputed  firmness,  may  peace  be  with  us  in  welfare. 
Adoration  be  to  gods,  7?/shis,  Manes,  and  men  !  May 
they  whom  we  have  adored,  make  happy  Hfe,  beauty, 
health,  peace,  incolumity,  imperishableness,  vigour, 
splendour,  glory,  power,  holy  lustre,  renown,  age, 
offspring,  cattle,  adoration,  increase.  From  wrongly 
spoken,  wrongly  used  (prayer),  from  everything  that 
is  deficient  or  excessive,  for  the  good  of  gods  and 
y?/shis,  may  the  Brahman  and  Truth  protect  me ; 
may  the  Brahman  and  Truth  protect  me !' 

End   of  the   Sixth  Adhyaya. 


End  of  the   .S'ankhayana  -  Grihya. 


A5VALAYANA-G/e/HYA- 
SUTRA. 


INTRODUCTION 


TO    THE 


A5VALAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

Most  of  the  questions  referring  to  the  Gr/hya-sutra  of 
Aj-valayana  will  be  treated  of  more  conveniently  in  con- 
nection with  the  different  subjects  which  we  shall  have  to 
discuss  in  our  General  Introduction  to  the  Gr/hya-sutras. 
Here  I  wish  only  to  call  attention  to  a  well-known  passage 
of  ShafT'gurui'ishya,  in  which  that  commentator  gives  some 
statements  on  the  works  composed  by  Aj-valayana  and  by 
his  teacher  5aunaka.  As  an  important  point  in  that 
passage  has,  as  far  as  I  can  see,  been  misunderstood  by 
several  eminent  scholars,  I  may  perhaps  be  allowed  here  to 
try  and  correct  that  misunderstanding,  though  the  point 
stands  in  a  less  direct  connection  with  the  Gr/liya-sutra  than 
with  another  side  of  the  literary  activity  of  Ai-valayana. 

Sha^T^guruj-ishya  \  before  speaking  of  Ai-valayana,  makes 

A  , 

the  following  statements  with  regard  to  Ai-valayana  s 
teacher,  5aunaka.  '  There  was,'  he  says,  '  the  vSakala 
Sa;//hita  (of  the  Rig-veda),  and  the  Bashkala  Sa;;^hita  ; 
following  these  two  Sa;//hitas  and  the  twenty-one  Brah- 
ma/^as,  adopting  principally  the  Aitareyaka  and  supple- 
menting it  by  the  other  texts,  he  who  was  revered  by 
the  whole  number  of  great  /vzshis  composed  the  first 
Kalpa-sutra.'  He  then  goes  on  to  speak  of  A^valayana  — 
'  5aunaka's  pupil  was  the  venerable  Aj-valayana.  He  who 
knew  everything  he  had  learnt  from  that  teacher,  com- 
posed a  Sutra  and  announced  (to  5aunaka  that  he  had 
done  so)-/     ^aunaka  then  destroyed  his  own  Sutra,  and 


'  Sec  Max  Miiller's  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature,  pp.  230  seqq. ; 
Indischc  Studicn,  I,  102. 

'  This  seems  to  me  to  be  the  meaning  of  siitraw  kr/tva  nyavedayat; 


154  A5VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 

determined  that  Aj-valayana's  Sutra  should  be  adopted  by 
the  students  of  that  Vedic  5akha.  Thus,  says  Sha^guru- 
jishya,  there  were  twelve  works  of  vSaunaka  by  which  a 
correct  knowledge  of  the  Rig-veda  was  preserved,  and  three 
works  of  Aj-valayana.  vSaunaka's  daj-a  granthas  were, 
the  five  Anukrama/ns,  the  two  Vidhanas,  the  Barhaddai- 
vata,  the  Pratij-akhya,  and  a  Smarta  work^  Ajvalayana, 
on  the  other  hand,  composed  the  ^rauta-sutra  in  twelve 
Adhyayas,  the  Gr/hya  in  four  Adhyayas,  and  the  fourth 
Ara;/yaka  :  this  is  Aj-valayana's  great  Sutra  composition'^. 
Here  we  have  an  interesting  and  important  statement  by 
which  the  authorship  of  a  part  of  the  Aitareyara;^yaka, 
which  would  thus  be  separated  from  the  rest  of  that  text, 
is  ascribed,  not  to  Mahidasa  Aitareya,  but  to  an  author  of 
what  maybe  called  the  historical  period  of  Vedic  antiquity, 

A 

to  Aj-valayana. 

But  what  is  the  fourth  Araz/yaka  to  which  this  passage 
refers  ?  Is  it  the  text  which  is  now  set  down,  for  instance, 
in  Dr.  Ra^endralala  Mitra's  edition,  as  the  fourth  Ara- 
wyaka  of  the  Aitareyinas  ? 

Before  we  give  an  answer  to  this  question,  attention  must 
be  called  to  other  passages  referring,  as  it  could  seem,  to 
another  part,  namely,  the  fifth  part  of  the  Arawyaka. 

Saya;za,  in  his  great  commentary  on  the  Rig-veda,  very 
frequently  quotes  the  pa«/&amara«yaka  as  belonging 
to  6'aunaka.  Thus  in  vol.  i,  p.  ii2,  ed.  Max  Muller,  he  says  : 
pa//^amara;/yaka  aush;/ihat;77'aj-itir  iti  kha.nde  5aunakena 
sutrita;/z  surfipakr/tnum  utaya  iti  tri//y  endra  sanasiw  rayim 
iti  dve  iti.  There  is  indeed  in  the  fifth  Ara;/yaka  a  chapter 
beginning  with  the  words  aush?nhi  trzkashi/i,  in  which  the 
words  quoted  by  Saya«a  occur  ^.      Similar   quotations,   in 


the  case  is  similar  to  that  where  a  pupil  goes  on  his  rounds  for  alms  and 
announces  (nivedayati)  to  his  teacher  what  he  has  received.  Prof.  Max  Muller 
translates  these  words  differently;  according  to  him  they  mean  that  A^valayana 
'  made  a  Sutra  and  taught  it.' 

*  Comp.  Prof.  Biihler's  article  in    the  Journal  As.  Soc.  of  Bengal,  1866, 
pp.  I49seqq. 

2  Dvadajadhyayaka;«  sdtTam  /tatushkaw  grihyam  eva  /&a  A-aturtharawyaka/w 
keii  hy  Axvalayanasutrakam. 

*  See  p.  448  of  Dr.  Ra^endralala  Mitra's  edition  in  the  Bibliotheca  Indica. 


INTRODUCTION.  1 55 


which  the  fifth  Ara;/yaka  is  assigned  to  ^aunaka,  are  found 
in  Saya;/a's  commentary  on  the  Ara;^yaka  itself;  see,  for 
instance,  p.  97,  line  19,  p.  116,  line  3. 

Thus  it  seems  that  the  authorship  of  both  the  fourth  and 
the  fifth  Arawyaka  was  ascribed  to  teachers  belonging  to 
the  Sutra  period  of  Vedic  literature,  viz.  to  vSaunaka  and 
to  A^yvalayana  respectively.  And  so  we  find  the  case 
stated  by  both  Professor  Weber,  in  his  '  Vorlcsungen  uber 
indische  Literaturgeschichte','  and  Dr.  Ra^cndralala  Mitra, 
in  the  Introduction  to  his  edition  of  the  Aitareya  Ara- 
wyaka  ^. 

But  we  must  ask  ourselves  :  Are  the  two  books  of  the 
Arawyaka  collection,  ascribed  to  those  two  authors,  really 
two  different  books?  It  is  a  surprising  fact  that  Sha^^gu- 
rui'ishya,  while  speaking  of  Ajvalayana's  authorship  of  the 
fourth  book,  and  while  at  the  same  time  intending,  as  he 
evidently  does,  to  give  a  complete  list  of  5aunaka's  compo- 
sitions, does  not  mention  the  fifth  Ara;/yaka  among  the 
works  of  that  author.  In  order  to  account  for  this  omission 
the  conjecture  seems  to  suggest  itself  that  Sha^/guruj-ishya, 
when  speaking  of  the  fourth  Ara/^yaka  as  belonging  to 
Ayvalayana,  means  the  same  work  which  Saya;/a  sets  down 
as  the  fifth,  and  which  he  ascribes  to  5aunaka.  At  first 
sight  this  conjecture  may  seem  perhaps  rather  hazardous 
or  unnatural ;  however  I  believe  that,  if  we  compare  the  two 
texts  themselves  which  are  concerned,  we  shall  find  it  very 
probable  and  even  evident.  What  do  those  two  Arawyaka 
books  contain?  The  fourth  is  very  short :  it  does  not  fill 
more  than  one  page  in  the  printed  edition.  Its  contents 
consist  exclusively  of  the  text  of  the  Mahanamni  or  5ak- 
vari  verses,  w^iich  seem  to  belong  to  a   not  less  remote 


^  2nd  edition,  p.  53  :  Obwohl  wir  fur  das  vicrte  Buch  des  Ictztem  (i.e.  of  the 
Aitareya  Arawyaka)  sogar  die  directe  Nachricht  habcn,  dass  cs  dem  Ajvala- 
yana,  dem  .Schiiier  eines  ^'aunaka  angehort,  so  wie  auch  femer  fiir  das  fiinfte 
Buch  dcsselben  dieser  6'aunaka  selbst  als  Urheber  gegolten  zu  haben  scheint, 
nach  dem  was  Colebrooke  Misc.  Ess.  I,  47  n.  dariiber  berichtct. 

^  P.  1 1 :  If  this  assumption  be  admitted,  the  proper  conclusion  to  be  arrived 
at  would  also  be  that  the  whole  of  the  fifth  Book  belongs  to  .Saunaka,  and 
the  whole  of  the  fourth  Book  to  Ajvalay.-ina.  P.  12  :  The  writings  of  both 
Ajvalayana  and  i'aunaka  which  occur  in  the  Arawyaka,  etc. 


156  a^-valayana-gtj/hya-sCtra. 

antiquity  than  the  average  of  the  Rig-veda  hymns.  They 
can  indeed  be  considered  as  forming  part  of  the  Rig-veda 
Sawhita,  and  it  is  only  on  account  of  the  pecuHar  mystical 
hoHness  ascribed  to  these  verses,  that  they  were  not  studied 
in  the  village  but  in  the  forest^,  and  were  consequently 
received  not  into  the  body  of  the  Sawhita  itself,  but  into 
the  Ara;zyaka.  They  are  referred  to  in  all  Brahmawa  texts, 
and  perhaps  we  can  even  go  so  far  as  to  pronounce  our 
opinion  that  some  passages  of  the  Rig-veda  hymns  them- 
selves allude  to  the  vSakvari  verses  : 

ya/^  Z'/^akvarishu  bWhata  rave;/endre  i-ushmam  ada- 
dhata  Vasish///a/i:  (Rig-veda  VII,  ^^,  4)- 

rikd^m  tva/^  posham  aste  pupushvan  gayatraw  tvo  gayati 
jakvarishu  (Rig-veda  X,  71,  11). 

So  much  for  the  fourth  Ara;zyaka.  The  fifth  contains  a 
description  of  the  Mahavrata  ceremony.  To  the  same  sub- 
ject also  the  first  book  is  devoted,  wnth  the  difference  that 
the  first  book  is  composed  in  the  Brahma;/a  style,  the  fifth 
in  the  Sutra  style  ^. 

Now  which  of  these  two  books  can  it  be  that  Shac/gu- 
ru^yishya  reckons  as  belonging  to  the  '  A^valayanasutraka  ? ' 
It  is  impossible  that  it  should  be  the  fourth,  for  the  Maha- 
namni  verses  never  were  considered  by  Indian  theologians 
as  the  work  of  a  human  author ;  they  shared  in  the  apau- 
rusheyatva  of  the  Veda,  and  to  say  that  they  have  been 
composed  by  Aj-valayana,  would  be  inconsistent  with  the 
most  firmly  established  principles  of  the  literary  history  of 
the  Veda  both  as  conceived  by  the  Indians  and  by  our- 
selves. And  even  if  we  were  to  admit  that  the  Maha- 
namni  verses  can  have  been  assigned,  by  an  author  like 
Sha<7'gurujishya,  to   Aj-valayana, — and   we    cannot   admit 


^  See  .S'ankhayana-Gri'hya  II,  12,  13. 

*  Thus  Sayawa,  in  his  note  on  V,  i,  I,  says :  Nanu  prathamarawyake^pi  atha 
mahavratam  Indro  vai  \ritvam  hatvetyadina  mahavrataprayogoibhihita/z, 
pa/7^'ameipi  tasyaivabhidhane  punarukti/^  syat.  nayaw  dosha//,  siitrabrahmawa- 
rupewa  tayor  vibhedat.  pa;7/C'amara;/yakam  rz'shiproktaw  sutraw,  prathama- 
ra;/yakan  tv  apaurusheyaw  brahma«aw.  ata  cva  tatiarthavadaprapa«/iena 
sahila  vidhaya/^  jriiyante,  pa^/tame  tu  na  ko  py  arthavados^sti  ....  arawya 
cvaitad  adhyeyam  ity  abhipretyadhyetara  arawyakaw^/^;  ^  ntarbhavyadhiyate. 


INTRODUCTION.  1 57 


this, — there  is  no  possibility  whatever  that  he  can  have 
used  the  expression 'Ai-valayanasutrakam' with  regard 
to  the  Mahanamnis ;  to  apply  the  designation  of  a  Sutra 
to  the  Mahanamni  hymn  would  be  no  less  absurd  than  to 
apply  it  to  any  Sukta  whatever  of  the  /^/k-Sawhita.     On 

A 

the  other  hand,  the  fifth  book  of  the  Ara/^yaka  is  a  Sutra  ; 
it  is  the  only  part  of  the  whole  body  of  the  Arawyaka 
collection  which  is  composed  in  the  Sfltra  style.  And  it 
treats  of  a  special  part  of  the  Rig-veda  ritual  the  rest  of 
which  is  embodied  in  its  entirety,  with  the  omission  only  of 
that  very  part,  in  the  two  great  Sutras  of  Aj-valayana. 
There  seems  to   me,  therefore,  to   be   little  doubt   as   to 

A 

the  fifth  Ara;/yaka  really  being  the  text  referred  to  by 
Shart'guruj-ishya,  though  I  do  not  know  how  to  explain  his 
setting  down  this  book  as  the  fourth.  And  I  may  add 
that  there  is  a  passage,  hitherto,  as  far  as  I  know,  un- 
noticed, in  Saya;/a's  Sama-veda  commentary,  in  which  that 
author  directly  assigns  the  fifth  Arawyaka  not,  as  in  the 
Rig-veda  commentary,  to  ^aimaka,  but  to  Aj-valayana. 
Saya;/a  there  says^:  yatha  bahvrz'/^am  adhyapaka  maha- 
vrataprayogapratipadakam  Aj'valayananirmita;;/  kalpa- 
sutram  ara/^ye  ^  dhiyamana/^  pa;7/'amam  arawyakam 
iti  vedatvena  vyavaharanti. 

Instead   of  asserting,    therefore,    that    of   the    two    last 
Ara;/yakas  of  the  Aitareyinas  the  one  is  ascribed  to  5au- 

A 

naka,  the  other  to  A.fvalayana,  we  must  state  the  case 
otherwise  :  not  two  Ara;/yakas  were,  according  to  Saya;/a 
and  Sha(/gurujishya,  composed  by  those  Sutrakaras,  but 
one,  viz.  the  fifth,  which  forms  a  sort  of  supplement  to  the 
great  body  of  the  Sutras  of  that  A'ara;/a,  and  which  is 
ascribed  either  to  5aunaka  or  to  Aj-valayana.  Perhaps 
further    research    will    enable    us    to   decide   whether    that 

A 

Sutra  portion  of  the  Ara//yaka,  or  we  may  say  quite  as 
well,  that  Ara//yaka  portion  of  the  Sutra,  belongs  to  the 
author  of  the  vS'rauta-sutra,  or  should  be  considered  as  a 
remnant  of  a  more  ancient  composition,  of  which  the  por- 
tion studied  in  the  forest  has  survived,  while  the  portion 


*  Sama-veda  (Bibl.  Indica),  vol.  i,  p.  19. 


158  A5VALAYANA-G/27HYA-sCtRA. 

which  was  taught  in  the  village  was  superseded  by  the 
more  recent  Ajvalayana-sutra. 

There  would  be  still  many  questions  with  which  an  In- 
troduction  to  A^valayana  would  have  to  deal ;  thus  the 
relation  between  A^-valayana  and  vSaunaka,  which  we  had 
intended  to  treat  of  here  with  reference  to  a  special  point, 
would  have  to  be  further  discussed  with  regard  to  several 
other  of  its  bearings,  and  the  results  which  follow  therefrom 

A 

as  to  the  position  of  Aj-valayana  in  the  history  of  Vedic 
literature  would  have  to  be  stated.  But  we  prefer  to  re- 
serve the  discussion  of  these  questions  for  the  General 
Introduction  to  the  Gr/hya-sutras. 


A5VALAYAN  A-G7?/H  YA-S  UTRA. 


Adhyaya  I,  Kaa'Z)ika  1. 

1.  The  (rites)  based  on  the  spreading  (of  the  three 
sacred  fires)  have  been  declared ;  we  shall  declare  the 
Gr^Tiya  (rites). 

2.  There  are  three  (kinds  of)  Pakaya^was,  the 
hutas,  (i.e.  the  sacrifices)  offered  over  the  fire;  over 
something  that  is  not  the  fire,  the  prahutas;  and 
at  the  feeding  of  Brahma;ms,  those  offered  in  the 
Brahman. 

3.  And  they  quote  also  i^zXas,  '  He  who  with  a 
piece  of  wood  or  with  an  oblation,  or  with  knowledge 
("veda").' 

1.  I.  The  spreading  (vitana  or,  as  it  is  also  called,  vihara  or 
vistara)  of  the  sacred  fires  is  the  taking  of  two  of  the  three  sacri- 
ficial fires,  the  Ahavaniya  fire  and  the  Dakshi«agni,  out  of  the 
Garhapatya  fire  (see,  for  instance,  Weber's  Indische  Studien,  IX, 
216  seq.).  The  rites  based  on,  or  connected  with  the  vitana,  are 
the  rites  forming  the  subject  of  the  ^rauta  ritual,  which  are  to  be  per- 
formed with  the  three  fires. 

2.  Comp.  6Vu'ikliayana-G/7liya  I,  5,  i  ;  I,  10,  7.  The  division  here 
is  somewhat  different  from  that  given  by  6'ahkhayana ;  what  Sih- 
khayana  calls  ahuta,ishere  prahuta('sacrificcd  up');  the  prahutas 
of  .Sahkhayana  form  here  no  special  category ;  the  pra  jitas  of  Sa.h- 
khayana  are  the  brahma;/i  hutas  of  Ajvalayana.  Thus  Ajvalayana 
has  three  categories,  while  6Vihkhayana  (and  quite  in  the  same  way 
Paraskara  I,  4,  i)  gives  four.  Narayawa  mentions  as  an  example 
of  prahuta  sacrifices  the  balihara«a  prescribed  below,  I,  2,  3. 

3.  Rig-veda  VIII,  19,  5,  'The  mortal  who  with  a  piece  of  wood, 
or  with  an  oblation,  or  with  knowledge  worships  Agni,  who  with 
adoration  (worships  him)  offering  rich  sacrifices,'  &c. 


1 60  A5VALAYANA-Gi?7HYA-s{JTRA. 

4.  Even  he  who  only  puts  a  piece  of  wood  (on  the 
fire)  full  of  belief,  should  think, '  Here  I  offer  a  sacri- 
fice ;  adoration  to  that  (deity) !' 

(The  Rik  quoted  above  then  sa3's),  '  He  who  with 
an  oblation' — and,  'He  who  with  knowledge ;'  even  by 
learning  only  satisfaction  is  produced  (in  the  gods). 

Seeing  this  the  i??shi  has  said,  'To  him  who  does 
not  keep  away  from  himself  the  cows,  to  him  who  longs 
for  cows,  who  dwells  in  the  sky,  speak  a  wonderful 
word,  sweeter  than  ghee  and  honey.'  Thereby  he 
means, '  This  my  word,  sweeter  than  ghee  and  honey, 
is  satisfaction  (to  the  god) ;  may  it  be  sweeter.' 

(And  another  i?2shi  says),  '  To  thee,  O  Agni,  by 
this  Rik  we  offer  an  oblation  prepared  by  our  heart ; 
may  these  be  oxen,  bulls,  and  cows.'  (Thereby  he 
means),  '  They  are  my  oxen,  bulls,  and  cows  (which 
I  offer  to  the  god),  they  who  study  this  text,  reciting 
it  for  themselves  (as  their  Svadhyaya).' 

(And  further  on  the  Rik  quoted  above  says), '  He 
who  (worships  Agni)  with  adoration,  offering  rich 
sacrifices.'  '  Verily  also  by  the  performing  of  adora- 
tion (the  gods  may  be  worshipped) ;  for  the  gods  are 
not  beyond  the  performing  of  adoration  ;  adoration 
verily  is  sacrifice' — thus  runs  a  Brahma;^a. 

4.  The  words  of  the  Rik^  'with  an  oblation,'  are  here  repeated, 
the  Vedic  instrumental  ahuti  being  replaced  and  explained  by  the 
regular  form  ahutya. 

The  following  Rik  is  taken  from  the  eighth  Ma«(^xla,  24,  20. 
The  god  compared  there  with  a  rutting  bull  is  Indra. 

The  following  verse  is  Rig-veda  VI,  16,  47  ;  we  may  doubt  as  to 
the  correctness  of  the  explanation  given  in  our  text,  by  which  te  te 
is  referred  to  the  persons  studying  the  hymns  of  the  RiA\\.  All  these 
quotations  of  course  are  meant  to  show  that  the  knowledge  of  the 
Veda  and  the  performing  of  namas  (adoration)  is  equivalent  to  a 
real  sacrifice. 


I  ADHYAYA,    2  KAA'iJIKA,  6.  l6l 


KaA^7)IKA    2. 

1.  Now  he  should  make  oblations  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning  of  prepared  sacrificial  food, 

2.  To  the  deities  of  the  Agnihotra,  to  Soma 
Vanaspati,  to  Agni  and  Soma,  to  Indra  and  Agni, 
to  Heaven  and  Earth,  to  Dhanvantari,  to  Indra,  to 
the  Vii-ve  devas,  to  Brahman. 

3.  He  says  Svaha,  and  then  he  offers  the  Balis— 

4.  To  those  same  deities,  to  the  waters,  to  the 
herbs  and  trees,  to  the  house,  to  the  domestic  deities, 
to  the  deities  of  the  ground  (on  which  the  house 
stands), 

5.  To  Indra  and  Indra's  men,  to  Yama  and 
Yama's  men,  to  Varu;^a  and  Varu;2a's  men,  to  Soma 
and  Soma's  men— these  (oblations  he  makes)  to  the 
different  quarters  (of  the  horizon,  of  which  those  are 
the  presiding  deities). 

6.  To  Brahman  and  Brahman's  men  in  the 
middle, 


2,  I.  This  is  the  Vaijvadeva  sacrifice ;  comp.  6'ahkhayana-G/-z'hya 
II,  14,  &c. 

2.  The  deities  of  the  Agnihotra  are  Silrya,  Agni,  and  Pra^apati. 
On  Soma  Vanaspati  see  the  quotations  given  in  Buhtlingk-Roth's 

Dictionary  s.  v.  vanaspati,  2. 

3.  I  think  the  division  of  the  SQtras  should  be  altered,  so  that 
svaheti  would  belong  to  Sutra  2,  and  the  third  Sutra  would  consist 
only  of  the  words  atha  baliharawam.  In  this  case  we  should 
have  to  translate, 

(i)  Now  he  should  make  oblations,  &c. 

(2)  With  the  words,  'To  the  deities  of  the  Agnihotra  (i.e.  to 

Agni,  to  Surya,  to  Pra^apati),  to  Soma  Vanaspati,  &c., 
sviiha !' 

(3)  Then  (follows)  the  offering  of  the  Balis. 

Comp.  6'ahkh.-G/7liya  II,  14,  4.  5,  which  passage  seems  to  con- 
firm the  view  expressed  here. 
5.  Manu  III,  87. 

[29]  M 


l62  A5VALAYANA-GiWHYA-SUTRA. 

7.  To  the  Vi^ve  devas,  to  all  day-walking  beings — 
thus  by  day; 

8.  To  the  night-walking  (beings) — thus  at  night. 

9.  To  the  Rakshas — thus  to  the  north. 

10.  'Svadha  to  the  fathers  (i.e.  Manes)' — with 
these  words  he  should  pour  out  the  remnants  to  the 
south,  with  the  sacrificial  cord  suspended  over  the 
right  shoulder. 

Kaatdika  3. 

1.  Now  wherever  he  intends  to  perform  a  sacrifice, 
let  him  besmear  (with  cowdung)  a  surface  of  the 
dimension  at  least  of  an  arrow  on  each  side  ;  let  him 
draw  six  lines  thereon,  one  turned  to  the  north,  to 
the  west  (of  the  spot  on  which  the  fire  is  to  be 
placed);  two  (lines)  turned  to  the  east,  at  the  two 
different  ends  (of  the  line  mentioned  first) ;  three 
(lines)  in  the  middle  (of  those  two) ;  let  him  sprinkle 
that  (place  with  water),  establish  the  (sacred)  fire 
(thereon),  put  (two  or  three  pieces  of  fuel)  on  it,  wipe 
(the  ground)  round  (the  fire),  strew  (grass)  round  (it), 
to  the  east,  to  the  south,  to  the  west,  to  the  north, 
ending  (each  time)  in  the  north.  Then  (follows) 
silently  the  sprinkling  (of  water)  round  (the  fire). 

2.  With  two  (Kui"a  blades  used  as)  strainers  the 

A 

purifying  of  the  A^ya  (Is  done). 

3.  Having  taken  two  Kui'a  blades  with  unbroken 
tops,  w^ilch  do  not  bear  a  young  shoot  in  them,  of 
the  measure  of  a  span,  at  their  two  ends  with  his 

3,  I.  Comp.  Slhkh.-Grihya.  I,  7,  6  seq.,  where  the  statements 
regarding  the  lines  to  be  drawn  are  somewhat  different,  and  the  note 
there. 

3.  Comp.  the  description  of  this  act  of  purifying  the  A.gyA,  which 
is  in  some  points  more  detailed,  in  ^'ahkh.-Gr^liya  I,  8,  14-21. 


I  ADHYAYA,    3  KANDIK.A,    lO.  163 

thumbs  and  fourth   lingers,  with   his  hands  turned 

A 

with  the  inside  upwards,  he  purifies  (the  A^ya,  from 
the  west)  to  the  east,  with  (the  words),  '  By  the 
impulse  of  Savitr/  I  purify  thee  with  this  uninjured 
purifier,  with  the  rays  of  the  good  sun' — once  with 
this  formula,  twice  silently. 

4.  The  strewing  (of  grass)  round  (the  fire)  may  be 
done  or  not  done  in  the  A^ya  offerings. 

5.  So  also  the  two  A^ya  portions  (may  optionally 
be  sacrificed)  in  the  Pakayaf;1as. 

6.  And  the  (assistance  of  a)  Brahman  (is  optional), 
except  at  the  sacrifice  to  Dhanvantari  and  at  the 
sacrifice  of  the  spit-ox  (offered  to  Rudra). 

7.  Let  him  sacrifice  with  (the  words),  '  To  such 
and  such  a  deity  svaha!' 

8.  If  there  is  no  rule  (as  to  the  deities  to  whom 
the  sacrifice  belongs,  they  are)  Agni,  Indra,  Pra^a- 
pati,  the  Vi^ve  devas,  Brahman. 

9.  (Different  Pakaya^/las,  when)  offered  at  the 
same  time,  should  have  the  same  Barhis  (sacrificial 

A 

grass),  the  same  fuel,  the  same  A^ya,  and  the  same 
(oblation  to  Agni)  Svish/akr/t. 

10.  With  reference  thereto  the  foUowino-  sacrificial 
Stanza  is  sung : 

'  He  who  has  to  perform  (different)   Pakaya^^77as, 

A 

should  offer  them  with   the   same  A^ya,  the  same 


4.  Comp.  »S'aiikh.-Gr;'hya  I,  8,  12. 

A. 

5.  On  the  two  A^yabliagas  offered  to  Agni  and  Soma  comj). 
below,  chap.  10,  13  ;  -S'ankh.-Gr/liya  I,  9,  5  seq. 

6.  Comp.  on  these  exceptions  the  SiUras  below,  I,  12,  7;  IV, 

8,  15- 

7.  Comp.  6ahkh.-Gr/hya  I,  9,  18. 

9.  On  the  oblation  to  Agni  Svish/akr/t,  see  Indische   Studien, 
IX,  217. 

U  2 


1 64  A5VALAYANA-Gi?7HYA-SUTRA. 


Barhis,  and  the  same  Svish/akr/t,  even  if  the  deity 
(of  those  sacrifices)  is  not  the  same.' 

KAiVDIKA    4. 

1.  During  the  northern  course  of  the  sun,  in  the 
time  of  the  increasing  moon,  under  an  auspicious 
Nakshatra  the  tonsure  (of  the  child's  head),  the 
initiation  (of  a  BrahmaMrin),  the  cutting  of  the 
beard,  and  marriage  (should  be  celebrated). 

2.  According  to  some  (teachers),  marriage  (may 
be  celebrated)  at  any  time. 

3.  Before  those  (ceremonies)  let  him  sacrifice  four 
A^ya  oblations — 

4.  With  the  three  (verses),  *  Agni,  thou  purifiest 
life'  (Rig-veda  IX,  66,  10  seq.),  and  with  (the  one 
verse), '  Pra^apati,  no  other  one  than  thou'  (Rig-veda 
X,  121,  10). 

5.  Or  with  the  Vyahr/tis. 

6.  According  to  some  (teachers),  the  one  and  the 
other. 

7.  N  o  such  (oblations) ,  according  to  some  (teachers). 

8.  At  the  marriage  the  fourth  oblation  with  the 
verse,  'Thou  (O  Agni)  art  Aryaman  towards  the  girls' 
(Rig-vedaV,  3,  2). 

KAiVDIKA    5. 

I.  Let  him  first  examine  the  family  (of  the  intended 
bride  or  bridegroom),  as   it  has   been  said  above, 

4.  I.  6'ahkh.-Gnhya  I,  5,  2-5. 

5.  With  the  words,  bhu/i,  bhuva//,  sva/^,  and  with  the  three 
words  together. 

6.  Thus  eight  oblations  are  offered,  four  with  the  four  7?/Z'as 
quoted  in  the  fourth  Sutra,  and  four  with  the  Vyahmis. 

7.  Neither  the  oblations  with  the  Hi'Aas  nor  those  with  the 
Vyahr/lis. 

5,  I.  ^rauta-sutra  IX,  3,  20,  'Who  on  their  mother's  as  well  as 


I  ADHYAYA,    5   KAiVDIKA,   5.  1 65 

*  Those  who  on   the   mother's  and   on   the  father's 
side.' 

2.  Let  him  give  the  girl  to  a  (young  man)  endowed 
with  intellifrence. 

3.  Let  him  marry  a  girl  that  shows  the  character- 
istics of  intelligence,  beauty,  and  moral  conduct,  and 
who  is  free  from  disease. 

4.  As  the  characteristics  (mentioned  in  the  pre- 
ceding Sutra)  are  difficult  to  discern,  let  him  make 
eight  lumps  (of  earth),  recite  over  the  lumps  the 
following  formula,  '  Right  has  been  born  first,  in  the 
beginning;  on  the  right  truth  is  founded.  For 
what  (destiny)  this  girl  is  born,  that  may  she  attain 
here.  What  is  true  may  that  be  seen,'  and  let  him 
say  to  the  girl,  '  Take  one  of  these.' 

5.  If  she  chooses  the  (lump  of  earth  taken)  from  a 
field  that  yields  two  crops  (in  one  year),  he  may 
know,  '  Her  offspring  will  be  rich  in  food.'  If  from 
a  cow-stable,  rich  in  cattle.  If  from  the  earth  of  a 
Vedi  (altar),  rich  in  holy  lustre.  If  from  a  pool 
which  does  not  dry  up,  rich  in  everything.  If  from 
a  gambling-place,  addicted  to  gambling.  If  from  a 
place  where  four  roads  meet,  wandering  to  different 
directions.  If  from  a  barren  spot,  poor.  If  from  a 
burial-ground,  (she  will)  bring  death  to  her  husband. 

on  their  father's  side  through  ten  generations  are  endowed  with 
knowledge,  austerity,  and  meritorious  works,'  &c. 

4.  I  prefer  the  reading  of  the  Bibliolheca  Indica  edition,  counte- 
nanced by  Narayawa's  commentary,  durvi^Tleyani  lakshawantti, 
&c.  The  lumps  are  to  be  taken  from  the  eight  places  mentioned 
in  Sutra  5. 

5.  No  doubt  the  correct  reading  is  not  that  given  by  NarSyawa 
and  accepted  by  Professor  Stenzler,  dvipravra^ini,  but  vipra- 
vra^int,  as  four  of  Professor  Stcnzlcr's  I\ISS.  read  (see  his  Variae 
Lectiones,  p.  48,  and  the  Petersburg  Dictionary  s.  v.  vipravra^in). 


1 66  A5VALAYANA-G/J7IlYA-StjTRA. 

Kaa'dika  G. 

1.  (The  father)  may  give  away  the  girl,  having 
decked  lier  with  ornaments,  pouring  out  a  hbation  of 
water :  this  is  the  wedding  (called)  Brahma.  A  son 
born  by  her  (after  a  wedding  of  this  kind)  brings 
purification  to  twelve  descendants  and  to  twelve 
ancestors  on  both  (the  husband's  and  the  wife's) 
sides. 

2.  He  may  give  her,  having  decked  her  with  orna- 
ments, to  an  officiating  priest,  whilst  a  sacrifice  with 
the  three  (^rauta)  fires  is  going  on  :  this  (is  the  wed- 
ding called)  Daiva.  (A  son)  brings  purification  to  ten 
descendants  and  to  ten  ancestors  on  both  sides. 

3.  They  fulfil  the  law  together  :  this  (is  the  wedding 
called)  Pra^apatya.  (A  son)  brings  purification  to 
eight  descendants  and  to  eight  ancestors  on  both 
sides. 

4.  He  may  marry  her  after  having  given  a  bull 
and  a  cow  (to  the  girl's  father) :  this  (is  the  wedding 
called)  Arsha.  (A  son)  brings  purification  to  seven 
descendants  and  to  seven  ancestors  on  both  sides. 

5.  He  may  marry  her,  after  a  mutual  agreement 
has  been  made  (between  the  lover  and  the  damsel) : 
this  (is  the  wedding  called)  Gandharva. 

6.  He  may  marry  her  after  gladdening  (her  father) 
by  money :  this  (is  the  wedding  called)  Asura. 

6,  I.  Comp.  Vasish//^a  I,  30;  Apastamba  II,  n,  17;  Baudhayana 
I,  20,  2. 

2.  VasishMa  I,  31;  Apastamba  II,  11,  19;  Baudhayana  I,  20,  5. 

3.  Baudhayana  I,  20,  3. 

4.  VaslshMa  I,  32;  Apastamba  II,  11,  18;  Baudhayana  I,  20,  4. 

5.  Vasish//;a  I,  33 ;  Apastamba  II,  11,  20;  Baudhayana  I,  20,  6. 

6.  Vasish///a  I,  35  (where  this  rite  is  designated  as  Manusha) ; 
Apastamba  II,  12,  i ;  Baudhayana  I,  20,  7. 


I  ADIIYAVA,    7  KANDIKA,   5.  1 67 

7.  He  may  carry  her  off  while  (her  relatives)  sleep 
or  pay  no  attention :  this  (is  the  wedding  called) 
Paii-a/a. 

8.  He  may  carry  her  off,  killing  (her  relatives)  and 
cleaving  (their)  heads,  while  she  weeps  and  they  weep  : 
this  (is  the  wedding  called)  Rakshasa. 

Kaa^dika  7. 

1.  Now  various  indeed  are  the  customs  of  the 
(different)  countries  and  the  customs  of  the  (different) 
villages :  those  one  should  observe  at  the  wedding. 

2.  What,  however,  is  commonly  accepted,  that  we 
shall  state. 

3.  Having  placed  to  the  west  of  the  fire  a  mill- 
stone, to  the  north-east  (of  the  fire)  a  water-pot,  he 
should  sacrifice,  while  she  takes  hold  of  him.  Stand- 
ing, with  his  face  turned  to  the  west,  while  she  is 
sitting  and  turns  her  face  to  the  east,  he  should  with 
(the  formula),  '  I  seize  thy  hand  for  the  sake  of 
happiness'  seize  her  thumb  if  he  desires  that  only 
male  children  may  be  born  to  him  ; 

4.  Her  other  fingers,  (if  he  is)  desirous  of  female 
(children) ; 

5.  The  hand  on  the  hair-side  together  with  the 

7.  Baudhayana  I,  20,  9. 

8.  Vasish//ia  I,  34  (where  this  rite  is  called  Kshatra) ;  Apastamba 
II,  21,2;  Baudhayana  I,  20,  8,  The  text  of  this  SQtra  seems  to  be 
based  on  a  hemistich  hatva  bhittva  kti  jirshawi  rudadbhyo 
rudatiOT  haret;  comp.  Manu  III,  33. 

7,  3.  Professor  Stenzler  is  evidently  right  in  taking  ajmanam  as 
in  apposition  to  dr/shadam.  Naraya«a  says,  dr«shat  prasiddha 
asm!  tatputraka>^.  tatrobhayo/;  pratish/Z/apanaw  siddham. 

The  sacrifice  is  that  prescribed  in  6'ahkh.-Gr/'hya  I,  12,  11.  12. 
Regarding  the  rite  that  follows,  comp.  6'ankh.-Gr/hya  I,  13,  2. 


l68  A,SVALAYANA-G7?7HYA-sdTRA. 

thumb,    (if)    desirous    of    both     (male    and    female 
children). 

6.  Leadine  her  three  times  round  the  fire  and  the 
water-pot,  so  that  their  right  sides  are  turned  towards 
(the  fire,  &c.),  he  murmurs,  'This  am  I,  that  art 
thou;  that  art  thou,  this  am  I  ;  the  heaven  I,  the 
earth  thou;  the  Saman  I,  the  Rik  thou.  Come! 
Let  us  here  marry.  Let  us  beget  offspring. 
Loving,  bright,  with  genial  mind  may  we  live  a 
hundred  autumns.' 

7.  Each  time  after  he  has  lead  her  (so)  round,  he 
makes  her  tread  on  the  stone  with  (the  words), '  Tread 
on  this  stone ;  like  a  stone  be  firm.  Overcome  the 
enemies ;  tread  the  foes  down.' 

8.  Having  *  spread  under'  (i.e.  having  first  poured 
A^a  over  her  hands),  her  brother  or  a  person  acting 
in  her  brother's  place  pours  fried  grain  twice  over 
the  wife's  joined  hands. 

9.  Three  times  for  descendants  of  6'amadagni. 

10.  He  pours  again  (A^a)  over  (what  has  been 
left  of)  the  sacrificial  food, 

1 1.  And  over  what  has  been  cut  off. 

1 2.  This  is  the  rule  about  the  portions  to  be  cut  off. 

1 3.  '  To  god  Aryaman  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice, 

■   6.  ^'afikhayana-Gr^'hya  I,  13,  4.  9.  13. 

7.  6'ankhayana-Grz'hya  I,  13,  12. 

8.  ^'ankhayana-Gr/'hya  I,  13,  15.  16. 

9.  The  two  portions  of  fried  grain  poured  over  the  bride's  hands, 
together  with  the  first  (upastarawa)  and  the  second  (pratyabhigha- 
ra«a)  pouring  out  of  A^ya,  constitute  the  four  Avattas,  or  portions 
cut  off  from  the  Havis.  The  descendants  of  G^amadagni  were 
pa7l>^avattinas,  i.e.  they  used  to  cut  off  five  such  portions  (see 
Katyayana  I,  9,  3 ;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  95) ;  so  they  had 
to  pour  out  the  fried  grain  three  times. 

13.  .Sahkhayana-Grzliya  I,  18,  3;   13,  17;   i4>  i- 


I    ADHYAYA,    7    KAiVDIKA,    1 9.  1 69 

to  Agnl ;  may  he,  god  Aryaman,  loosen  her  from  this, 
and  not  from  that  place,  Svaha ! 

'  To  god  Varu;/a  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice,  to 
Agni ;  may  he,  god  Varu72a,  &c. 

*  To  god  Pushan  the  girls  have  made  sacrifice,  to 
Agni ;  may  he,  god  Pushan,  &c.' — with  (these  verses 
recited  by  the  bridegroom)  she  should  sacrifice  (the 
fried  grain)  without  opening  her  joined  hands,  as  if 
(she  did  so)  with  the  (spoon  called)  Sru/c. 

14.  Without  that  leading  round  (the  fire,  she  sacri- 
fices grain)  with  the  neb  of  a  basket  towards  herself 
silently  a  fourth  time. 

1 5.  Some  lead  the  bride  round  each  time  after  the 
fried  grain  has  been  poured  out :  thus  the  two  last 
oblations  do  not  follow  immediately  on  each  other. 

16.  He  then  loosens  her  two  locks  of  hair,  if  they 
are  made,  (i.  e.  if)  two  tufts  of  wool  are  bound  round 
her  hair  on  the  two  sides, — 

I  7.  With  (the  A^//'),  *  I  release  thee  from  the  band 
of  Varu^^a'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  24). 

1 8.  The  left  one  with  the  following  {BtVc). 

19.  He  then  causes  her  to  step  forward  in  a  north- 
eastern direction  seven  steps  with  (the  words),  *  For 
sap  with  one  step,  for  juice  with  two  steps,  for  thriv- 
ing of  wealth  with  three  steps,  for  comfort  with  four 
steps,  for  offspring  with  five  steps,  for  the  seasons 

14,  15.  According  to  those  teachers  whose  opinion  is  related  in 
Sutras  6-14,  the  leading  round  the  fire,  the  treading  on  the  stone, 
and  the  offering  of  fried  grain  (with  the  three  parts  of  the  IMantra, 
Sfitra  1 3)  are  repeated  thrice ;  then  follows  the  offering  prescribed  in 
SGtra  14,  so  that  the  last  two  offerings  follow  immediately  on  each 
other.  This  is  not  the  case,  if  in  the  first  three  instances  the  order 
of  the  different  rites  is  inverted,  as  stated  in  Sutra  15. 

In  Siitra  14  Narayawa  explains  jurpapu/a  by  ko«a. 

19.  6'ahkhayana-Gn'hya  I,  14,  5.  6;  13,  2;  Paraskara  I,  8,  i. 


I  70  ^5VALAYANA-Gi?7HYA-sOTRA. 

with  six  Steps.  Be  friend  with  seven  steps.  So  be 
thou  devoted  to  me.  Let  us  acquire  many  sons 
who  may  reach  old  age  ! ' 

20.  Joining  together  their  two  heads,  (the  bride- 
groom ?  the  A/^arya  ?)  sprinkles  them  (with  water) 
from  the  water-pot. 

21.  And  she  should  dwell  that  night  in  the  house 
of  an  old  Brahma7/a  woman  whose  husband  is  alive 
and  whose  children  are  alive. 

22.  When  she  sees  the  polar-star,  the  star  Arun- 
dhati,  and  the  seven  J^ishls  (ursa  major),  let  her 
break  the  silence  (and  say),  '  May  my  husband  live 
and  I  get  offspring.' 

KAiVDIKA   8. 

1.  If  (the  newly-married  couple)  have  to  make  a 
journey  (to  their  new  home),  let  him  cause  her  to 
mount  the  chariot  with  the  (verse),  '  May  Piishan 
lead  thee  from  here  holding  thy  hand'  (Rig-veda  X, 
85,  26). 

2.  With  the  hemistich,  *  Carrying  stones  (the  river) 
streams;  hold  fast  each  other'  (Rig-veda  X,  53,  8) 
let  him  cause  her  to  ascend  a  ship. 

3.  With  the  following  (hemistich)  let  him  make 
her  descend  (from  it). 

4.  (He  pronounces  the  verse),  'The  living  one 
they  bewail'  (Rig-veda  X,  40,  10),  if  she  weeps. 

5.  They  constantly  carry  the  nuptial  fire  in  front. 

20.  ^ahkhayana-Gnliya  I,  14,  9;  Paraskara  I,  8,  5. 

22.  -S'ahkhayana-Gri'hya  I,  17,  2  seq.;  Paraskara  I,  8,  19. 

8,  I.  6'ahkhayana-Grz'hya  I,  15,  13. 

2.  xS'ahkhayana-Gn'hya  I,  15,  17.  18. 

4.  6'ankhayana-Gn'hya  I,  15,  2. 


I    ADHYAYA,    8    KAA^DIKA,    1 3.  171 

6.  At  lovely  places,  trees,  and  cross-ways  let  him 
murmur  (the  verse),  '  May  no  waylayers  meet  us' 
(Rig-veda  X,  85,  32). 

7.  At  every  dwelling-place  (on  their  way)  let  him 
look  at  the  lookers  on,  with  (the  verse),  '  Good  luck 
brings  this  woman'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  7^;^). 

8.  With  (the  verse), '  Here  may  delight  fulfil  itself 
to  thee  through  offspring'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  27)  he 
should  make  her  enter  the  house. 

9.  Having  given  its  place  to  the  nuptial  fire,  and 
having  spread  to  the  west  of  it  a  bull's  hide  with  the 
neck  to  the  east,  with  the  hair  outside,  he  makes 
oblations,  while  she  is  sitting  on  that  (hide)  and  takes 
hold  of  him,  with  the  four  (verses),  '  May  Pra^apati 
create  offspring  to  us'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  43  seq.), 
verse  by  verse,  and  with  (the  verse),  '  May  all  the 
gods  unite'  (Rig-veda  X,  85,  47),  he  partakes  of 
curds  and  gives  (thereof)  to  her,  or  he  besmears 
their  two  hearts  with  the  rest  of  the  A^'a  (of  which 
he  has  sacrificed). 

10.  From  that  time  they  should  eat  no  saline  food, 
they  should  be  chaste,  wear  ornaments,  sleep  on  the 
ground  three  nights  or  twelve  nights ; 

11.  Or  one  year,  (according  to)  some  (teachers); 
thus,  they  say,  a  7?/shi  will  be  born  (as  their  son). 

12.  When  he  has  fulfilled  (this)  observance  (and 
has  had  intercourse  with  his  wife),  he  should  give 
the  bride's  shift  to  (the  Brdhma;^a)  who  knows  the 
Silrya  hymn  (Rig-veda  X,  85); 

13.  Food  to  the  Brahma?^as  ; 

6.  ^ankhayana-G/'/liya  I,  15,  14. 

8.  5ahk.hayaila-Gr/'hya  I,  15,  22;  16,  12. 

9.  6"ahkhayana-Gr/'hya  I,  16,  i.  2. 
12.  6'ahkhayana-Gr/'hya  I,  14,  12. 


I  72  AS'VALAYANA-GiJ/HYA-SUTRA. 

14.  Then  he  should  cause  them  to  pronounce 
auspicious  words. 

Kajvdika  9. 

1.  Beginning  from  the  seizing  of  (the  bride's) 
hand  (i.  e.  from  the  wedding),  he  should  worship  the 
domestic  (fire)  himself,  or  his  wife,  or  also  his  son,  or 
his  daughter,  or  a  pupil. 

2.  (The  fire)  should  be  kept  constantly. 

3.  When  it  goes  out,  however,  the  wife  should 
fast :  thus  (say)  some  (teachers). 

4.  The  time  for  setting  it  in  a  blaze  and  for 
sacrificing  in  it  has  been  explained  by  (the  rules 
given  with  regard  to)  the  Agnihotra, 

5.  And  the  sacrificial  food,  except  meat. 

6.  But  if  he  likes  he  may  (perform  the  sacrifice) 
with  rice,  barley,  or  sesamum. 

7.  He  should  sacrifice  in  the  evening  with  (the 
formula),  'To  Agni  svaha!'  in  the  morning  with 
(the  formula),  *  To  Surya  svaha!'  Silently  the 
second  (oblations)  both  times. 

KAiVJ3IKA    10. 

1.  Now  the  oblations  of  cooked  food  on  the  (two) 
Parvan  (i.  e.  the  new  and  full  moon)  days. 

2.  The  fasting  (which  takes  place)  thereat  has 
been  declared  by  (the  corresponding  rules  regarding) 
the  Dar^apun^amasa  sacrifices. 

9,  I.  Comp.  6'aiikhayana-Gr;'hya  II,  17,  3. 

4.  -Sahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  i,  12;  Ajvalayana-6'rauta  II,  2. 

5.  Ajvalayana-6'rauta  II,  3,  i  seq.  Naraya«a:  By  the  prohibi- 
tion of  meat  which  is  expressed  in  the  words  '  Except  meat,'  it  is  to 
be  understood  that  the  food  to  be  sacrificed,  as  stated  in  other  ^'astras, 
may  hkewise  be  chosen. 


I    ADHYAYA,     lO    KAiVi;IKA,    12.  1 73 

3.  And  (so  has  been  declared)  the  binding  together 
of  the  fuel  and  of  the  Barhis, 

4.  And  the  deities  (to  whom  those  oblations 
belong),  with  the  exception  of  the  U p^?usuy3.£-a. 
(offerings  at  which  the  formulas  are  repeated  with 
low  voice),  and  of  Indra  and  Mahendra. 

5.  Other  deities  (may  be  worshipped)  according 
to  the  wishes  (which  the  sacrificer  connects  with 
his  offerings). 

6.  For  each  single  deity  he  pours  out  four  hands- 
ful  (of  rice,  barley,  &c.),  placing  two  purifiers  (i.  e. 
Ku.s'a  blades,  on  the  vessel),  with  (the  formula), 
'  Agreeable  to  such  and  such  (a  deity)  I  pour  thee 
out.' 

7.  He  then  sprinkles  them  (those  four  portions  of 
Havis  with  water)  in  the  same  way  as  he  had  poured 
them  out,  with  (the  formula),  'Agreeable  to  such  and 
such  (a  deity)  I  sprinkle  thee.' 

8.  When  (the  rice  or  barley  grains)  have  been 
husked  and  cleansed  from  the  husks  three  times,  let 
him  cook  (the  four  portions)  separately, 

9.  Or  throwing  (them)  together. 

10.  If  he  cooks  them  separately,  let  him  touch  the 
grains,  after  he  has  separated  them,  (and  say,) '  This 
to  this  god ;  this  to  this  god.' 

1 1.  But  if  he  (cooks  the  portions)  throwing  (them) 
together,  he  should  (touch  and)  sacrifice  them,  after 
he  has  put  (the  single  portions)  into  different  vessels. 

12.  The   portions   of  sacrificial  food,  when  they 

10,  3.  See  Ajvalayana-^rauta  I,  3,  28  Scholion;  Katy.-^rauta 
II,  7,  22. 

4.  See  Hillebrandt,  Das  altindische  Neu-  unci  Vollmondsopfer, 
p.  hi;  my  note  on  iS'ahkhayana-Gr/'hya  I,  3,  3. 

12.  In  the  Mantra  we  have  a  similar  play  upon  words  (iddha, 


I  74  A5VAlAyANA-G/?7IIYA-S^TRA. 

A 

have  been  cooked,  he  sprinkles  (with  A^ya),  takes 
them  from  the  fire  towards  the  north,  places  them 

A 

on  the  Barhis,  and  sprinkles  the  fuel  with  A^ya 
with  the  formula,  '  This  fuel  is  thy  self,  6^atavedas ; 
thereby  burn  thou  and  increase,  and,  O  burning 
One,  make  us  increase  and  through  offspring,  cattle, 
holy  lustre,  and  nourishment  make  us  prosper. 
Svaha!' 

A 

13.  Having  silently  poured  out  the  two  Agharas 
(or  A^a  oblations  poured  out  with  the  Sruva,  the 
one  from  north-west  to  south-east,  the  other  from 
south-west  to  north-east),  he  should  sacrifice  the  two 
A^ya  portions  with  (the  formulas),  '  To  Agni 
svaha!     To  Soma  svaha!' — 

14.  The  northern  one  belonging  to  Agni,  the 
southern  one  to  Soma. 

15.  It  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti), '  The  two  eyes 
indeed  of  the  sacrifice  are  the  A^ya  portions, 

16.  'Therefore  of  a  man  w^ho  is  sitting  with  his 
face  to  the  west  the  southern  (i.  e.  right)  eye  is 
northern,  the  northern  (i.  e.  left)  eye  is  southern.' 

17.  In  the  middle  (of  the  two  A^ya  portions  he 

lit,  or  burning,  and  samedhaya,  make  us  prosper)  as  in  ^ahkh.- 
Gn'hya  II,  10,  4. 

13.  Paraskara  I,  5,  3 ;  6'ahkh.-Gr/hya  I,  9,  5  seq. 

14.  Sahkh.-Gn'hya.  I,  9,  7. 

15.  Professor  Stenzler  here  very  pertinently  refers  to  xSatapatha 
Brahmawa  I,  6,  3,  38. 

16.  It  is  doubtful  whether  this  paragraph  should  be  considered 
as  forming  part  of  the  quotation  from  the  6'ruti.  The  object  of 
this  passage  is,  in  my  opinion,  to  explain  why  the  southern  A^ya- 
bhaga  belongs  to  Soma,  who  is  the  presiding  deity  of  the  north, 
and  the  northern  A^yabhaga  to  Agni,  the  presiding  deity  of  the 
south-east.  Professor  Stenzler's  opinion  about  this  paragraph  is 
somewhat  different. 

17.  -Sankh.-Gr/liya  I,  9,  8. 


I   ADIIYAYA,    lO   KAA'DIKA,    25.  1 75 

sacrifices  the   other)    Havis,  or  more   to   the  west, 
finishing  (the  oblations)  in  the  east  or  in  the  north, 

18.  To  the  north-east  the  oblation  to  (Agni) 
Svish/ak;7t. 

19.  He  cuts  off  (the  Avadana  portions)  from  the 
Havis  from  the  middle  and  from  the  eastern  part  ; 

20.  From  the  middle,  the  eastern  part  and  the 
western  part  (the  portions  have  to  be  cut  off)  by 
those  who  make  five  Avadanas  ; 

21.  From  the  northern  side  the  portion  for  Svish- 
/akr/t. 

A 

22.  Here  he  omits  the  second  pouring  (of  A^ya) 
over  (what  is  left  of)  the  sacrificial  food. 

23.  'What  I  have  done  too  much  in  this  ceremony, 
or  what  I  have  done  here  too  little,  all  that  may 
Agni  Svish/akr/t,  he  who  knows  it,  make  well  sacri- 
ficed and  well  offered  for  me.  To  Aorni  Svish/akr/t, 
to  him  who  offers  the  oblations  for  general  expiation, 
so  that  they  are  well  offered,  to  him  who  makes  us 
succeed  in  what  we  desire  !  Make  us  in  all  that  we 
desire  successful !     Svaha  !' 

24.  He  pours  out  the  full  vessel  on  the  Barhis. 

25.  This  is  the  Avabhr/tha. 

19,  20.  See  above,  the  note  on  I,  7,  9  about  the  Avadana  portions 
and  the  peculiar  custom  of  the  descendants  of  Gamadagni  with 
regard  to  them. 

22.  Comp.  above,  I,  7,  10.  'Here 'means,  at  the  Svish/akr/t 
oblation. 

23.  Comp.  Paraskara  I,  2,  11;  .Satapatha  Brahniawa  XIV,  9, 
4,  24.  On  the  oblations  for  general  expiation  (sarvapraya^X'itta- 
huti)  comp.  iSaiikh.-Gr/hya  I,  9,  12,  and  the  note. 

24.  'A  full  vessel  which  has  been  put  down  before,  he  should 
now  pour  out  on  the  Barhis.'     Naraya«a. 

25.  This  pouring  out  of  the  vessel  holds  here  the  place  of  the 
Avabhrnha  bath  at  the  end  of  the  Soma  sacrifice.  See  Weber, 
Indische  Studicn,  X,  393  seq. 


I  76  A5VALAYANA-G/?/nYA-s{JTRA. 

26.  This  is  the  standard  form  of  the  Pakayaj^;7as. 

27.  What  has  been  left  of  the  Havis  is  the  fee  for 
the  sacrifice. 

Kaa^dika  11. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  ritual  of  the  animal  sacrifice. 

2.  Having  prepared  to  the  north  of  the  fire  the 
place  for  the  ^'amitra  fire,  having  given  drink  (to 
the  animal  which  he  is  going  to  sacrifice),  having 
washed  the  animal,  having  placed  it  to  the  east  (of 
the  fire)  with  its  face  to  the  west,  having  made 
oblations  with  the  two  Rik2iS,  '  Agni  as  our  mes- 
senger' (Rig-veda  I,  12,  i  seq.),  let  him  touch  (the 
animal)  from  behind  with  a  fresh  branch  on  which 
there  are  leaves,  with  (the  formula),  'Agreeable  to 
such  and  such  (a  deity)  I  touch  thee.' 

3.  He  sprinkles  it  from  before  with  water  in  which 
rice  and  barley  are,  with  (the  formula), 'Agreeable  to 
such  and  such  (a  deity)  I  sprinkle  thee.' 

4.  Having  given  (to  the  animal)  to  drink  of  that 
(water),  he  should  pour  out  the  rest  (of  it)  along  its 
right  fore-foot. 

5.  Having  carried  fire  round  (it),  performing  that 
act  only  (without  repeating  a  corresponding  Mantra), 
they  lead  it  to  the  north. 

6.  In  front  of  it  they  carry  a  fire-brand. 


11,  2.  The  5'amitra  fire  (literally,  the  fire  of  the  Samxtn,  who 
prepares  the  flesh  of  the  immolated  animal)  is  the  one  mentioned 
below  in  Sutras  7  and  10.  Comp.  Indische  Studien,  X,  345. 
'I  touch  thee'  is  upakaromi;  comp.  Katyayana-6'rauta-sutra 
VI,  3,  19.  26. 

6.  It  seems  that  this  fire-brand  is  the  same  which  had  been 
carried  round  the  animal,  according  to  Sutra  5.  Comp.  Katyayana- 
6'rauta-sutra  VI,  5,  2-5. 


I    ADHYAYA,    II   KAiVDIKA,   12.  1 77 

7.  This  is  the  6'amitra  (fire). 

8.  With  the  two  V a.pa.srapa.?n  ladles  the  'per- 
former' touches  the  animal. 

9.  The  sacrificer  (touches)  the  performer. 

10.  To  the  west  of  the  6'amitra  (fire)  he  (the 
vSamitrz)  kills  (the  animal),  the  head  of  which  is 
turned  to  the  east  or  to  the  west,  the  feet  to  the 
north  ;  and  having  placed  a  grass-blade  on  his  side 
of  the  (animal's)  navel,  (the  '  performer ')  draws  out 
the  omentum,  cuts  off  the  omentum,  seizes  it  with 
the  two  Agnii'rapa;^is,  sprinkles  it  with  water,  warms 
it  at  the  ^'amitra  (fire),  takes  it  before  that  fire, 
roasts  it,  being  seated  to  the  south,  goes  round  (the 
two  fires),  and  sacrifices  it. 

11.  At  the  same  fire  they  cook  a  mess  of  food. 

12.  Having  cut  off  the  eleven  Avadanas  (or  por- 
tions which  have  to  be  cut  off)  from  the  animal,  from 
all  its  limbs,  having  boiled  them  at  the  ^'amitra  (fire), 

7.  Comp.  Sutra  c. 

8.  On  the  two  Vapajrapams,  comp.  Katyayana-.S'rauta-sutra 
VI,  5,  7;  Indische  Studien,  X,  345.  The  act  which  is  here  attri- 
buted to  the  kartr/  ('performer'),  belongs  in  the  3'rauta  ritual  to 
the  incumbencies  of  the  Pratiprasthatr?'. 

10.  On  the  way  in  which  animals  had  to  bo  killed  at  sacrifices, 
see  Weber's  Indische  Studien,  IX,  222  seq. 

On  the  position  of  the  head  and  the  feet  of  the  victim,  comp.  Katya- 
yana-6'rauta-s(itra  VI,  5,  16.  17. 

According  to  Katyayana  VI,  6,  8  seq.  a  grass-blade  is  placed  on 
the  dead  animal's  body  before  the  navel  (agre/za  nabhim) ;  through 
that  grass-blade  he  cuts  into  the  body  and  draws  out  the  omentum. 

'  That  fire '  is,  according  to  Narayawa,  not  the  ^amitra  but  the 
Aupasana  fire.  In  the  same  way  in  the  ^rauta  ritual  the  warming 
of  the  omentum  is  performed  at  the  ^Samitra,  the  boiling  at  the 
Ahavaniya  fire.     Katyayana  VI,  6,  13.  16. 

11.  The  AupAsana  fire  is  referred  to. 

1 2.  The  eleven  portions  are  indicated  by  Katyayana,  6'rauta-sQtra 
VI,  7,  6. 

[29]  N 


178  A5VALAYANA-Gi2/HYA-StjTRA. 


and  having  warmed  the  heart  on  a  spit,  let  him  sacri- 
fice first  from  the  mess  of  cooked  food  (mentioned  in 

Slitra  11) ; 

13.  Or  together  with  the  Avadana  portions. 

14.  From  each  of  the  (eleven)  Avadanas  he  cuts 
off  two  portions. 

15.  They  perform  the  rites  only  (without  corre- 
sponding Mantras)  with  the  heart's  spit  (i.  e.  the  spit 
on  which  the  heart  had  been  ;  see  Siltra  12). 

KAiVDIKA    12. 

1.  At  a  A^aitya  sacrifice  he  should  before  the 
Svish/akm  (offering)  offer  a  Bali  to  the  A^aitya. 

2.  If,  however,  (the  iTaitya)  is  distant,  (he  should 
send  his  Bali)  through  a  leaf-messenger. 

14.  'A  PaTiiavattin  cuts  off  three  portions.  Having  performed  the 
Upastarawa  and  the  Pratyabhigharawa  (the  first  and  second  pouring 
out  of  A^ya)  he  sacrifices  (the  cut-off  portions).'     Naraya«a. 

15.  On  the  rites  regarding  the  spit,  see  Katyayana  VI,  10,  i  seq. ; 
Indische  Studien,  X,  346. 

12,  I.  There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  Professor  Stenzler  is 
right  in  giving  to  /^aitya  in  this  chapter  its  ordinary  meaning  of 
religious  shrine  ('  Denkmal ').  The  text  shows  that  the  iTaitya 
sacrifice  was  not  offered  hke  other  sacrifices  at  the  sacrificer's  home, 
but  that  in  some  cases  the  offering  would  have  to  be  sent,  at  least 
symbolically,  to  distant  places.  This  confirms  Professor  Stenzler's 
translation  of /^aity a.  Naraya^za  explains  /^aitya  by  /^itte  bhava, 
and  says,  '  If  he  makes  a  vow  to  a  certain  deity ,^  saying,  "  If  I 
obtain  such  and  such  a  desire,  I  shall  offer  to  thee  an  A^ya  sacrifice, 
or  a  Sthalipaka,  or  an  animal" — and  if  he  then  obtains  what  he 
had  wished  for  and  performs  that  sacrifice  to  that  deity  :  this  is  a 
y^aitya  sacrifice.'  I  do  not  know  anjthing  that  supports  this 
statement  as  t-o  the  meaning  of /^aitya. 

2.  '  He  should  make  of  a  leaf  a  messenger  and  a  carr}ang-pole.' 
Narayawa. 

It  is  not  clear  whether  besides  this  image  of  a  messenger  there 
was  also  a  real  messenger  who  had  to  carry  the  Bali  to  the  ^aitya, 


I    ADHYAYA,    I  3  KAJVDIKA,    2.  I  79 

3.  With  the  Rik\  '  Where  thou  knowest,  O  tree ' 
(Rig-veda  V,  5,  10),  let  him  make  two  hmips  (of 
food),  put  them  on  a  carrying-pole,  hand  them  over 
to  the  messenger,  and  say  to  him,  '  Carry  this  Bali  to 
that  (A'aitya).' 

4-  (H^  gives  him  the  lump)  which  is  destined  for 
the  messenger,  with  (the  words),  '  This  to  thee.' 

5.  If  there  is  anything  dangerous  between  (them 
and  the  A'aitya),  (he  gives  him)  some  weapon  also. 

6.  If  a  navigable  river  is  between  (them  and 
the  A'aitya,  he  gives  him)  also  something  like  a 
raft  with  (the  words),  '  Hereby  thou  shalt  cross.' 

7.  At  the  Dhanvantari  sacrifice  let  him  offer  first 
a  Bali  to  the  Purohita,  between  the  Brahman  and 
the  fire. 


KAiVDIKA    13. 

1.  The  Upanishad  (treats  of)  the  Garbhalam- 
bhana,  the  Puwsavana,  and  the  Anavalobhana  (i.  e. 
the  ceremonies  for  securing  the  conception  of  a  child, 
the  male  gender  of  the  child,  and  for  preventing 
disturbances  which  could  endanger  the  embryo). 

2.  If  he    does    not   study  (that    Upanishad),    he 


or  whether  the  whole  rile  was  purely  symbohcal,   and  based  on 
the  principle:  In  sacris  ficta  pro  veris  accipiuntur. 
3.  Comp.  Paraskara  III,  11,  10. 

6.  Paraskara  111,  11,  11, 

7.  Comp.  above,  chap.  3,  6. 

13,  I.  Narayawa  evidently  did  not  know  the  Upanishad  here  re- 
ferred to;  he  states  that  it  belongs  to  another  iS'akha.  Comp. 
Professor  I\Iax  MUlIer's  note  on  Brzliad  Arawyaka  VI,  4,  24 
(S.  B.  E.,  vol.  XV,  p.  222). 

2.  '  He  should  give  her  the  two  beans  as  a  symbol  of  the 
testicles,  and  the  barley  grain  as  a  symbol  of  the  penis.'    Naraya«a. 

N   2 


1 80  A5'VALAYANA-G/?7HYA-SUTRA. 

should  ill  the  third  month  of  her  pregnancy,  under 
(the  Nakshatra)  Tishya,  give  to  eat  (to  the  wife), 
after  she  has  fasted,  in  curds  from  a  cow  which  has 
a  calf  of  the  same  colour  (with  herself),  two  beans 
and  one  barley  grain  for  each  handful  of  curds. 

3.  To  his  question,  '  What  dost  thou  drink  ? 
What  dost  thou  drink  ? '  she  should  thrice  reply, 
'  Generation  of  a  male  child  !  Generation  of  a  male 
child!' 

4.  Thus  three  handfuls  (of  curds). 

5.  He  then  inserts  into  her  right  nostril,  in  the 
shadow  of  a  round  apartment,  (the  sap  of)  an  herb 
which  is  not  faded, 

6.  According  to  some  (teachers)  with  the  Pra^avat 
and  ^Tivaputra  hymns. 

7.  Having  sacrificed  of  a  mess  of  cooked  food 
sacred  to  Pra^apati,  he  should  touch  the  place  of 
her  heart  with  the  (verse,)  '  What  is  hidden,  O  thou 
whose  hair  is  well  parted,  in  thy  heart,  in  Pra^apati, 
that  I  know ;  such  is  my  belief.  May  I  not  fall 
into  distress  that  comes  from  sons.' 

5.  Narayawa  (comp.  also  the  Prayogaratna,  folio  40  ;  Ajvalaya- 
niya-Gnliya-Parijish/a  I,  25;  MS.  Chambers  667)  separates  this 
rite  from  the  ceremony  described  in  Sfitras  2-4.  He  says  that 
Siltras  2-4 — as  indeed  is  evidently  the  case — refer  to  the  Puwsa- 
vana,  and  in  Sutra  5  begins  the  Anavalobhana  (comp.  garbhara- 
ksha«a,  ^ahkh.  I,  21).  To  me  it  seems  more  probable  that  the 
text  describes  one  continuous  ceremony.  There  is  no  difficulty  in 
supposing  that  of  the  Anavalobhana,  though  it  is  mentioned  in 
Sfitra  I,  no  description  is  given  in  the  following  Siltras,  the  same 
being  the  case  undoubtedly  with  regard  to  the  Garbhalambhana, 
of  which  a  description  is  found  in  the  Ajv.-Parijish/a  I,  25. 

6.  Two  texts  commencing  a  te  garbho  yonim  etu  and  Agnir 
etu  prathama/i.  See  Stenzler's  Various  Readings,  p.  48,  and  the 
Bibliotheca  Indica  edition,  p.  61. 


I    ADHYAYA,   I4  KAA^DIKA,     7.  181 


Kaa^dika  14. 

1.  In  the  fourth  month  of  pregnancy  the  Siman- 
tonnayana  (or  parting  of  the  hair,  is  performed). 

2.  In  the  fortnight  of  the  increasing  moon,  when 
the  moon  stands  in  conjunction  with  a  Nakshatra 
(that  has  a  name)  of  mascuHne  gender — 

3.  Then  he  gives  its  place  to  the  fire,  and  having 
spread  to  the  west  of  it  a  bull's  hide  with  the  neck 
to  the  east,  with  the  hair  outside,  (he  makes  obla- 
tions,) while  (his  wife)  is  sitting  on  that  (hide)  and 
takes  hold  of  him,  with  the  two  (verses),  '  May 
Dhatrz  give  to  his  worshipper,'  with  the  two  verses, 
'  I  invoke  R^ka'  (Rig-veda  II,  32,  4  seq.),  and  with 
(the  texts),  '  Ne^amesha,'  and,  '  Pra^dpati,  no  other 
one  than  thou'  (Rig-veda  X,  121,  10). 

4.  He  then  three  times  parts  her  hair  upwards 
(i.  e.  beginning  from  the  front)  with  a  bunch  con- 
taining an  even  number  of  unripe  fruits,  and  with 
a  porcupine's  quill  that  has  three  white  spots,  and 
with  three  bunches  of  Ku^a  grass,  with  (the  words), 
'  Bhur,  bhuva/^,  svar,  om  !* 

5.  Or  four  times. 

6.  He  gives  orders  to  two  lute-players,  '  Sing 
king  Soma.' 

7.  (They  sing,)  '  INTay  Soma  our  king  bless  the 
human  race.  Settled  is  the  wheel  of  N.N.' — (here 
they  name)  the  river  near  which  they  dwell. 

14,  3.  Comp.  above,  chap.  8,  9.  Regarding  the  two  verses  Dhata 
dadatu  diijushe,  see  5ahkh.-Gr/hya  I,  22,  7,  The  Ne^amesha 
hymn  is  Rig-veda  Khailika  sQkta,  vol.  vi,  p.  31,  ed.  Max  IMiiller. 

7.  Comp.  Paraskara  I,  15,  8.  The  Gatha  there  is  somewhat 
different.  I  cannot  see  why  in  the  Ajvalayana  redaction  of  it 
nivish/a/takrasau  should  not  be  explained,  conformably  to  the 


A 


I  8  2  A5VALAYANA-Gi^/HYA-SUTRA. 


8.  And  whatever  aged  Brahma/^a  woman,  whose 
husbands  and  children  are  ahve,  tell  them,  that  let 

them  do. 

9.  A  bull  is  the  fee  for  the  sacrifice. 

KAiVDIKA    15, 

1.  When  a  son  has  been  born,  (the  father)  should, 
before  other  people  touch  him,  give  him  to  eat  from 
gold  (i.  e.  from  a  golden  vessel  or  with  a  golden 
spoon)  butter  and  honey  with  which  he  has  ground 
gold(-dust),  with  (the  verse),  '  I  administer  to  thee 
the  wisdom  ('  veda ')  of  honey,  of  ghee,  raised  by 
Savitrz  the  bountiful.  Long-living,  protected  by 
the  gods,  live  a  hundred   autumns  in  this  world ! ' 

2.  Approaching  (his  mouth)  to  (the  child's)  two 
ears  he  murmurs  the  '  production  of  intelligence  : ' 
'  Intelligence  may  give  to  thee  god  Sav'itrt,  intelli- 
gence may  goddess  Sarasvati,  intelligence  may  give 
to  thee  the  two  divine  Ai-vins,  wreathed  with  lotus.' 

3.  He  touches  (the  child's)  two  shoulders  with 
(the  verse),  '  Be  a  stone,  be  an  axe,  be  insuperable 
eold.  Thou  indeed  art  the  Veda,  called  son ;  so 
live  a  hundred  autumns' — -and  with  (the  verses), 
'  Indra,  give  the  best  treasures'  (Rig-veda  II,  21,  6), 
'  Bestow  on  us,  O  bountiful  one,  O  speedy  one' 
(Rig-veda  III,  36,  10). 

4.  And  let  them  give  him  a  name  beginning  with 

regular  Sandhi  laws,  as  nivish/a/^akra  asau.  The  wheel  of 
course  means  the  dominion. 

15,  I.  Comp.  Ajv.-Gr/hya-Parijish/a  I,  26.  I  follow  Professor 
Stenzler,  who  corrects  maghonam  into  maghona;  comp.  6'ankh.- 
Gr/hya  I,  24,  4. 

3.  Vedo  may  as  well  be  the  nominative  of  veda  as  that  of 
vedas  ('  property'). 


I    ADIIYAVA.     1 6    KAiVDiKA,    5.  1 83 


a  sonant,  with  a  semivowel  in  it,  with  the  Visaro-a  at 
its  end,  consisting  of  two  syllables, 

5.  Or  of  four  syllables  ; 

6.  Of  two  syllables,  if  he  is  desirous  of  firm  posi- 
tion ;  of  four  syllables,  if  he  is  desirous  of  holy 
lustre  ; 

7.  But  in  every  case  with  an  even  number  (of 
syllables)  for  men,  an  uneven  for  women. 

8.  And  let  him  also  find  out  (for  the  child)  a  name 
to  be  used  at  respectful  salutations  (such  as  that  due 
to  the  A/'irya  at  the  ceremony  of  the  initiation) ; 
that  his  mother  and  his  father  (alone)  should  know 
till  his  initiation. 

9.  When  he  returns  from  a  journey,  he  embraces 
his  son's  head  and  murmurs,  '  From  limb  bv  limb 
thou  art  produced ;  out  of  the  heart  thou  art  born. 
Thou  indeed  art  the  self  called  son ;  so  live  a  hun- 
dred autumns!' — (thus)  he  kisses  him  three  times 
on  his  head. 

10.  The  rite  only  (without  the  Mantra  is  per- 
formed) for  a  girl. 

KAiVDIKA    16. 

1.  In  the  sixth  month  the  Annapra^ana  (i.e.  the 
first  feeding  with  solid  food). 

2.  Goat's  flesh,  if  he  is  desirous  of  nourishment, 

3.  Flesh  of  partridge,  if  desirous  of  holy  lustre, 

4.  Boiled  rice  with  ghee,  if  desirous  of  splendour  : 

5.  (Such)  food,  mixed  with  curds,  honey  and  ghee 
he  should  give  (to  the  child)  to  eat  with  (the  verse), 
'  Lord  of  food,  give  us   food   painless  and   strong ; 

16,  I  seq.  Comp.  ^'ahkh.-Gnhya  I,  27,  i  seq.  The  two  texts 
are  nearly  word  for  word  identical. 


1 84  A5VALAYANA-G22/HYA-stjTRA. 

bring  forward  the  giver ;   bestow  power  on  us,  on 
men  and  animals.' 

6,   The  rite  only  (without  the  Mantra)  for  a  girl. 

KAiVDIKA    17. 

1.  In  the  third  year  the  ATaula  (i.e.  the  tonsure 
of  the  child's  head),  or  according  to  the  custom  of 
the  family. 

2.  To  the  north  of  the  fire  he  places  vessels  which 
are  filled  respectively,  with  rice,  barley,  beans,  and 
sesamum  seeds  ; 

3.  To  the  west  (the  boy)  for  whom  the  ceremony 
shall  be  performed,  in  his  mothers  lap,  bull-dung  in 
a  new  vessel,  and  ^'ami  leaves  are  placed. 

4.  To  the  south  of  the  mother  the  father  (is 
seated)  holding  twenty-one  bunches  of  Ku^-a  grass. 

5.  Or  the  Brahman  should  hold  them. 

6.  To  the  west  of  (the  boy)  for  whom  the  cere- 
mony is  to  be  performed,  (the  father)  stations  him- 
self and  pours  cold  and  warm  water  together  with 
(the  words),  'With  warm  water,  O  Vayu,  come 
hither ! ' 

7.  Taking  of  that  (water),  (and)  fresh  butter,  or 
(some)  drops  of  curds,  he  three  times  moistens  (the 
boy's)  head,  from  the  left  to  the  right,  with  (the 
formula),  '  May  Aditi  cut  thy  hair ;  may  the  waters 
moisten  thee  for  vigrour  !' 

8.  Into  the  right  part  (of  the  hair)  he  puts  each 


4.  He  cuts  off  the  hair  four  times  on  the  right  side  (Sutras  10- 
14),  three  times  on  the  left  side  (Sutra  15);  each  time  three  Kusa. 
bunches  are  required.  This  is  the  reason  why  twenty-one  bunches 
are  prescribed. 

8.  Each  of  the  four  times  and  of  the  three  times  respectively  that 
he  cuts  off  the  hair;  see  the  preceding  note. 


I    ADHYAYA,    I  7  KANDIKA,     1 6.  1 85 

time  three  Ku^a  bunches,  with  the  points  towards 
(the  boy)  himself,  with  (the  words),  '  Herb !  protect 
him  !' 

9.  (With  the  words,)  '  Axe !  do  no  harm  to  him  !' 
he  presses  a  copper  razor  (on  the  Kui^a  blades), 

10.  And  cuts  (the  hair)  with  (the  verse),  'The 
razor  with  which  in  the  beginning  Sa-vitrz  the 
knowing  one  has  shaved  (the  beard)  of  king  Soma 
and  of  Varu7^a,  with  that,  ye  Brahma;^as,  shave  now 
his  (hair),  that  he  may  be  blessed  with  long  life,  with 
old  age.' 

1 1.  Each  time  that  he  has  cut,  he  gives  (the  hairs) 
with  their  points  to  the  east,  together  with  ^'ami 
leaves,  to  the  mother.  She  puts  them  down  on  the 
bull-dung. 

12.  'With  what  Dhatrz  has  shaven  (die  head)  of 
Brz'haspati,  Agni  and  Indra,  for  the  sake  of  long  life, 
with  that  I  shave  thy  (head)  for  the  sake  of  long  life, 
of  glory,  and  of  welfare' — thus  a  second  time. 

13.  'By  what  he  may  at  night  further  see  the  sun, 
and  see  it  long,  with  that  I  shave  thy  (head)  for  the 
sake  of  long  life,  of  glory,  and  of  welfare' — thus  a 
third  time. 

14.  With  all  (the  indicated)  Mantras  a  fourth 
time. 

15.  Thus  three  times  on  the  left  side  (of  the 
head). 

16.  Let  him  wipe  off  the  edge  of  the  razor  with 
(the  words),  '  If  thou  shavest,  as  a  shaver,  his  hair 
with  the  razor,  the  wounding,  the  well-shaped,  purify 
his  head,  but  do  not  take  away  his  life.' 

13.  Instead  of  yena  bhuyaj  ^a  ratryam,  Paraskara  (II,  i,  16) 
has,  yena  bhfiri^  ^-ara  divam. 

16.  Comp.  Paraskara  II,  i,  19  ;  Atharva-veda  VIII,  2,  17. 


1 86  A5VALAYANA-G2?7HYA-s0tRA. 

1 7.  Let  him  give  orders  to  the  barber, '  With  luke- 
warm water  doing  what  has  to  be  done  with  water, 
without  doing  harm  to  him,  arrange  (his  hair)  well.' 

18.  Let  him  have  the  arrangement  of  the  hair 
made  according  to  the  custom  of  his  family. 

19.  The  rite  only  (without  the  Mantras)  for  a 
o^irl. 

KAiVDIKA    18. 

1.  Thereby  the  Godanakarman  (i.e.  the  ceremony 
of  shaving  the  beard,  is  declared). 

2.  In  the  sixteenth  year. 

3.  Instead  of  the  word  '  hair'  he  should  (each  time 
that  it  occurs  in  the  Mantras)  put  the  word  '  beard.' 

4.  Here  they  moisten  the  beard. 

5.  (The  Mantra  is),  '  Purify  his  head  and  his  face, 
but  do  not  take  away  his  life.' 

6.  He  gives  orders  (to  the  barber  with  the  words), 
'  Arrange  his  hair,  his  beard,  the  hair  of  his  body, 
and  his  nails,  ending  in  the  north.' 

7.  Having  bathed  and  silently  stood  during  the 
rest  of  the  day,  let  him  break  his  silence  in  the 
presence  of  his  teacher,  (saying  to  him,)  '  I  give  an 
optional  gift  (to  thee),' 

8.  An  ox  and  a  cow  is  the  sacrificial  fee. 


18.  On  these  family  customs,  see  Gnliya-sawgraha-pari^ish/a  II, 
40;  Roth,  Zur  Literatur  und  Geschichte  des  Weda,  p.  120;  Max 
Mviller,  History  of  A.  S.  L.,  p.  54seq. ;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  95. 

18,  4.  See  above,  chap.  17,  7. 

5.  See  chap.  17,  16. 

6.  According  to  Narayawa,  he  says  to  the  barber  (chap,  17,  17), 
'With  lukewarm  water  doing  what  has  to  be  done  with  water, 
without  doing  harm  to  him,  arrange  his  hair,  his  beard,  the  hair  of 
his  body,  and  his  nails,  ending  in  the  north.' 

7.  8.  On  restrictions  like  that  contained  in  the  eighth  Sfitra  as  to 
the  object  in  which  the  vara  (optional  gift)  had  to  consist,  see 
Weber,  Indische  Studien,  V,  343. 


I    ADHYAVA,     19  KAA^DIKA,     12.  187 

9.  Let  (the  teacher)  impose  (on  the  youth  the 
observances  declared  below)  for  one  year. 

KAiVDIKA    19. 

1.  In  the  eighth  year  let  him  initiate  a  Brahma/^a, 

2.  Or  in  the  eighth  year  after  the  conception  ; 

3.  In  the  eleventh  a  Kshatriya  ; 

4.  In  the  twelfth  a  Vaii-ya. 

5.  Until  the  sixteenth  (year)  the  time  has  not 
passed  for  a  Brdhma;^a  ; 

6.  Until  the  twenty-second  for  a  Kshatriya  ; 

7.  Until  the  twenty-fourth  for  a  Vai^ya. 

8.  After  that  (time  has  passed),  they  become  pati- 
tasavitrika  (i.e.  they  have  lost  their  right  of  learning 
the  Savitri). 

9.  No  one  should  initiate  such  men,  nor  teach 
them,  nor  perform  sacrifices  for  them,  nor  have  inter- 
course with  them. 

10.  (Let  him  initiate)  the  youth  who  is  adorned 
and  whose  (hair  on  the)  head  is  arranged,  who  wears 
a  (new)  garment  that  has  not  yet  been  washed,  or 
an  antelope-skin,  if  he  is  a  Brdhma/^a,  the  skin  of 
a  spotted  deer,  if  a  Kshatriya,  a  goat's  skin,  if  a 
Vaii'ya. 

11.  If  they  put  on  garments,  they  should  put  on 
dyed  (garments)  :  the  Brahma;^a  a  reddish  yellow 
one,  the  Kshatriya  a  light  red  one,  the  Vai^ya  a 
yellow  one. 

12.  Their  girdles  are  :  that  of  a  Brahmawa  made 
of  Mu;7^a  grass,  that  of  a  Kshatriya  a  bow-string, 
that  of  a  Vaii'ya  woollen. 

9.  See  below,  chap.  22,  22. 

19,  10.  By  the  'arranging  of  the  hair'  the  cutting  of  the  hair  is 
implied,  as  is  seen  from  chap.  22,  22. 


1 88  Ai'VALAYANA-GR/HYA-SfjTRA. 

13.  Their  staffs  are  :  that  of  a  Brahma^^a  of  Pala-ya 
wood,  that  of  a  Kshatriya  of  Udumbara  wood,  that 
of  a  Vai.vya  of  Bilva  wood. 

KAiVjDIKA    20. 

1.  Or  all  (sorts  of  staffs  are  to  be  used)  by  (men 
of)  all  (castes). 

2.  While  (the  student)  takes  hold  of  him,  the 
teacher  sacrifices  and  then  stations  himself  to  the 
north  of  the  fire,  with  his  face  turned  to  the  east. 

3.  To  the  east  (of  the  fire)  with  his  face  to  the 
west  the  other  one. 

4.  (The  teacher  then)  fills  the  two  hollows  of  (his 
own  and  the  student's)  joined  hands  with  water,  and 
with  the  verse,  '  That  we  choose  of  Savitrz"  (Rig- 
veda  V,  82,  i)  he  makes  with  the  full  (hollow  of  his 
own  hands  the  water)  flow  down  on  the  full  (hollow 
of)  his,  (i.e.  the  student's  hands.)  Having  (thus) 
poured  (the  water  over  his  hands)  he  should  with  his 
(own)  hand  seize  his  (i.  e.  the  student's)  hand  together 
with  the  thumb,  with  (the  formula),  '  By  the  impulse 
of  the  god  Savitrz,  with  the  arms  of  the  two  A^-vins, 
with  Pushan's  hands  I  seize  thy  hand,  N.N. ! ' 

5.  With  (the  words), '  Savitr?  has  seized  thy  hand, 
N.  N. !'  a  second  time. 

6.  With  (the  words),  '  Agni  is  thy  teacher,  N.N. !' 
a  third  time. 

7.  He  should  cause  him  to  look  at  the  sun  while 
the  teacher  says,  '  God  Savltri,  this  is  thy  Brahma- 
^arin  ;  protect  him  ;  may  he  not  die.' 

20,  2.  He  offers  the  oblations  prescribed  above,  chap,  i,  4, 
3  seq. 


I    ADHYAYA,    2  1    KANDIKA,    2.  189 

8.  (And  further  the  teacher  says),  '  Whose  Brah- 
ma/'drin  art  thou  ?  The  breath's  Brahmai-arin  art 
thou.  Who  does  initiate  thee,  and  whom  (does  he 
initiate)  ?     To  whom  shall  I  give  thee  in  charge  ?' 

9.  With  the  half  verse,  '  A  youth,  well  attired, 
dressed  came  hither'  (Rig-veda  III,  8,  4)  he  should 
cause  him  to  turn  round  from  the  left  to  the  right. 

10.  Reaching  with  his  two  hands  over  his  (i.e.  the 
student's)  shoulders  (the  teacher)  should  touch  the 
place  of  his  heart  with  the  following  (half  verse). 

11.  Having  wiped  the  ground  round  the  fire,  the 
student  should  put  on  a  piece  of  wood  silently. 
'  Silence  indeed  is  what  belongs  to  Pra^apati.  The 
student  becomes  belonging  to  Pra^^apati' — this  is 
understood  (in  the  ^Sruti). 

KAiVZ>IKA    21. 

1.  Some  (do  this)  with  a  Mantra:  'To  Agni  I 
have  brought  a  piece  of  wood,  to  the  great  GAta- 
vedas.  Through  that  piece  of  wood  increase  thou, 
O  Agni ;  through  the  Brahman  (may)  we  (increase). 
Svaha!' 

2.  Having  put  the  fuel  (on  the  fire)  and  having 


II.  On  the  wiping  of  the  ground  round  the  fire,  comp.  above, 
chap.  3,  I  ;  .Sahkhayana-Gr/liya  I,  7,  11.  Naraya^/a  here  has  the 
following  remarks,  which  I  can  scarcely  believe  to  express  the  real 
meaning  of  this  Sfttra  :  *  Here  the  wiping  of  the  ground  round  the 
fire  is  out  of  place,  because  the  Sawskaras  for  the  fire  have  already 
been  performed.  As  to  that,  it  should  be  observed  that  the  wiping  is 
mentioned  here  in  order  that,  when  fuel  is  put  on  the  fire  in  the 
evening  and  in  the  morning,  the  sprinkling  of  water  and  the  wiping 
may  be  performed.  But  on  this  occasion  (at  the  Upanayana)  the 
student  does  not  perform  the  wiping,  &c.,  and  silentl)'  puts  a  piece 
of  wood  on  that  fire.' 


1 90  A5VALAYANA-G/?/HYA-StjTRA. 


touched  the  fire,  he  three  times  wipes  off  his  face 
with  (the  words),  '  With  splendour  I  anoint  myself.' 

3.  '  For  with  splendour  does  he  anoint  himself — 
this  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti). 

4.  '  On  me  may  Agni  bestow  insight,  on  me 
offspring,  on  me  splendour. 

'  On  me  may  Indra  bestow  insight,  on  me  offspring, 
on  me  strength  (indriya). 

'  On  me  may  Stirya  bestow  insight,  on  me  offspring, 
on  me  radiance. 

'  What  thy  splendour  is,  Agni,  may  I  thereby  be- 
come resplendent. 

'  What  thy  vigour  is,  Agni,  may  I  thereby  become 
vigorous. 

'What  thy  consuming  power  is,  Agni,  may  I  thereby 
obtain  consuming  power ' — with  (these  formulas)  he 
should  approach  the  fire,  bend  his  knee,  embrace 
(the  teacher's  feet),  and  say  to  him,  'Recite,  sir! 
The  Savitri,  sir,  recite !' 

5.  Seizing  with  his  (i.e.  the  student's)  garment  and 
with  (his  own)  hands  (the  student's)  hands  (the 
teacher)  recites  the  Savitri,  (firstly)  Pada  by  Pada, 
(then)  hemistich  by  hemistich,  (and  finally)  the  whole 
(verse). 

6.  He  should  make  him  recite  (the  Savitri)  as  far 
as  he  is  able. 

7.  On  the  place  of  his  (i.e.  the  student's)  heart  (the 
teacher)  lays  his  hand  with  the  fingers  upwards,  with 
(the  formula),  '  Into  my  will  I  take  thy  heart ;  after 
my  mind  shall  thy  mind  follow  ;  in  my  word  thou 
shalt  rejoice  with  all  thy  will ;  may  BWhaspati  join 
thee  to  me.' 


I    ADHYAYA,    2  2   KAA'DIKA,     12.  IQI 


KAiVi3lKA    22. 

1.  Having  tied  the  girdle  round  him  and  given  him 
the  staff,  he  should  impose  the  (observances  of  the) 
Brahmay^arya  on  him — 

2.  (With  the  words),  '  A  Brahma/C-arin  thou  art. 
Eat  water.  Do  the  service.  Do  not  sleep  in  the 
day-time.     Devoted  to  the  teacher  study  the  Veda.' 

3.  Twelve  years  lasts  the  Brahma/'arya  for  (each) 
Veda,  or  until  he  has  learnt  it. 

4.  Let  him  beg  (food)  in  the  evening  and  in  the 
morning. 

5.  Let  him  put  fuel  on  (the  fire)  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning. 

6.  Let  him  beg  first  of  a  man  who  will  not  refuse, 

7.  Or  of  a  woman  who  will  not  refuse. 

8.  (In  begging  he  should  use  the  words),  '  Sir, 
give  food ! ' 

9.  Or,  '(Sir,  give)  Anuprava/'aniya  (food).' 

10.  That  (which  he  has  received)  he  should  an- 
nounce to  his  teacher. 

11.  He  should  stand  the  rest  of  the  day. 

12.  After  sunset  (the  student)  should  cook  the 
Brahmaudana  (or  boiled  rice  with  which  the  Brah- 
ma7;as  are  to  be  fed)  for  the  Anuprava/^'aniya  sacrifice 
(the  sacrifice  to  be  performed  after  a  part  of  the 
Veda  has  been  studied),  and  should  announce  to  the 
teacher  (that  it  is  ready). 

22,  9.  Food  for  the  Anuprava^antya  offering;  see  Sutra  12. 

10.  .Sahkhayana-Gr/hya  II,  6,  7;   Paraskara  II,  5,  8. 

1 2. '  The  student  should,  according  to  the  rules  for  the  Pakaya^was, 
cook  the  Anuprava-^aniya  food  and  announce  it  to  the  teacher  in 
the  words,  "  The  food  is  cooked."  '     Narayawa. 


192  A5VALAYANA-G/2/IIYA-sOtRA. 


1 3.  The  teacher  should  sacrifice,  while  the  student 
takes  hold  of  him,  with  the  verse,  '  The  wonderful 
lord  of  the  abode'  (Rig-veda  I,  18,  6). 

14.  A  second  time  with  the  Savitri — 

15.  And  whatever  else  has  been  studied  after- 
wards. 

16.  A  third  time  to  the  Rz'shis. 

17.  A  fourth  time  (the  oblation)  to  (Agni)  Svi- 
sh/akr/t. 

18.  Having  given  food  to  the  Brdhma?^as  he 
should  cause  them  to  pronounce  the  end  of  the 
Veda  (study). 

19.  From  that  time  (the  student)  should  eat  no 
saline  food ;  he  should  observe  chastity,  and  should 
sleep  on  the  ground  through  three  nights,  or  twelve 
nights,  or  one  year. 

20.  When  he  has  fulfilled  those  observances,  (the 
teacher)  performs  (for  him)  the  '  production  of  intel- 
ligence,' (in  the  following  way)  : 

21.  While  (the  student)  towards  an  unobjectionable 
direction  (of  the  horizon)  sprinkles  thrice  (water) 
from  the  left  to  the  right  with  a  water-pot  round  a 

15.  Narayawa  mentions  as  such  texts  especially  those  belonging 
to  the  Ara«yaka,  viz.  the  Mahanamnyas,  the  Mahavrata,  and  the 
Upanishad.  But  there  is  no  reason  why  we  should  not  think  quite 
as  well  of  the  Rig-veda  Saw/hita  itself. 

18.  'He  should  say,  "Sirs!  Pronounce  the  end  of  the  Veda 
(study)."  And  they  should  reply,  "  May  an  end  of  the  Veda  (study) 
be  made."  '     Narayawa. 

20.  Comp.  above,  chap.  15,  2. 

21.  '  The  objectionable  directions  are  three,  the  south,  the  south- 
east, the  south-west.'     Narayawa. 

Su.sTavas,  which  I  have  translated  by  'glorious,'  at  the  same 
time  means,  '  endowed  with  good  hearing,'  i.e.  successful  in  study. 
The  student  therefore  by  the  same  word  prays  for  glory  and  for 
success  in  Vedic  learning. 


I  ADHYAVA,    23  KAiVDIKA,    I.  1 93 

Palai"a  (tree)  with  one  root,  or  round  a  Kui'a  bunch, 
if  there  is  no  Pala^a,  (the  teacher)  causes  him  to  say, 
'  O  glorious  one,  thou  art  glorious.  As  thou,  O 
glorious  one,  art  glorious,  thus,  O  glorious  one,  lead 
me  to  glory.  As  thou  art  the  preserver  of  the 
treasure  of  sacrifice  for  the  gods,  thus  may  I  become 
the  preserver  of  the  treasure  of  the  Veda  for  men.' 

22.  Thereby,  beginning  with  his  having  the  hair 
cut,  and  ending  with  the  giving  in  charge,  the  impos- 
ing of  observances  has  been  declared. 

23.  Thus  for  one  who  has  not  been  initiated 
before. 

24.  Now  as  regards  one  who  has  been  initiated 
before  : 

25.  The  cutting  of  the  hair  is  optional, 

26.  And  the  '  production  of  intelligence.' 

27.  On  the  giving  in  charge  there  are  no  express 
rules  (in  this  case) ; 

28.  And  on  the  time. 

29.  (He  should  recite  to  him)  as  the  Savitri  (the 
Rik),  '  That  we  choose  of  god  Savitr/'  (Rig-veda  V, 
82,  I). 

KAiVDIKA    23. 

I.  He  chooses  priests  (for  officiating  at  a  sacrifice) 
with  neither  deficient  nor  superfluous  limbs, '  who  on 

22.  The  rules  stated  above  for  the  Upanayana,  beginning  with 
the  prescription  regarding  the  cutting  of  the  hair  (given  chap.  19, 
I  o  in  the  words,  '  whose  [hair  on  the]  head  is  arranged ; '  see  the 
note  there),  and  ending  with  the  ceremony  prescribed  chap.  20,  8, 
are  to  be  extended  also  to  other  cases  of  the  imposing  of  a  vow, 
such,  for  instance,  as  that  mentioned  chap.  18,  9. 

25.  See  chap.  19,  10.  26.  See  above,  Sutra  20. 

27.  See  chap.  20,  8.  28.  See  chap.  4,  i. 

29.  Instead  of  the  ordinary  Savitri,  Rig-veda  III,  62,  10. 

23,  I.  Comp.  .Srauta-sutra  IX,  3,  20;  Gr/hya-sGtra  I,  5,  i. 

[29]  O 


1 94  A5VALAYANA-G7J7HYA-SUTRA. 

the  mother's  and  on  the  father's  side  (&c.),'  as  it  has 
been  said  above. 

2.  Let  him  choose  young  men  as  officiating  priests  : 
thus  (declare)  some  (teachers). 

3.  He  chooses  first  the  Brahman,  then  the  Hoirz, 
then  the  Adhvaryu,  then  the  Udgatr/. 

4.  Or  all  who  officiate  at  the  Ahina  sacrifices  and 
at  those  lasting  one  day. 

5.  The  Kaushitakinas  prescribe  the  Sadasya  as 
the  seventeenth,  saying,  'He  is  the  looker-on  at  the 
performances.' 

6.  This  has  been  said  in  the  two  Rik^s, '  He  whom 
the  officiating  priests,  performing  (the  sacrifice)  in 
many  ways'  (Rig-veda  VHI,  58,  i.  2). 

7.  He  chooses  the  Wotri  first. 

8.  With  (the  formula), '  Agni  is  my  Wotri ;  he  is  my 
Wotri;  I  choose  thee  N.  N.  as  my  Hotr^''  (he  chooses) 
the  Wotri. 

4.  The  Ahina  sacrifices  are  those  which  last  more  than  one  day, 
but  not  more  than  twelve  days.  (Indische  Studien,  IX,  373  ;  X, 
355.)  The  priests  officiating  at  such  sacrifices  are  the  sixteen 
stated  in  the  6'rauta-sutra  IV,  i,  6.  7.  Those  besides  the  sixteen, 
though  they  are  chosen  (saty  api  varawe)  for  taking  part  in  the 
sacred  performances,  have  not  the  rank  of  rz'tvi^as  (officiating 
priests) ;  such  are  the  Sadasya,  the  ^'amitrz',  and  the  ^amasa- 
dhvaryava-^  (schol.  ^S'rautas.  loc.  cit.).  See  Max  Miiller's  History  of 
A.  S.  L.,  pp.  450,  469  seq.  As  to  the  Sadasya,  however,  there  was 
some  difference  of  opinion  (see  the  next  Sutra). 

5.  On  the  office  of  the  Sadasya,  see  Indische  Studien,  X,  136,  144. 

6.  The  two  7?//^as  quoted  here  belong  to  the  tenth  among  the 
Valakhilya  hymns,  a  hymn  omitted  in  many  of  the  Rig-veda  MSS. 
They  give  no  special  confirmation  to  the  rules  stated  in  our  text, 
but  contain  only  a  general  allusion  to  the  unity  of  the  sacrifice, 
which  the  various  priests  perform  in  many  various  ways. 

7.  '  If  the  four  (chief)  priests  have  to  be  chosen,  the  choosing  of 
the  Brahmawa  stands  first  in  order  (see  above,  Sutra  3)  ;  if  all  (the 
sixteen),  then  the  choosing  of  the  Hotr/  stands  first  in  order.' 
Narayawa. 


I  ADIIYAYA,    23  KAA'DIKA,    1 9.  195 

9.  With  (the  formula),  '  A'andramas  (the  moon)  is 
my  Brahman ;  he  is  my  Brahman ;  I  choose  thee 
N.  N.  as  my  Brahman'  (he  chooses)  the  Brahman. 

10.  With  (the  formula),  'Aditya  (the  sun)  is  my 
Adhvaryu  ;  (he  is  my  Adhvaryu,  &c.) ' — the  Adh- 
varyu. 

11.  With  (the  formula),  '  Parj^anya  is  my  Udgatrz] 
(he  is  my  Udgatr?',  &c.) ' — the  Udgatr/. 

12.  With  (the  formula), '  The  waters  are  my  reciters 
of  what  belongs  to  the  Hotrakas' — the  Hotrakas. 

1 3.  With  (the  formula),  '  The  rays  are  my  A'ama- 
sadhvaryus  ' — the  ATamasadhvaryus. 

14.  With  (the  formula),  'The  ether  is  my  Sada- 
sya ' — the  Sadasya. 

15.  He  whom  he  has  chosen  should  murmur,  '  A 
great  thing  thou  hast  told  me;  splendour  thou  hast  told 
me  ;  fortune  thou  hast  told  me ;  glory  thou  hast  told 
me  ;  praise  thou  hast  told  me  ;  success  thou  hast  told 
me  ;  enjoyment  thou  hast  told  me  ;  satiating  thou  hast 
told  me  ;  everything  thou  hast  told  me.' 

16.  Having  murmured  (this  formula),  the  Hotrz 
declares  his  assent  (in  the  words),  '  Agni  is  thy 
Hotr/ ;  he  is  thy  Hot;^/ ;  thy  human  Hotr?  am  I.' 

I  7.  '  A'andramas  (the  moon)  is  thy  Brahman  ;  he 
is  thy  Brahman  (&c.) ' — thus  the  Brahman. 

18.  In  the  same  way  the  others  according  to  the 
prescriptions  (given  above). 

19.  And  if  (the  priest  who  accepts  the  invitation) 

12.  The  twelve  priests  of  the  sixteen  (see  §  4  note)  who  do  not 
stand  at  the  head  of  one  of  the  four  categories.  Those  at  the  head 
are  enumerated  in  the  Sutras  8-1 1. 

13,  14.  See  above,  §  4  note. 

1 9.  Priests  who  only  perform  the  Agnyadheya  for  a  person,  are, 
according    to   Narayawa's  note  on   this   Siitra,  not  considered  as 

O  2 


196  AS'VALAYANA-GJ^rHYA-StjTRA. 

is  going  to  perform  the  sacrifice  (for  the  inviting 
person,  he  should  add),  '  May  that  bless  me ;  may 
that  enter  upon  me  ;  may  I  thereby  enjoy  (bliss).' 

20.  The  functions  of  an  officiating  priest  are  not 
to  be  exercised,  if  abandoned  (by  another  priest),  or 
at  an  Ahina  sacrifice  with  small  sacrificial  fee,  or  for 
a  person  that  is  sick,  or  suffering,  or  affected  with 
consumption,  or  decried  among  the  people  in  his 
village,  or  of  despised  extraction  :  for  such  persons 
(the  functions  of  a  Ritv'ig  should  not  be  exercised). 

21.  He  (who  is  chosen  as  a  Ritvlg)  should  ask 
the  Somapravaka,  '  What  sacrifice  is  it  ?     Who  are 

performing  a  sacrifice  for  him;  consequently  the  formula  given 
here  is  only  to  be  used  by  priests  who  are  elected  for  a  Soma 
sacrifice.  Stenzler  translates,  '  So  spricht  er,  wenn  er  das  Opfer 
durch  sie  vollziehen  lassen  will.'  But  this  would  be  yakshya- 
ma«a/;,  not  ya_§'ayishyan. 

20.  The  tradition  takes  ni/^adakshi;zasya  as  in  apposition  to 
ahinasya,  and  I  have  translated  accordingly.  But  I  cannot  help 
thinking  that  the  two  words  should  be  separated,  so  that  we  should 
have  to  translate,  '  or  at  an  Ahina,  or  for  a  person  that  gives  small 
sacrificial  fee.'  Thus  the  Brahmawa  quoted  by  Apastamba  (see 
the  commentary  on  the  Pa7liavi?«ja  Brahmawa,  vol.  i,  p.  6,  ed. 
Bibl.  Indica)  gives  the  following  questions  which  the  Rii\\g  to  be 
chosen  should  ask,  '  Is  it  no  Ahina  sacrifice  .''  Is  the  RiWxg  office 
not  abandoned  by  others.''  Is  the  sacrificial  fee  plentiful.'''  It  is  a 
very  singular  fact,  that  on  the  one  hand  the  assistance  of  a  number 
of  Ritvigzs  was  unanimously  declared  necessary  for  the  perform- 
ance of  an  Ahina  sacrifice,  while  on  the  other  hand  it  was  considered 
objectionable,  at  least  among  some  of  the  Vedic  schools,  to  officiate 
at  such  a  sacrifice.     See  Weber's  Indische  Studien,  X,  150,  151. 

On  anudejyabhijasta  Narayawa  says,  sade^inabhijastasyaivam 
eke.  anye  tu  iraddhe  pratishiddhasyety  ahu//.  It  seems  to  me  that 
anudejya  (or  rather  anudejya?)  in  6'ahkhayana-6'raut.  V,  i,  10 
(Indische  Studien,  X,  147)  means  the  same,  though  the  commentary 
on  that  Sutra  ascribes  a  diff"erent  meaning  to  that  word. 

21.  The  Somapravaka  is  the  messenger  who  invites  the  priests 
on  behalf  of  the  sacrificer  to  officiate  at  his  intended  Soma  sacrifice. 
Comp.  Indische  Studien,  IX,  308. 


1  ADHYAYA,    24  KAA'DIKA,   7.  1 97 

the   priests   officiating  ?     What  is    the    fee   for   the 
sacrifice  ? ' 

22.  If  (all  the  conditions)  are  favourable,  he  should 
accept. 

23.  Let  (the  officiating  priests)  eat  no  flesh  nor 
have  intercourse  with  a  ^vife  until  the  completion  of 
the  sacrifice. 

24.  '  By  this  prayer,  O  Agni,  increase '  (Rig-veda 
I,  31,  18) — with  (this  verse)  let  him  offer  (at  the  end 
of  the  sacrifice)  an  oblation  of  A,^ya  in  (his  own) 
Dakshi;^agni,  and  go  away  where  he  likes ; 

25.  In  the  same  way  one  who  has  not  set  up 
the  (^S'rauta)  fires,  in  his  (sacred)  domestic  fire  with 
this  Rik,  '  Forgive  us,  O  Agni,  this  sin  '  (Rig-veda 
I,  31,  16). 

Kaa^dika  24. 

1.  When  he  has  chosen  the  7?/tvi^as,  he  should 
offer  the  Madhuparka  (i.  e.  honey-mixture)  to  them 
(in  the  way  described  in  Slitras  5  and  following) ; 

2.  To  a  Snataka,  when  he  comes  to  his  house ; 

3.  And  to  a  king  ; 

4.  And  for  a  teacher,  the  father-in-law,  a  paternal 
uncle,  and  a  maternal  uncle. 

5.  He  pours  honey  into  curds, 

6.  Or  butter,  if  he  can  get  no  honey. 

7.  A  seat,  the  water  for  washing  the  feet,  the 
Arghya  water  (i.  e.  perfumed  water  into  which  flowers 
have  been  thrown),  the  water  for  sipping,  the  honey- 

24,  I  seqq.  Comp.  iS'ankhayana-Gr/hya  II,  15.  The  second 
Sutra  is  paraphrased  by  Naraya;;a  thus,  '  To  a  person  that  has 
performed  the  Samavartana  (see  below,  III,  8),  when  he  comes  on 
that  day  to  his  house  with  the  intention  of  forming  a  matrimonial 
alliance.' 


198  A5VALAYANA-GJ2/HYA-sCtRA. 


mixture,   a  cow :    every  one   of  these   things   they 
announce  three  times  (to  the  guest). 

8.  With  (the  verse),  '  I  am  the  highest  one  among 
my  people,  as  the  sun  among  the  thunderbolts.  Here 
I  tread  on  him  whosoever  infests  me ' — he  should 
sit  down  on  the  seat  (made  of)  northward-pointed 
(grass). 

9.  Or  (he  should  do  so)  after  he  has  trodden 
on  it. 

10.  He  should  make  (his  host)  wash  his  feet. 

11.  The  rieht  foot  he  should  stretch  out  first  to  a 
Brahma;^a, 

12.  The  left  to  a  ^'udra. 

13.  When  his  feet  have  been  washed,  he  receives 
the  Arghya  water  in  the  hollow  of  his  joined  hands 
and  then  sips  the  water  destined  thereto,  with  (the 
formula),  '  Thou  art  the  first  layer  for  Ambrosia.' 

14.  He  looks  at  the  Madhuparka  when  it  is 
brought  to  him,  with  (the  formula),  '  I  look  at  thee 
with  Mitra's  eye.' 

15.  He  accepts  it  with  his  joined  hands  with  (the 
formula),  '  By  the  impulse  of  the  god  Savitr/,  with 
the  arms  of  the  two  A^vins,  with  the  hands  of  Pushan 
I  accept  thee.'  He  then  takes  it  into  his  left  hand, 
looks  at  it  with  the  three  verses,  '  Honey  the  winds 
to  the  righteous  one'  (Rig-veda  I,  90,  6  seqq.),  stirs 
it  about  three  times  from  left  to  right  with  the  fourth 
finger  and  the  thumb,  and  wipes  (his  fingers)  with 
(the  formula),  '  May  the  Vasus  eat  thee  with  the 
Gayatri  metre ' — to  the  east ; 

16.  With  (the  formula),  '  May  the  Rudras  eat  thee 
with  the  Trish/ubh  metre  ' — to  the  south ; 

1 7.  With  (the  formula),  '  May  the  Adityas  eat 
thee  with  the  C'agati  metre ' — to  the  west ; 


I  ADIIVAYA,    24  KANDIKA,  32.  1 99 

18.  With  (the  formula),  '  May  the  Vii-ve  devas  eat 
thee  with  the  Anush/ubh  metre ' — to  the  north. 

19.  With  (the  formula),  '  To  the  beings  thee' — he 
three  times  takes  (some  of  the  Madhuparka  sub- 
stance) out  of  the  middle  of  it. 

20.  With  (the  formula),  '  The  milk  of  Vir^^  art 
thou  ' — he  should  partake  thereof  the  first  time, 

2 1 .  With, '  The  milk  of  Vira^^  may  I  obtain  ' — the 
second  time, 

22.  With,  '  In  me  (may)  the  milk  of  Padya  Vira^ 
(dwell)  ' — the  third  time. 

23.  (He  should)  not  (eat)  the  whole  (Madhuparka). 

24.  He  should  not  satiate  himself 

25.  To  a  Brahma?^a,  to  the  north,  he  should  give 
the  remainder. 

26.  If  that  cannot  be  done,  (he  should  throw  it) 
into  water. 

27.  Or  (he  may  eat)  the  whole  (Madhuparka). 

28.  He  then  makes  a  rinsing  of  his  mouth  follow 
(on  the  eating  of  the  Madhuparka)  with  the  water 
destined  thereto,  with  (the  formula),  '  Thou  art  the 
covering  of  Ambrosia.' 

29.  With  (the  formula),  '  Truth !  Glory!  Fortune! 
May  fortune  rest  on  me !' — a  second  time. 

30.  When  he  has  sipped  water,  they  announce  to 
him  the  cow. 

31.  Having  murmured,  'Destroyed  is  my  sin  ;  my 
sin  is  destroyed,'  (he  says,)  '  Om,  do  it,'  if  he  chooses 
to  have  her  killed. 

32.  Having  murmured,  '  The  mother  of  the  Ru- 
dras,  the  daughter  of  the  Vasus'  (Rig-veda  VIII, 


22.  On  Padya  Yivag,  see  the  note  on  6ahkhayana-Gr/hya  III,  7,  5. 
28.  Comp.  above,  Sutra  13. 


200  AS-VALAYANA-GiJ/HYA-sOTRA. 

loi,  15),  (he  says,)  '  Om,  let  her  loose,'  if  he  chooses 
to  let  her  loose. 

^^.    Let   the   Madhuparka  not  be  without  flesh, 
without  flesh. 

End  of  the  First  Adhyaya. 


33.  Comp.  xS"ahkhayana-Gn'hya  II,  15,  2. 


II  ADIIYAYA,     I   KAA^DIKA,  9.  20I 


AdHYAYA    II,    KAiVDIKA    1. 

1.  On  the  full  moon  day  of  the  ^'rava^^a  month 
the  6'rava;/a  ceremony  (is  performed). 

2.  Having  filled  a  new  jug  with  flour  of  fried 
barley,  he  la)'s  (this  jug)  and  a  spoon  for  offering 
the  Balis  on  new  strings  of  a  carrying  pole  (and  thus 
suspends  them). 

3.  Having  prepared  fried  barley  grains,  he  smears 
half  of  them  with  butter. 

4.  After  sunset  he  prepares  a  mess  of  cooked  food 
and  a  cake  in  one  dish  and  sacrifices  (the  cooked  food) 
with  the  four  verses,  '  Agni,  lead  us  on  a  good  path 
to  wealth  '  (Rig-veda  I,  189,  i  seqq.),  verse  by  verse, 
and  with  his  hand  the  (cake)  in  one  dish  with  (the 
formula),  '  To  the  steady  One,  the  earth-demon, 
svaha !' 

5.  (The  cake)  should  be  (entirely)  immersed  (into 
the  butter),  or  its  back  should  be  visible. 

6.  With  (the  verse),  '  Agni,  do  not  deliver  us  to 
evir  (Rig-veda  I,  189,  5)  he  sacrifices  over  it  (the 
butter)  in  which  it  had  lain. 

7.  With  (the  verse),  '  May  the  steeds  at  our  invo- 
cation be  for  a  blessing  to  us  '  (Rig-veda  VII,  38,  7) 
(he  sacrifices)  the  besmeared  grains  with  his  joined 
hands, 

8.  The  other  (grains)  he  should  give  to  his  people. 

9.  Out  of  the  jug  he  fills  the  spoon  with   flour, 

1,  I.  Narayawa's  observation  that  the  ^ravawa  full  moon  can  fall 
also  under  certain  other  Nakshatras  than  6'rava«a  itself,  furnishes 
no  reason  why  we  should  think  here  of  solar  months,  as  Prof. 
Stenzler  proposes. 

7,  8.  See  above,  Sutra  3.  9.  See  above,  Sutra  i. 


202  A5VALAYANA-G/27HYA-sOtRA. 

goes  out  (of  the  house)  to  the  east,  pours  water  on 
the  ground  on  a  clean  spot,  sacrifices  with  (the 
formula),  '  To  the  divine  hosts  of  the  serpents 
svaha ! '  and  does  reverence  to  them  with  (the 
formula),  '  The  serpents  which  are  terrestrial,  which 
are  aerial,  which  are  celestial,  which  dwell  in  the 
directions  (of  the  horizon) — to  them  I  have  brought 
this  Bali ;  to  them  I  give  over  this  Bali/ 

10.  Having  gone  round  (the  Bali)  from  left  to 
right,  he  sits  down  to  the  west  of  the  Bali  with  (the 
words),  '  The  serpent  art  thou  ;  the  lord  of  the 
creeping  serpents  art  thou  ;  by  food  thou  protectest 
men,  by  cake  the  serpents,  by  sacrifice  the  gods. 
To  me,  being  in  thee,  the  serpents  being  in  thee 
should  do  no  harm.  I  eive  over  the  firm  one 
(i.e.  the  spoon)  to  thee.' 

11.  '  Firm  one,  (I  give)  N.  N.  (in  charge)  to  thee  ! 
Firm  one,  (I  give)  N.  N.  (in  charge)  to  thee  !' — 
with  (these  words  he  gives)  his  people,  man  by  man, 
(in  charge  to  the  serpent  god) ; 

12.  '  Firm  one,  I  give  myself  in  charge  to  thee  !' — 
with  these  words  himself  at  the  end. 

13.  Let  no  one  step  between  it  (i.  e.  the  Bali,  and 
the  sacrificer),  until  the  giving  in  charge  has  been 
performed. 

14.  With  (the  formula),  '  To  the  divine  hosts  of 
the  serpents  svaha!' — let  him  offer  the  Bali  in  the 
evening  and  in  the  morning,  till  the  Pratyavaroha;^a 
(i.  e.  the  ceremony  of  the  '  redescent '). 

15.  Some  count  (the  days  till  the  Pratyavaroha?2a) 

14.  On  the  Pratyavarohawa,  see  the  third  chapter  of  this 
Adhyaya. 

15.  I.e.  two  BaH  offerings  for  each  day,  one  for  the  morning  and 
one  for  the  evening. 


II  ADHYAYA,    2  KAJVDIKA,  4.  203 


and  offer  the  corresponding  number  of  Balis  already 
on  that  day  (on  which  the  ^'rava^^a  ceremony  is 
performed), 

KAiVDiKA    2. 

1 .  On  the  full  moon  day  of  A^vayu^a  the  A^vayu^i 
ceremony  (is  performed). 

2.  Having  adorned  the  house,  having  bathed  and 
put  on  clean  garments,  they  should  pour  out  a  mess 
of  cooked  food  for  Pa^upati,  and  should  sacrifice  it 
with  (the  formula), '  To  Pa^upati,  to  6'iva,  to  6^a?;^kara, 
to  Pr/shataka  svaha!' 

3.  He  should  sacrifice  with  his  joined  hands  a 
mixture  of  curds  and  butter  (pr/shataka)  with  (the 
formula),  *  May  what  is  deficient  be  made  full  to  me  ; 
may  what  is  full  not  decay  to  me.  To  Pr/shataka 
svaha ! ' 

4.  '  United  with  the  seasons,  united  with  the 
manners,  united  with  Indra  and  Agni,  svaha ! 

'  United  with  the  seasons,  united  with  the  manners, 
united  with  the  Vi^ve  devas,  svaha ! 

'  United  with  the  seasons,  united  with  the  manners, 
united  with  Heaven  and  Earth,  svaha !'— with  (these 
formulas)  a  mess  of  cooked  food  is  offered  at  the 


2,  2.  '  The  plural  "  They  should  sacrifice  it "  means,  that  while 
the  sacrifice  is  performed  by  the  householder,  his  sons  and  the 
other  i)ersons  belonging  to  the  house  should  touch  him.'     Naraya«a. 

4.  The  Agrayawa  sacrifice,  which  is  offered  when  the  sacrificer  is 
going  to  partake  of  the  first-fruits  of  the  harvest,  is  treated  of,  with 
relation  to  a  sacrificer  who  keeps  the  5'rauta  fires,  in  the  .Srauta- 
sutra  II,  9.  This  Sutra  in  my  opinion  should  be  understood  as  a 
supplementary  addition  to  that  chapter.  Narayawa  refers  the  rule 
here  given  to  the  case  of  any  incident  or  danger  (apad)  which  pre- 
vents the  sacrificer  from  performing  the  ceremony  in  its  fuller 
form,  as  prescribed  in  the  ^rauta-sulra. 


204  A5VALAYANA-GRZ-HYA-stjTRA. 

A 

Agraya;2a  sacrifice  by  one  who  has  set  up  the  (sacred 
vSrauta)  fires. 

5.  Also  by  one  who  has  not  set  up  the  (^'rauta) 
fires  (the  same  offering  is  performed)  in  the  (sacred) 
domestic  fire. 

KAiVDIKA    3. 

1.  On  the  full  moon  of  Margai^irsha  the  '  rede- 
scent'  (is  performed) — on  the  fourteenth  (Tithi), 

2.  Or  on  (the  Tithi  of)  the  full  moon  (itself). 

3.  Having  again  renovated  the  house  by  (giving  a 
new)  coating  (to  the  walls),  by  spreading  out  (a  new 
roof),  and  by  levelling  (the  floor),  they  should  sacrifice 
after  sunset  (oblations)  of  milk-rice  with  (the  texts), 
'  Beat  away,  O  white  one,  with  thy  foot,  with  the  fore- 
foot and  with  the  hind-foot,  these  seven  daughters 
of  Varu?^a  and  all  that  belong  to  the  king's  tribe. 
Svaha ! 

'  Within  the  dominion  of  the  white  one  no  serpent 
has  killed  anything.  To  the  white  one,  the  son  of 
Vidarva,  adoration !  Svaha!' 

4.  Here  no  oblation  to  (Agni)  Svish/akm  (is 
made). 

5.  'May  we  be  secure  from  Pra^apati's  sons' — 
thus  he  murmurs  while  looking  at  the  fire. 

3,  I.  On  the  ceremony  of '  redescent,'  comp.  ^ahkhayana-Gr/hya 
IV,  17;  Paraskara  III,  2.  The  fourteenth  Tithi  of  the  bright  fort- 
night, preceding  the  full  moon,  is  referred  to. 

3.  '  Again '  refers  to  chap.  2,  2.  As  to  the  words  '  they  should 
sacrifice,'  comp.  the  note  on  the  same  Siitra.  The  first  IMantra 
reoccurs  in  6'ahkhayana-Gr?liya  IV,  18,  i.  The  text  of  the  second 
should  be,  na  vai  j-vetasyadhya-^are,  &c.;  comp.  Paraskara  II, 

14,  5- 

5.  The  serpents  are  the  children  of  Ka^-yapa  (i.e.  Prag-apati)  and 

Kadrii ;  see  IMahabharata  I,  1074  seqq. 


II  ADHYAYA,    4  KAiVDIKA,   I.  205 

6.  (Saying),  '  Be  happy  and  friendly  to  us ' — he 
should  think  in  his  mind  of  the  winter. 

7.  To  the  west  of  the  fire  is  a  well-spread  layer  (of 
straw);  on  that  he  should  sit  down,  murmur  (the 
verse),  'Be  soft,  O  earth'  (Rig-veda  I,  22,  15),  and 
lie  down  (on  that  layer)  with  his  people,  with  the 
head  to  the  east  and  the  face  to  the  north. 

8.  The  others,  as  there  is  room. 

9.  Or  following  on  each  other  from  the  eldest  to 
the  youngest, 

10.  Those  who  know  the  Mantras,  should  murmur 
the  Mantras. 

1 1.  Arising  (they  should)  three  times  (murmur  the 
verse),  '  From  that  place  may  the  gods  bless  us  ' 
(Rig-veda  I,  22,  16). 

12.  The  same  (verse)  a  fourth  time  with  their 
faces  to  the  south,  to  the  west,  and  to  the  north. 

13.  Having  arisen,  having  murmured  the  hymns 
sacred  to  the  Sun  and  the  auspicious  hymns,  having 
prepared  food  and  given  to  the  Brahma;^as  to  eat, 
he  should  cause  (them)  to  pronounce  auspicious 
words. 

KAiVDiKA    4. 

I.  On  the  eighth  days  of  the  four  dark  fortnights 
of  (the  two  seasons  of)  winter  and  S'lsira  the  Ash/akas 
(are  celebrated). 


10.  •  The  INIantras  beginning  from  "  Be  soft,  O  cailh"  (Sutra  7) 
down  to  the  auspicious  hymns  (Sutra  1 3).'     Naraya;/a. 

1 1.  It  follows  from  Sutra  12  that  they  are  to  turn  here  their  faces 
to  the  east. 

12.  They  mutter  one  Pada  of  that  verse,  which  is  iu  the  Gayatri 
metre,  turned  towards  each  of  the  three  directions. 

4,    I.    Comp.   6'ahkhayana-Gr/liya    111,    12    seqq.      The    four 


206  Afi'VALAYANA-Gie/HYA-SUTRA. 

2.  Or  on  one  (of  these  days). 

3.  The  day  before,  he  should  offer  to  the  Fathers 
(i.  e.  Manes) — 

4.  Boiled  rice,  boiled  rice  with  sesamum  seeds, 
rice-milk — 

5.  Or  cakes  made  of  four  ^^aravas  (of  ground 
grain) — 

6.  Sacrificing  with  the  eight  (verses),  '  May  the 
lower  (Fathers)  and  the  higher  arise'  (Rig-veda  X,  15, 
I  seqq.),  or  with  as  many  (verses)  as  he  likes. 

7.  Then  on  the  next  day  the  Ash/akas  (are 
celebrated)  with  an  animal  (sacrifice)  and  with  a  mess 
of  cooked  food. 

8.  He  may  also  give  grass  to  an  ox, 

9.  Or  he  may  burn  down  brushwood  with  fire — 

10.  With  (the  words),  '  This  is  my  Ash^aka.' 

11.  But  he  should  not  omit  celebrating  the  Ash- 
/aka. 

1 2.  This  (Ash/aka)  some  state  to  be  sacred  to  the 
Vii-ve  devas,  some  to  Agni,  some  to  the  Sun,  some 
to  Pra^apati,  some  state  that  the  Night  is  its  deity, 
some  that  the  Nakshatras  are,  some  that  the  Seasons 
are,  some  that  the  Fathers  are,  some  that  cattle  is. 

13.  Having  killed  the    animal   according  to  the 

months  of  Hemanta  and  Siska.  are  Marga^'irsha,  Pausha,  Magha, 
and  Phalguna. 

2.  The  statement  of  the  Prayogaratna  that  in  case  the  sacrificer 
should  celebrate  only  one  Ash/aka  festival,  the  Ash/aka  of  the 
Magha  month  is  to  be  selected,  well  agrees  with  the  designation  of 
this  Ash/aka  as  'the  one  Ash/aka'  (ekash/aka);  see  Weber, 
Naxatra  II,  341  seq. ;  Indische  Studien,  XV,  145. 

7  seqq.  Comp.  the  nearly  identical  passage  in  6'ahkhayana-Gr?'hya 
III,  14,  3  seqq.  and  the  note  there.  A.yvalayana  evidently  gives 
these  rules  not  as  regarding  one  special  Ash/aka  but  all  of  them. 

13.  Comp.  above,  I,  11,  i.  2.  10.  As  to  the  Mantra,  comp. 
-Sahkhayana  III,  13,  3. 


II  ADHYAVA,    4  KAiVDIKA,   1 4.  2O7 

ritual  of  the  animal  sacrifice,  omitting  the  sprinkling 
(with  water)  and  the  touching  of  the  animal  with  a 
fresh  branch,  he  should  draw  out  the  omentum  and 
sacrifice  it  with  (the  verse),  '  Carry  the  omentum, 
C^tavedas,  to  the  Fathers,  where  thou  knowest 
them  resting  afar.  May  streams  of  fat  flow  to  them  ; 
may  all  these  wishes  be  fulfilled,     Svaha  ! ' 

14.  Then  (follow  oblations)  of  the  Avadana  por- 
tions and  the  cooked  food,  two  with  (the  two  verses), 
'  Agni,  lead  us  on  a  good  path  to  wealth  '  (Rig-veda 
I,  189,  I  seq.),  (and  other  oblations  with  the  texts), 
'  May  summer,  winter,  the  seasons  be  happy  to  us, 
happy  the  rainy  season,  safe  to  us  the  autumn.  The 
year  be  our  lord  who  gives  breath  to  us  ;  may  days 
and  nights  produce  long  life.     Svaha ! 

'  Peaceful  be  the  earth,  happy  the  air,  may  the 
goddess  Heaven  give  us  safety.  Happy  be  the 
quarters  (of  the  horizon),  the  intermediate  quarters, 
the  upper  quarters  ;  may  the  waters,  the  lightnings 
protect  us  from  all  sides.     Svaha  ! 

'  May  the  waters,  the  rays  carry  our  prayers  (to 
the  gods) ;  may  the  creator,  may  the  ocean  turn 
away  evil  ;  may  the  past  and  the  future,  (may)  all 
be  safe  to  me.  Protected  by  Brahman  may  I  pour 
forth  songs.     Svaha ! 

*  May  all  the  Adityas  and  the  divine  Vasus,  the 
Rudras,  the  protectors,  the  Maruts  sit  down  (here). 
May  Pra^apati,  the  abounding  one,  the  highest 
ruler,  bestow  vigour,  offspring,  immortality  on  me. 
Svdha ! 

'  Pra^apati,  no  other  one  than  Thou  (Rig-veda  X, 
121,  10).' 

14.  I  read,  as  Prof.  Stenzler  and  the  Petersburg  Dictionary  do, 
svara  ksharawi,     Comp.  Paraskara  III,  3,  6. 


208  A5VALAYANA-Gi27HYA-sOTRA. 

15.  The  eighth  (oblation)  is  that  to  (Agni)  Svi- 
sh/akm. 

16.  He  should  s^ive  to  the  Brahma/ms  to  eat: 
this  has  been  said. 

Kajvdika  5. 

1.  On  the  following  day  the  Anvash/akya  (i.  e.  the 
ceremony  following  the  Ash/aka,  is  performed). 

2.  Having  prepared  (a  portion)  of  that  same  meat, 
having  established  the  fire  on  a  surface  inclined 
towards  the  south,  having  fenced  it  in,  and  made  a 
door  on  the  north  side  of  the  enclosure,  having 
strewn  round  {the  fire)  three  times  sacrificial  grass 
with  its  roots,  without  tossing  it,  turning  the  left 
side  towards  the  fire,  he  should  put  down  the  things 
to  be  offered,  boiled  rice,  boiled  rice  with  sesamum 
seeds,  rice-milk,  meal-pap  with  curds,  and  meal-pap 
with  honey. 

3.  (The  ceremony  should  be  performed)  according 
to  the  ritual  of  the  Pi/^^apitr/yac^/^a. 

4.  Having  sacrificed  (of  those  sorts  of  food)  with 
the  exception  of  the  meal-pap  with  honey,  let  him 
give  (lumps  of  those  substances)  to  the  Fathers. 

5.  And  to  (their)  wives,  with  the  addition  of  rum 
and  the  scum  of  boiled  rice. 

6.  Some  (place  the  lumps  to  be  offered)  into  pits, 
into  two  or  into  six. 

16.  See  above,  chap.  3,  13. 

5,  2.  The  meat  is  that  of  the  animal  killed  on  the  Ash/aka  day  ; 
see  chap.  4,  13. 

3.  This  ritual  is  given  in  the  -Srauta-sutra  II,  6  seq. 

4.  He  sacrifices  the  two  oblations  prescribed  in  the  -S'rauta-sutra 
II,  6,  12,  to  Soma  pitr/mat  and  to  Agni  kavyavahana. 


II  ADHYAYA,    6  KAiVDIKA,    I.  2O9 


7.  In  those  situated  to  the  east  he  should  give 
(the  offerings)  to  the  Fathers. 

8.  In  those  to  the  west,  to  the  wives. 

9.  Thereby  the  ceremony  celebrated  in  the  rainy 
season  on  the  Magha  day,  in  the  dark  fortnight  after 
the  full  moon  of  Praush///apada  (has  been  declared). 

10.  And  thus  he  should  offer  (a  celebration  like 
the  Anvash/akya)  to  the  Fathers  every  month, 
observing  uneven  numbers  (i.  e.  selecting  a  day  with 
an  uneven  number,  inviting  an  uneven  number  of 
Brahma;^as,  &c.). 

11.  He  should  give  food  at  least  to  nine  (Brah- 
ma;^as), 

12.  Or  to  an  uneven  number  ; 

13.  To  an  even  number  on  auspicious  occasions 
or  on  the  performance  of  meritorious  deeds  (such  as 
the  consecration  of  ponds,  &c.) ; 

14.  To  an  uneven  number  on  other  (occasions). 

15.  The  rite  is  performed  from  left  to  right. 
Barley  is  to  be  used  instead  of  sesamum. 

Kaatdika  6. 

I.  When  going  to  mount  a  chariot  he  should 
touch  the  wheels  with  his  two  hands  separately  with 
(the  words),  '  I  touch  thy  two  fore-feet.  Thy  two 
wheels  are  the  Br/hat  and  the  Rathantara  (Samans).' 


9.  Comp.  the  note  on  ^S'ankhayana-Gn'hya  III,  13,  i. 

10.  Comp.  iS'ankhayana-Gr/'hya  IV,  i,  i. 
13.  ^ahkhayana-Gnhya  IV,  4,  4. 

15.  6'ahkhayana-Gr/hya  IV,  4,  6.  9. 

6,  I.  'He  should  touch  at  the  same  time  the  right  wheel  with  his 
right  hand,  the  left  wheel  with  his  left  hand.'     Narayawa. 

[29]  P 


2  I O  AS-VALAYANA-GiJ/HYA-sOTRA. 

2.  '  Thy  axle  is  the  Vamadevya ' — with  (these 
words  he  touches)  the  two  (naves)  in  which  the  axle 
rests. 

3.  He  should  mount  (the  chariot)  with  the  right 
foot  first,  with  (the  words),  '  With  Vayu's  strength  I 
mount  thee,  with  Indra's  power  and  sovereignty.' 

4.  He  should  touch  the  reins,  or  if  the  horses  have 
no  reins,  (he  should  touch)  the  horses  with  a  staff, 
with  (the  words),  '  With  Brahman's  splendour  I  seize 
you.     With  truth  I  seize  you.' 

5.  When  (the  horses)  put  themselves  in  motion, 
he  should  murmur,  '  Go  forward  to  thousandfold 
successful  vigour,  divine  chariot,  carry  us  forward ! ' 
— (and  the  verse),  *  Free,  strong  be  thy  limbs  !'  (Rig- 
veda  VI,  47,  26.) 

6.  With  this  (verse  he  should  touch  also)  other 
articles  of  wood. 

7.  '  May  the  two  oxen  be  strong,  the  axle  firm ' 
(Rig-veda  HI,  53,  17) — with  (this  verse)  he  should 
touch  (each)  part  of  the  chariot  (alluded  to  in  that 
verse). 

8.  With  (the  verse),  '  The  earth,  the  good  pro- 
tectress, the  unattained  heaven'  (Rig-veda  X,  6';^,  10) 
(he  should  ascend)  a  ship. 

9.  With  a  new  chariot  he  should  drive  round  a 
widely  known  tree  or  round  a  pool  that  does  not  dry 
up,  with  his  right  side  turned  towards  it,  and  then 
should  fetch  branches  which  bear  fruits, 

2.  On  the  Vedic  form  of  the  chariot  and  of  the  wheels,  comp. 
Zimmer,  Altindisches  Leben,  p.  247. 

6.  According  to  Ndrayawa  this  Sutra  would  refer  only  to  other 
vehicles  of  wood,  which  he  is  directed  to  touch  with  that  Rik  when 
going  to  mount  them.  Perhaps  the  commentator  is  right;  the 
wording  of  the  JRik  is  well  in  keeping  with  his  explanation. 


II  ADHYAYA,    7  KAiVDIKA,  8.  2  11 

10.  Or  something  else  that  belongs  to  the  house- 
hold. 

11.  (He  then)  should  drive  (in  that  chariot)  to  an 
assembly. 

12.  Having  murmured,  while  looking  at  the  sun, 
(the  verse),  'Make  our  renown  highest'  (Rig-veda 
IV,  31,  15),  he  should  descend, 

13.  '  To  the  bull  among  my  equals  '  (Rig-veda  X, 
166,  i)  —  (this  verse  he  should  murmur)  while 
approaching  (that  assembly  ?). 

14.  '  May  we  be  called  to-day  Indra's  best  friends  ' 
(Rig-veda  I,  167,  10) — when  the  sun  is  setting. 

15.  '  Thus  I  address  you,  O  daughters  of  heaven, 
while  you  arise'  (Rig-veda  IV,  51,  11) — when  day 
appears. 

KAiVDIKA    7. 

1.  Now  the  examination  of  the  ground  (where  he 
intends  to  build  a  house). 

2.  (It  must  be)  non-salinous  soil  of  undisputed 
property, 

3.  With  herbs  and  trees, 

4.  On  which  much  Kui'a  and  Vira;^a  grass  grows. 

5.  Plants  with  thorns  and  with  milky  juice  he 
should  dig  out  with  their  roots  and  remove  them — 

6.  And  in  the  same  way  the  following  (sorts  of 
plants), viz.  Apamarga,  potherbs, Tilvaka,  Parivyadha. 

7.  A  spot  where  the  waters,  flowing  together  from        •     * 
all  sides  to  the  centre  of  it,  flow  round  the  resting- 
place,  having  it  on  their  right  side,  and  then  flow 

off  to    the    east   without   noise — that   possesses  all 
auspicious  qualities. 

8.  Where  the  waters  flow  off,  he  should  have  the         <p    « 
provision-room  built. 

r  2 


212  ASVALAYANA-G22JHYA-StjTRA. 

9.  Thus  it  becomes  rich  in  food. 

10.  On  a  spot  which  is  inclined  towards  the  south, 
he  should  have  the  assembly-room  constructed  ;  thus 
there  will  be  no  gambling  in  it. 

11.  (But  others  say  that)  in  such  (an  assembly- 
room)  the  young  people  become  gamblers,  quarrel- 
some, and  die  early. 

*  12.    Where    the    waters    flow   together   from    all 

directions,  that  assembly-room  (situated  on  such  a 
spot)  brings  luck  and  is  free  from  gambling. 

KAiVDIKA   8. 

1.  Now  he  should  examine  the  ground  in  the 
following  ways. 

2.  He  should  dig  a  pit  knee-deep  and  fill  it 
again  with  the  same  earth  (which  he  has  taken 
out  of  it). 

3.  If  (the  earth)  reaches  out  (of  the  pit,  the  ground 
is)  excellent ;  if  it  is  level,  (it  is)  of  middle  quality ; 
if  it  does  not  fill  (the  pit,  it  is)  to  be  rejected. 

4.  After  sunset  he  should  fill  (the  pit)  with  water 
and  leave  it  so  through  the  night. 

«  5.   If  (in  the  morning)  there  is  water  in  it,  (the 

ground  is)  excellent ;  if  it  is  moist,  (it  is)  of  middle 
quality ;  if  it  is  dry,  (it  is)  to  be  rejected. 

6.  White  (ground),  of  sweet  taste,  with  sand  on 
the  surface,  (should  be  elected)  by  a  Brahma;^a. 

7.  Red  (ground)  for  a  Kshatriya. 

8.  Yellow  (ground)  for  a  Vaii-ya. 

9.  He  should  draw  a  thousand  furrows  on  it  and 
should  have  it  measured  off  as  quadrangular,  with 
equal  sides  to  each  (of  the  four)  directions  ; 

10.  Or  as  an  oblong  quadrangle. 


II    ADHYAYA,    8    KAiVDIKA,    1 6.  213 


11.  With  a  ^'ami  branch  or  an  Udumbara  branch 
he  sprinkles  it  (with  water),  going  thrice  round  it, 
so  that  his  right  side  is  turned  towards  it,  reciting 
the  6'ant^tiya  hymn. 

12.  And  (so  he  does  again  three  times)  pouring 
out  water  without  interruption,  with  the  three  verses, 
'  O  waters,  ye  are  wholesome'  (Rig-veda  X,  9,  i  seqq.). 

13.  In  the  interstices  between  the  bamboo  staffs 
he  should  have  the  (single)  rooms  constructed. 

14.  Into  the  pits  in  which  the  posts  are  to  stand, 
he  should  have  an  Avaka,  i.  e.  (the  water-plant 
called)  ^'ipala  put  down  ;  then  fire  will  not  befall 
him :  thus  it  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti). 

15.  Having  put  (that  plant)  into  the  pit  in  which 
the  middle-post  is  to  stand,  he  should  spread  (on  it) 
eastward-pointed  and  northward-pointed  Ku5a  grass 
and  should  sprinkle  (on  that  grass)  water  into  which 
rice  and  barley  have  been  thrown,  with  (the  words), 
*  To  the  steady  one,  the  earth-demon,  svaha!' 

16.  He  then  should,  when  (the  middle-post)  is 
being  erected,  recite  over  it  (the  two  verses), 

'  Stand  here,  fixed  in  the  ground,  prosperous,  long- 


8,  II.  The  hymn  of  which  all  verses  (except  a  few)  commence 
with,  and  frequently  contain,  the  word  jam  (Rig-veda  VII,  35). 

13.  The  bamboo  staffs  (vawja)  rest  on  the  chief  posts  (sthiiwa); 
see  chap.  9,  i.  2. 

15.  Comp.  chap,  i,  4. 

16.  Comp.  ^afikhayana-G/7liyaIII,  3,  i  and  the  note  there.  How 
stamiravatim  should  be  corrected  and  translated  is  quite  un- 
certain. Instead  of  poshasva  Prof.  Stenzler  proposes  to  read 
poshasya,  as  .Sahkhayana  has;  I  have  adopted  this  correction. — 
In  the  second  verse  ^ayatdw  saha  seems  to  be  corrupt ;  comp.  my 
note  on  6'ahkhayana  III,  2,  9.  Instead  of  parijrita>^  we  should 
read,  as  ^ahkhayana,  Paraskara,  and  the  Atharva-veda  (III,  12,  7) 
have,  parisruta,^. 


2  1 4  A.SVALAYANA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

lasting'    (?),    standing    amid    prosperity.       May    the 
malevolent  ones  not  attain  thee ! 

'  To  thee  (may)  the  young  child  (come),  to  thee 
the  calf.  .  .  ;  to  thee  (may)  the  cup  of  Parisrut 
(come) ;  (to  thee)  may  they  come  with  pots  of  curds.' 

KAiVDiKA    9. 

1.  (Over)  the  bamboo  staff,  when  it  is  put  on  (the 
middle-post,  he  recites  the  hemistich), 

2.  '  Rightly  ascend  the  post,  O  staff,  bestowing  on 
us  long  life  henceforward.' 

1,.  On  four  stones,  on  which  Durva  orrass  has  been 
spread,  he  should  establish  the  water-barrel  with 
(the  words),  '  Arise  on  the  earth  ' — 

4.  Or  with  (the  verse),  '  The  Arangara  sounds, 
three  times  bound  with  the  strap.  It  praises  the 
welfare  ;  may  it  drive  away  ill.' 

5.  He  then  should  pour  water  into  it  with  (the 
verse),  '  Hither  may  king  Varu7«a  come  with  the 
plentiful  (waters)  ;  at  this  place  may  he  stay  con- 
tented ;  bringing  welfare,  dropping  ghee  may  they 
lie  down  together  with  Mitra.' 

6.  He  then  '  appeases'  it  (in  the  following  way). 

7.  He  puts  gold  into  water  into  which  rice  and 
barley  have  been  thrown,  and  (with  that  water)  he 
sprinkles  it  three  times,  going  round  it  with  his  right 
side  turned  towards  it,  with  the  K^antatiya  hymn. 

8.  And  (so  he  does  again  three  times)  pouring  out 

9,  4.  The  meaning  of  Arangara  is  unknown  to  me  ;  it  seems  to 
be  a  musical  instrument.     Comp.  Atharva-veda  XX,  135,  13. 

6.  The  ground  on  which  the  house  is  to  be  built. 

7.  On  the  i^'antatiya  hymn,  see  above,  chap.  8,  11. 

8.  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  chap.  8,  12. 


II    ADHYAYA,    lO    KAiVDIKA,    6.  215 

water  without  interruption,  with  the  three  verses,  '  O 
waters,  ye  are  wholesome '  (Rig-veda  X,  9,  i  seqq.). 
9.  In  the  middle  of  the  house  he  should  cook  a 
mess  of  food,  sacrifice  (therefrom)  with  the  four 
verses,  '  Vastoshpati,  accept  us'{Rig-veda  VII,  54, 
I  seqq.),  verse  by  verse,  should  prepare  food,  should 
give  to  the  Brahma;2as  to  eat,  and  should  cause  them 
to  say,  '  Lucky  is  the  ground  !    Lucky  is  the  ground  ! ' 

KAiVDIKA    10. 

1.  It  has  been  declared  how  he  should  enter  the 
house  (when  returning  from  a  journey). 

2.  The  house,  when  he  enters  it,  should  be  pro- 
vided with  seed-corn, 

3.  He  should  have  his  field  ploughed  under  the 
Nakshatras  Uttara/^  Prosh///apad^s,  (Uttara//)  Phal- 
gunyas,  or  Rohi;/i. 

4.  In  order  that  the  wind  may  blow  to  him  from 
the  field,  he  should  offer  oblations  with  the  hymn, 
'Through  the  lord  of  the  field'  (Rig-veda  IV,  57), 
verse  by  verse,  or  he  should  murmur  (that  hymn). 

5.  He  should  speak  over  the  cows  when  they  go 
away,  the  two  verses,  '  May  refreshing  wind  blow 
over  the  cows'  (Rig-veda  X,  169,  i  seq.). 

6.  When  they  come  back,  (he  should  recite  the 
following  verses,) 

*  May  they  whose  udder  with  its  four  holes  is  full 

9.  Comp.  above,  chap.  3,  13. 

10,  I.  See  6'raula-sutra  II,  5,  17  seqq.  It  is  there  expressly 
stated  that  these  rules  refer  also  to  an  Anahitagni. 

3.  ^Sahkhayana  IV,  13,  i. 

5.  ^ahkhayana-Gnliya  III,  9. 

6.  iSahkhayana,  loc.  cit. — Should  the  reading  upa  maitu  be  cor- 
rected into  upa  maita? 


21 6  A5'VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-s0tRA. 


of  honey  and  ghee,  be  milk-givers  to  us ;  (may  they 
be)  many  in  our  stable,  rich  in  ghee. 

'  Come  hither  to  me,  giving  refreshment,  bringing 
vigour  and  strength.  Giving  inexhaustible  milk,  rest 
in  my  stable  that  I  may  become  the  highest  one ' — 

And,  '  They  who  have  raised  their  body  up  to  the 
gods' — the  rest  of  the  hymn  (Rig-veda  X,  169,  3.  4). 

7.  Some  recite  (instead  of  the  texts  stated  in  Sutra 

A 

6)  the  Agaviya  hymn. 

8.  He  should  approach  their  herds,  if  the  cows  do 
not  belong  to  his  Guru,  with  (the  words),  'Prospering 
are  ye ;  excellent  are  ye,  beautiful,  dear.  May  I 
become  dear  to  you.     May  you  see  bliss  in  me.' 

End  of  the  Second  Adhyaya. 


7.  The  hymn  commencing  a  gavo  agman  (hither  came  the 
cows)  is  Rig-veda  VI,  28. 

8.  Perhaps  the  last  words  (which  are  repeated  twice  in  order  to 
mark  the  end  of  the  Adhyaya)  should  be  written  saw  mayi 
^anidhvam,  'Hve  with  me  in  harmony  together.' 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    2    KAiVMKA,    2.  2T7 


AdHYAYA    III,    KAiVDIKA    1. 

1.  Now  (follow)  the  five  sacrifices  : 

2.  The  sacrifice  to  the  Gods,  the  sacrifice  to  the 
Beines,  the  sacrifice  to  the  Fathers,  the  sacrifice  to 
Brahman,  the  sacrifice  to  men. 

3.  Here  now,  if  he  makes  oblations  over  the 
(sacred)  fire,  this  is  the  sacrifice  to  the  Gods. 

If  he  makes  Bali  offerings,  this  is  the  sacrifice  to 
the  Beings. 

If  he  gives  (Pi;^^a  offerings)  to  the  Fathers,  this  is 
the  sacrifice  to  the  Fathers. 

If  he  studies  (Vedic)  texts,  this  is  the  sacrifice  to 
Brahman. 

If  he  eives  to  men,  this  is  the  sacrifice  to  men. 

4.  These  (five  kinds  of)  sacrifices  he  should  per- 
form every  day. 

Kandika  2. 

1.  Now  the  rules  how  one  should  recite  (the  Vedic 
texts)  for  one's  self. 

2.  He  should  go  out  of  the  village  to  the  east  or 
to  the  north,  bathe  in  water,  sip  water  on  a  clean  spot, 
clad  with  the  sacrificial  cord ;  he  should  spread  out, 
his  garment  being  not  wet,  a  great  quantity  of  Darbha 
grass,  the  tufts  of  which  are  directed  towards  the  east, 
and  should  sit  down  thereon  with  his  face  turned  to 
the  east,  making  a  lap,  putting  together  his  hands  in 
which  he  holds  purifiers  (i.  e.  Ku^a  blades),  so  that 
the  right  hand  lies  uppermost. 


1,  I  seqq.  Comp.  -Satapalha  Brahmawa  XI,  5,  6,  i  seqq. 


2  1 8  a5Valayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

It  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti),  'This  is  what 
Darbha  o:rass  is  :  it  is  the  essence  of  waters  and 
herbs.  He  thus  makes  the  Brahman  provided  with 
essence.' 

Looking  at  the  point  where  heaven  and  earth 
touch  each  other,  or  shutting  his  eyes,  or  in  whatever 
way  he  may  deem  himself  apt  (for  reciting  the  Veda), 
thus  adapting  himself  he  should  recite  (the  sacred 
texts)  for  himself. 

3.  The  Vyahr/tis  preceded  by  (the  syllable)  Om 
(are  pronounced  first). 

4.  He  (then)  repeats  the  Savitri  (Rig-veda  HI,  62, 
10),  (firstly)  Pada  by  Pada,  (then)  hemistich  by 
hemistich,  thirdly  the  whole. 

Kandika  3. 

1.  He  then  should  recite  for  himself  (the  following 
texts,  viz.)  the  Ri^SiS,  the  Ya^us,  the  Samans,  the 
Atharvan  and  Angiras  hymns,  the  Brahma;^as,  the 
Kalpa  (Sutras),  the  Gathas,  the  (texts  in  honour  of 
kings  and  heroes,  called)  Naraj"a;7^sis,  the  Itihasas 
and  Pura;2as. 

2.  In  that  he  recites  the  R/^as,  he  thereby  satiates 
the  gods  with  oblations  of  milk — in  that  (he  recites) 
the  Ya^s,  with  oblations  of  ghee — the  Samans,  with 
oblations  of  honey — the  Atharvan  and  Angiras 
hymns,  with  oblations  of  Soma — the  Brahma;^as, 
Kalpas,  Gathas,  Naramwsis,  Itihasas  and  Pura;^as, 
with  oblations  of  ambrosia. 

3, 1.  On  this  and  the  foUowmg  paragraphs  comp.  chiefly  6atapatha 
Brahmawa  XI,  5,  6.  Other  enumerations,  contained  in  the  Veda 
itself,  of  the  texts  that  were  considered  as  forming  the  Veda  or  as 
attached  to  the  body  of  the  Veda,  are  found  in  the  6'atapatha 
Brahmawa  XIV,  5,  4,  10  (Sacred  Books,  XV,  m),  and  in  the 
A7/andogya  Upanishad  VII.  i  (Sacred  Books,  I,  109). 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    4    KAJViJiKA,    2.  219 


3.  In  that  he  recites  the  7?//('as,  rivers  of  milk  flow, 
as  a  funeral  oblation,  to  his  Fathers.  In  that  (he 
recites)  the  Ya^us,  rivers  of  ghee — the  Samans, 
rivers  of  honey — the  Atharvan  and  Angiras  hymns, 
rivers  of  Soma — the  Brahma/^as,  Kalpas,  Gathas, 
Kara^a7;^sis,  Itihasasand  Pura;^as,  rivers  of  ambrosia. 

4.  After  he  has  recited  (those  texts)  as  far  as  he 
thinks  fit,  he  should  finish  with  the  following  (verse), 

'  Adoration  to  Brahman !  Adoration  be  to  Agni ! 
Adoration  to  the  Earth!  Adoration  to  the  Herbs! 
Adoration  to  the  Voice !  Adoration  to  the  Lord  of 
the  Voice  !     Adoration  I  bring  to  great  Vish;m !' 

KAiVDIKA    4. 

J.  He  satiates  the  deities:  '  Pra^apati,  Brahman, 
the  Vedas,  the  gods,  the  7??shis,  all  metres,  the  word 
Om,  the  word  Vasha/,  the  Vyahmis,  the  Savitri,  the 
sacrifices.  Heaven  and  Earth,  the  air,  days  and 
nights,  the  numbers,  the  Siddhas,  the  oceans,  the 
rivers,  the  mountains,  the  fields,  herbs,  trees,  Gan- 
dharvas  and  Apsaras,  the  snakes,  the  birds,  the  cows, 
the  Sadhyas,  the  Vipras,  the  Yakshas,  the  Rakshas, 
the  beings  that  have  these  (Rakshas,  &c.)  at  their 
end.' 

2.  Then  the  J^zshis  :  *  The  (7?/shis)  of  the  hundred 
(Rz/cas),  the  (A'/shis)  of  the  middle  (Ma;^^alas),  Grzt- 

4,  I.  Comp.  6'Ahkhayana-Gn'hya  IV,  9.  Narayawa :  'Having 
finished  (the  Svadhyaya)  he  satiates  with  water  oblations  these 
deities.' 

Pra^apati  and  the  following  words  stand  in  the  nominative  ;  the 
verb  to  be  supplied  is  tr/pyatu  (ir/pyantu),  'may  he  (they) 
satiate  himself  (themselves).' 

2.  ^dnkhayana-Gr/hya  IV,  10.  ^ankhayana  has  pavamana//, 
'the  (/?/shis)  of  the  Pavamana  hymns,'  but  pragatha^  as  Ajvala- 
yana  has,  and  not  as  we  should  expect,  pr  a  gat  ha//. 


2  20  A5VALAYANA-G/^HYA-SfjTRA. 

samada,  Vii'vamitra,  Vamadeva,  Atri,  Bharadva^a, 
Vasish///a,  the  Pragathas,  the  Pavamana  hymns,  the 
(i?/shis)  of  the  short  hymns,  and  of  the  long  hymns.' 

3.  (Then)  with  the  sacrificial  cord  suspended  over 
the  right  shoulder  : 

4.  '  Sumantu,  6^aimini,  Vai^-ampayana,  Paila,  the 
Sutras,  the  Bhashyas,  the  Bharata,  the  Mahabharata, 
the  teachers  of  law,  6^ananti,  Bahavi,  Gargya,  Gau- 
tama, vSakalya,  Babhravya,  Ma;^rtfavya,  Ma;2^ukeya, 
Gargi  Va/'aknavi,  Va^T'ava  Pratitheyi,  Sulabha 
Maitreyi,  Kahola  Kaushitaka,  Mahakaushitaka, 
Paingya,  Mahapaingya,  Suya^;'^a  6ankhayana,  Aita- 
reya,  Mahaitareya,  the  ^'akala  (text),  the  Bashkala 
(text),  Su^atavaktra,  Audavahi,  Mahaudavahi,  Sau- 
^ami,  6aunaka,  A^valayana — and  whatsoever  other 
teachers  there  are,  may  they  all  satiate  themselves.' 

5.  After  he  has  satiated  the  Fathers  man  by  man, 
and  has  returned  to  his  house,  what  he  gives  (then), 
that  is  the  sacrificial  fee. 

6.  And  it  is  also  understood  (in  the  6'ruti),  '  May 
he  be  standing,  walking,  sitting,  or  lying,  (the  texts 
belonging  to)  whatsoever  sacrifice  he  repeats,  that 
sacrifice  indeed  he  has  offered.' 

7.  It  is  understood  (in  the  .S'ruti),  '  Regarding  this 
(Svadhyaya)  there  are  two  cases  in  which  the  study 
(of  the  sacred  texts)  is  forbidden :  when  he  is  im- 
pure himself,  and  when  the  place  is.' 

4.  The  names  from  Kahola  Kaushitaki  down  to  A^valayana  stand 
in  the  accusative ;  tarpayami,  '  I  satiate  N.  N. '  is  to  be  supplied. 

5.  Naraya«a ;  '  He  satiates  his  father,  grandfather,  and  great- 
grandfather, and  goes  to  his  house.  What  he  then  gives,  for 
instance,  food  offered  to  guests,  or  given  as  alms  (to  religious 
beggars),  is  considered  as  the  sacrificial  fee  for  the  Brahma- 
yagiidi.' 

6.  Comp.  ^atapatha  Brahmawa  XI,  5,  7,  3.  4. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    5    KAJVKIKA,    7.  221 


KAiVDiKA    5. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  Adliyayopakara;^a  (i.  e.  the 
ceremony  by  which  the  annual  course  of  study  is 
opened) ; 

2.  When  the  herbs  appear,  (when  the  moon  stands 
in  conjunction)  with  Sra.va.na,  in  the  ^Srava/^a  month, 

3.  Or  on  the  fifth  (Tithi  of  that  month),  under 
(the  Nakshatra)  Hasta. 

4.  Having  sacrificed  the  two  Afya  portions,  he 
should  offer  A_^'a  oblations  (to  the  following  deities, 
viz.)  Savitri,  Brahman,  Belief,  Insight,  Wisdom, 
Memory,  Sadasaspati,  Anumati,  the  metres,  and  the 
/^/shis. 

5.  He  then  sacrifices  grains  with  curds  (with  the 
following  texts)  : 

6.  '  I  praise  Agni  the  Purohita ' — this  one  verse 
(Rig-veda  I,  i,  i), 

7.  '  The  Kushumbhaka  (mungoose  ?)  has  said  it ' — 
*  If  thou  criest,  O  bird,  announce  luck  to  us ' — '  Sung 
by  6^amadagni' — '  In  thy  abode  the  whole  world  rests' 


5,  2,  3.  Perhaps  the  division  of  these  Sutras  should  be  altered,  so 
that  j-ravawasya  would  belong  to  Sutra  2.  In  this  case  we  should 
have  to  translate,  '2.  When  the  herbs  appear,  (on  a  day  on  which 
the  moon  stands  in  conjunction)  with  6'rava;;a.  3.  Or  on  the 
fifth  (Tithi)  of  the  ^ravawa  month,  under  (the  Nakshatra)  Hasta.' 
Comp.  jravawasya  pa?7/C-amim,  Par.  II,  10,  2.  If  we  count 
the  month  beginning  with  the  bright  fortnight,  and  assume  that  the 
full  moon  day  of  6'rava«a  falls,  as  the  name  of  the  month  impHes, 
on  6'rava«a,  the  fifth  Tithi  of  that  month  will  fall  indeed  on  Hasta. 
Comp.  on  the  dates  of  the  Upakara«a,  Prof  Weber's  remarks,  Die 
vedischen  Nachrichten  von  den  Naxatra  II,  322,  and  on  the  special 
symbolical  signification  of  the  Nakshatra  ^rava«a  in  this  connection, 
my  note  on  .Sahkhayana  IV,  5,  2. 

4.  On  the  two  A^'a  portions,  comp.  above,  I,  3,  5  J  io>  ^3  seqq. 

7.  Comp.  5ahkhayana  IV,  5,  8.  The  verses  with  which  the  obla- 
tions are  performed,  are  the  first  and  last  verses  of  each  Ma«(/ala. 


22  2  A5VALAYANA-G22/HYA-s0tRA. 


— '  Come  to  our  sacrifice,  O  you  that  are  worthy  of 
sacrifice,  with  care '— '  Whosoever,  be  he  ours,  be  he 
alien  ' — '  Look  on,  look  about ' — '  Come  here,  Agni, 
the  Maruts'  friend ' — '  The  oblation,  O  king,  cooked 
for  thee  ' — each  time  two  verses  ; 

8.  '  United  is  your  will'  (Rig-veda  X,  191,  4) — 
this  one  verse ; 

9.  '  That  blessing  and  bliss  we  choose ' — this  one 

verse. 

10.  When  he  intends  to  study  (the  Veda  together 
with  pupils),  he  should,  while  the  pupils  take  hold  of 
him,  sacrifice  to  those  deities,  and  sacrifice  to  (Agni) 
Svish/akm,  and  partake  of  the  grains  with  curds ; 
then  (follows)  the  '  cleaning.' 

1 1 .  Sittine  down  to  the  west  of  the  fire  on  Darbha 
grass,  the  tufts  of  which  are  directed  towards  the 
east,  he  should  put  Darbha  blades  into  a  water-pot, 
and  making  a  Brahma^^^ali  (i.  e.  joining  his  hands  as 
a  sio-n  of  veneration  for  the  Brahman),  he  should 
murmur  (the  following  texts) : 

12.  The  Vyahmis  preceded  by  (the  syllable)  Om 
(stand  first) ;  (these)  and  the  Savitri  he  should  repeat 
three  times  and  then  recite  the  beginning  of  the 
Veda. 


9.  This  is  the  last  verse  of  the  Rik-Samhita  in  the  Bashkala 
^'akha.     See  my  note  on  -S'dhkhayana  IV,  5,  9. 

10.  The  expression,  'Those  deities'  would,  according  to  Nara- 
ya?ia,  refer  not  only  to  the  deities  stated  in  Sutra  4,  but  also  to  the 
deities  of  the  first  and  last  verses  of  the  Mawa^alas  (Sutras  6  seqq.). 
On  the  grains  with  curds,  comp.  Sutra  5.  The  technical  sense  of 
the  'cleaning'  is  explained  in  the  -Srauta-sutra  I,  8,  2  ;  comp. 
Hillebrandt,  Das  altindische  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer,  p.  130, 
note  I.  The  sacrificer  covers  his  joined  hands  with  the  Kuja 
grass  spread  out  round  the  fire,  and  has  water  sprinkled  on  them. 

11.  On  the  term  brahmaw^ali,  comp.  Manu  II,  71. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    6    KAiVDIKA,     I.  2  2 


--0 


13.  In  the  same  way  at  the  Utsarga  (i.e.  at  the 
ceremony  performed  at  the  end  of  the  term  of  Vedic 
study). 

14.  He  should  study  six  months. 

15.  One  who  has  performed  the  Samavartana 
(should  live  during  that  time)  according  to  the 
regulations  for  BrahmaMrins. 

16.  The  others  according  to  the  rules. 

17.  Some  say  that  he  should  have  intercourse 
with  his  wife. 

18.  That  (is  a  practice)  sacred  to  Pra^apati. 

19.  This  (Upakara;^a)  they  call  varshika  (i.  e. 
belonging  to  the  rainy  season). 

20.  On  the  middle  Ash/aka  they  offer  food  to 
those  deities,  and  descend  into  water. 

21.  They  satiate  those  same  deities  (with  water 
oblations), 

2  2.  (And  besides)  the  AX;aryas,  the  i?zshis,  and 
the  Fathers, 

23.  This  is  the  Utsar^ana. 

KAiVDIKA    6. 

I.  Instead  of  the  Kamya  ceremonies  (i.  e.  the 
ceremonies,  prescribed  in  the  .Srauta-sutra,  by  which 


15.  On  the  Samavartana,  see  below,  chap.  8  seq.  The  restrictions 
referred  to  consist  in  the  interdiction  of  eating  honey  and  meat,  of 
having  sexual  intercourse,  of  sleeping  in  a  bedstead  and  in  the 
day-time,  &c.     Narayawa. 

16.  I.e.  the  BrahmaHrins. 

17.  I.e.  one  who  has  performed  the  Samavartana. 

20.  After  the  six  months  (Sutra  14)  have  elapsed,  on  the  Ash/aka 
of  INIagha. 

23.  Or  Utsarga,  see  Sfitra  13. 

6,  I.  Naraya«a  divides  this  Sutra  into  two:  i.  atha  kamyana/;z 
sthane  kamya^ ;   2.  X-arava^. 


2  24  A5VALA  YAN  A-GR/H  YA-S<)TR  A. 


Special  wishes  are  attained,  oblations  of)  boiled  (rice) 
grains,  for  the  attainment  of  those  wishes,  (should  be 
made  by  the  Gr/hya  sacrificer). 

2.  He  attains  (thereby)  those  same  wishes. 

3.  For  a  person  that  is  sick,  or  suffering,  or 
affected  with  consumption,  a  mess  of  boiled  (rice) 
grains  in  six  oblations  (should  he  offered) — 

4.  With  this  (hymn),  '  I  loosen  thee  by  sacrificial 
food,  that  thou  mayst  live'  (Rig-veda  X,  161). 

5.  If  he  has  seen  a  bad  dream,  he  should  worship 
the  sun  with  the  two  verses,  '  To-day,  god  Savit^^z ' 
(Rig-veda  V,  82,  4,  5),  and  with  the  five  verses, 
'  What  bad  dreams  there  are  among  the  cows '  (Rig- 
veda  VIII,  47,  14  seqq.), 

6.  Or  with  (the  verse),  'Whosoever,  O  king,  be 
it  a  companion  or  a  friend'  (Rig-veda  II,  28,  10). 

7.  When  he  has  sneezed,  yawned,  seen  a  dis- 
agreeable sight,  smelt  a  bad  smell,  when  his  eye 
palpitates,  and  when  he  hears  noises  in  his  ears,  he 
should  murmur,  '  Well-eyed  may  I  become  with  my 
eyes,  well-vigoured  with  my  face,  well-hearing  with 
my  ears.     May  will  and  insight  dwell  in  me !' 

8.  If  he  has  gone  to  a  wife  to  whom  he  ought 
not  to  go,  or  if  he  has  performed  a  sacrifice  for  a 
person  for  whom  he  ought  not  to  do  so,  or  has  eaten 
forbidden  food,  or  accepted  what  he  ought  not  to 
accept,  or  pushed  against  a  piled-up  (fire  altar)  or 


8.  Narayawa  is  evidently  wrong  in  explaining  /(-aityara  yupaw 
/^a  by  agni/^ayanastha?;i  yupaw  (which  is  not,  as  Prof.  Stenzler 
takes  it,  der  Opferpfahl  auf  einem  Bestattungsplatze). 
Comp.  Gobhila  III,  3,  34 ;  G;7'hya-sa7«graha-parijish/a  II,  4. 

I  have  translated  the  second  verse  in  Sfitra  8,  as  if  the  text  had 
kalpantam.  The  MSS.  give  kalpatam.  Atharva-vedaVII,  67  has 
kalpayantdm. 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    7    KA/VDIKA,    3.  225 

against  a  sacrificial  post,  he  should  sacrifice  two 
A^'a  oblations  with  (the  verses), 

*  May  my  faculties  return  into  me,  may  life  return, 
ma)-  prosperity  return  ;  may  my  goods  return  to 
me  ;  may  the  divine  power  return  into  me,     Svaha  ! 

'  These  fires  that  are  stationed  on  the  (altars 
called)  Dhish;^)as,  may  they  be  here  in  good  order, 
each  on  its  right  place.  (Agni)  Vai^vanara,  grown 
strong,  the  standard  of  immortality,  may  he  govern 
my  mind  in  my  heart.     Sv4ha  ! ' 

9.  Or  (he  may  sacrifice)  two  pieces  of  wood, 

10.  Or  murmur  (the  same  two  verses  without  any 
oblation). 

Kaa^dika  7. 

1.  If  the  sun  sets  while  he  is  sleeping  without 
being  sick,  he  should  spend  the  rest  of  the  night 
keeping  silence,  without  sitting  clown,  and  should 
worship  the  sun  (when  it  rises)  with  the  five 
(verses),  'The  light,  O  sun,  by  which  thou  de- 
stroyest  darkness'  (Rig-veda  X,  37,  4  seq.). 

2.  If  (the  sun)  rises  (while  he  is  sleeping  without 
being  sick),  being  fatigued  without  having  done  any 
work,  or  having  done  work  that  is  not  becoming,  he 
should  keep  silence,  &c.,  as  before,  and  perform  his 
worship  (to  the  sun)  with  the  following  four  (verses, 
Rig-veda  X,  37,  9  seq.). 

3.  Invested  with  the  sacrificial  cord,  constantly 
fulfilling  the  prescribed  duties  regarding  the  use  of 

7,  2.  Perhaps  we  should  correct  the  text,  akarmarrantam  ana- 
bhirupewa  karmawa  va  vagyata  iti,  &c. 

3  seq.  See  -S'ahkhayana-Gr/li}a  II,  y.  There  the  same  word 
anvash/amadej'a  occurs. 

[29]  Q 


2  26  A5VALAYANA-G/2/IiYA-SUTRA. 

water,  he  should  perform  the  Sandhya  (or  twihght 
devotion),  observing  silence. 

4.  In  the  evening  he  should,  turning  his  face  to 
the  north-west,  to  the  region  between  the  chief 
(west)  point  and  the  intermediate  (north-western) 
point  (of  the  horizon),  murmur  the  Savitri,  (beginning) 
when  the  sun  is  half  set,  until  the  stars  appear. 

5.  In  the  same  way  in  the  morning — 

6.  Standing,  with  his  face  turned  to  the  east, 
until  the  disk  (of  the  sun)  appears. 

7.  If  a  dove  flies  against  his  house  or  towards 
it,  he  should  sacrifice  with  (the  hymn),  '  O  gods, 
the  dove'  (Rig-veda  X,  165),  verse  by  verse,  or 
should  murmur  (that  hymn). 

8.  '  We  have  thee,  O  Lord  of  the  path  '  (Rig-veda 
VI,  53) — if  he  is  going  out  for  doing  some  business. 

9.  '  Bring  us  together,  Pijshan,  with  a  knowing 
one  '  (Rig-veda  VI,  54) — if  he  wishes  to  find  some- 
thing lost,  or  if  he  has  strayed. 

10.  'Journey  over  the  ways,  Pushan '  (Rig-veda 
I,  42) — if  he  is  going  out  on  a  long  or  dangerous 
way. 

KAiVDIKA    8. 

I.  Now  when  returning  (home  from  his  teacher) 
he  should  get  the  following  things,  viz.  a  jewel  (to 
be  tied  round  the  neck),  two  ear-rings,  a  pair  of 
garments,  a  parasol,  a  pair  of  shoes,  a  staff,  a  wreath, 
(pounded  seed  of  the  Kara^^^^'a  fruit)  for  rubbing 
with,  ointment,  eye  salve,  a  turban  ;  (all  that)  for 
himself  and  for  the  teacher. 

9.  Mfi/z^a  may  either  mean, '  having  lost  his  way,'  or  '  bewildered 
in  his  mind.'  Narayawa  prefers  the  latter  explanation  ('  pra^na- 
hina/i '). 


Ill    ADHYAYA,    8    K^ViVDIKA,    lO.  22/ 

2.  If  he  cannot  get  it  for  both,  only  for  the  teacher. 

3.  He  then  should  get  a  piece  of  wood  of  a 
tree  which  is  sacrificially  pure,  in  a  north-eastern 
direction — 

4.  Sappy  (wood)  if  he  wishes  for  the  enjoyment  of 
food,  or  for  prosperity,  or  for  splendour  ;  dry  (wood), 
if  for  holy  lustre, 

5.  (Wood)  which  is  both  (sappy  and  dry,  in  its 
different  parts),  if  (he  wishes)  for  both. 

6.  Having  put  the  piece  of  wood  on  high,  and 
having  given  a  cow  and  food  to  the  Brahma/^as,  he 
should  perform  the  ceremony  of  shaving  the  beard. 

7.  He  should  alter  the  texts  so  that  they  refer  to 
himself. 

8.  With  Ekaklitaka  (he  should  perform  the  rub- 
bing). 

9.  Having  washed  himself  with  lukewarm  water, 
and  having  put  on  two  (new)  garments  which  have 
not  yet  been  washed,  with  (the  verse),  '  Garments 
with  fat  splendour  you  put  on,  (Mitra  and  Varu;«a) ' 
(Rig-veda  I,  152,  i),  he  should  anoint  his  eyes  with 
(the  words),  '  The  sharpness  of  the  stone  art  thou  ; 
protect  my  eye.' 

10.  With  (the  words), '  The  sharpness  of  the  stone 

8,  6.  '  On  high '  means  '  not  on  the  ground '  (Naraya«a).  On 
the  gaudanikawi  karma  (the  shaving  of  the  beard),  comp.  above, 
Adhyaya  I,  Kaw/ika  18.  The  word  'ceremony'  woukl  mean  here, 
according  to  Narayawa,  that  he  should  perform  the  rite  alone, 
without  observing  such  prescriptions  as  stated  above,  I,  18,  7. 

7.  Thus,  instead  of  '  Herb  !  protect  himl'  (I,  17,  8)  he  is  to  say, 
'  Herb  !  protect  me  1 '  and  so  on. 

8.  Ekaklitaka  is,  according  to  Narayawa  and  the  Prayogaratna, 
the  seed  of  such  a  KararJ^a  fruit  (Pongamia  Glabra,  Vent.)  which 
contains  only  one  grain  of  seed.  Such  grains  are  pounded  before 
he  rubs  himself  therewith. 

Q2 


2  28  A5VALAYANA-G/?7HYA-stjTRA. 

art  thou  ;  protect  my  ear ' — he  should  tie  on  the  two 
ear-rings. 

11.  After  having  salved  his  two  hands  with 
ointment,  a  Brahma;ea  should  salve  his  head  first, 

12.  A  Rafanya  his  two  arms, 

13.  A  Vai^ya  the  belly, 

14.  A  woman  her  secret  parts, 

15.  Persons  who  gain  their  livelihood  by  running, 
their  thighs. 

16.  With  (the  formula),  'Free  from  pain  art  thou, 
free  from  pain  may  I  become ' — he  should  put  on 
the  wreath. 

I  J.  Not  (such  a  wreath)  which  is  called  mala. 

18.  If  they  call  it  mala,  he  should  cause  them  to 
call  it  sra^^. 

19.  With  (the  formula),  '  The  standing-places  of 
the  gods  are  you ;  protect  me  from  all  sides ' — he 
steps  into  the  shoes,  and  with  (the  formula),  *  The 
heaven's  covering  art  thou  ' — he  takes  the  parasol. 

20.  With  (the  formula),  '  Reed  thou  art ;  from 
the  tree  thou  descendest ;  protect  me  from  all 
sides ' — (he  takes)  a  staff  of  reed. 

21.  Having  with  the  hymn  'Giving  life'  tied  the 
jewel  to  his  neck  and  arranged  the  turban  (on  his 
head),  he  should  standing  put  the  piece  of  wood  (on 
the  fire). 

21.  On  the  hymn  beginning  with  the  words  'Giving  hfe,'  see 
Prof.  Stenzler's  note  on  this  Sutra.  Its  first  verse  is  identical  with 
Vao-asaneyi  Sa?«hita  XXXIV,  50  (comp.  also  6'ahkhayana-Gr?hya 
III,  I,  7),  and  so  are  most  of  its  verses  found  in  that  Sa7«hita  or  in  the 
Atharva-veda ;  the  whole  of  it  occurs  among  the  Rig-veda  Khilas 
(vol.  vi,  p.  25,  2-12). 


Ill  ADIIYAYA,    9  KAiVZJIKA,  3.  229 

KAiVDIKA    9. 

1.  (He  says),  'Memory  and  reproach  and  know- 
ledge, faith,  and  wisdom  as  the  fifth,  what  is  sacrificed, 
and  what  is  given,  and  what  is  studied,  and  what  is 
done,  truth,  learning,  vow — 

'  The  vow  which  belongs  to  Agni  together  with 
Indra,  with  Pra^^apati,  with  the  7?/shis,  with  the 
royal  ones  among  the  A^/shis,  with  the  Fathers,  with 
the  royal  ones  among  the  Fathers,  with  the  human 
beings,  with  the  royal  ones  among  the  human  beings, 
with  shine,  over-shine,  after-shine,  counter-shine,  with 
gods  and  men,  with  Gandharvas  and  Apsaras,  with 
wild  animals  and  domestic  animals, — the  vow,  be- 
longing to  my  own  self,  dwelling  in  my  own  self, 
that  is  my  universal  vow.  Hereby,  O  Agni,  I  be- 
come addicted  to  the  universal  vow.     Svaha  ! ' 

2.  With  (the  hymn),  '  Mine,  Agni,  be  vigour ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  128,  i),  verse  by  verse,  he  should  put 
pieces  of  wood  (on  the  fire). 

3.  He  should  pass  that  night  at  a  place  where 
they  will  do  honour  to  him. 

9,  I.  '"My  memory  and  my  non-memory,  that  is  my  double 
vow  " — in  this  way  the  twelve  (parts  of  which  the  first  section  of 
the  INIantra  consists)  should  be  recited.'  Narayawa.  I  think  the 
commentator  is  wrong  here,  and  that  section  should  rather  be 
recited  as  it  is  given  in  the  text  without  any  alteration  ;  it  forms  a 
regular  ^loka.  Agne/i  instead  of  Agne  is  a  conjecture  of  Prof. 
Sienzler,  which  I  have  adopted. 

2.  According  to  Naraya«a  the  hymn  should  be  recited  including 
the  Khila,  so  that  ten  pieces  of  wood  are  offered.  Now  the  h^-mn 
consists  of  nine  verses  ;  there  can  be,  consequently,  only  one 
Khailika  verse,  which  is,  I  suppose,  the  first  verse  of  the  Khila 
quoted  above,  p.  228. 

3.  By  a  INIadhuparka  (Naraya«a).  Compare  -Sahkhayana-Gr/hya 
III,  I,  14. 


2  ^O  AS'VALAYANA-G/e/HYA-S^TRA. 

4.  When,  after  having  finished  his  (task  of) 
learning,  he  has  offered  something  to  the  teacher,  or 
has  received  his  permission,  he  should  take  a  bath 
(which  signifies  the  end  of  his  studentship). 

5.  He  (i.e.  the  Snataka)  has  to  keep  the  following 
observances : 

6.  He  shall  not  bathe  in  the  night-time ;  he  shall 
not  bathe  naked ;  he  shall  not  lie  down  naked ;  he 
shall  not  look  at  a  naked  woman,  except  during 
sexual  intercourse ;  he  shall  not  run  during  rain  ; 
he  shall  not  climb  up  a  tree  ;  he  shall  not  descend 
into  a  well ;  he  shall  not  swim  with  his  arms  across 
a  river ;  he  shall  not  expose  himself  to  danger. 
'  A  orreat  beingf  indeed  is  a  Snataka' — thus  it  is 
understood  (in  the  6'ruti). 

KAiVZ)IKA    10. 

1.  If  (a  student)  wishes  to  be  dismissed  (by  his 
teacher),  he  should  pronounce  before  the  teacher  his 
(i.  e.  the  teacher's  ?)  name — 

2.  (And  should  say),  '  Here  we  will  dwell,  sir !' 

4.  Naraya^za  :  He  makes  an  offer  to  the  teacher  in  the  words, 
'  What  is  it  that  I  can  do  for  you  ? ' — and  what  the  teacher  tells 
him,  that  he  does. 

10,  I.  Naraya«a  refers  this  rule  to  a  student  who  has  performed 
the  Samavartana  and  wishes  to  go  away.  But  a  comparison  of 
6'ahkhayana-Gn'hya  II,  18  seems  to  make  it  probable  that  the 
ceremony  described  here  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Samavartana. 
I  take  this  chapter  rather  for  a  description  of  the  way  in  which  a 
student  has  to  take  leave  of  his  teacher  when  setting  out  on  a 
journey.    'His  name'  is  the  teacher's  name,  according  to  Narayawa. 

2.  .S'ahkhayana  II,  18,  i.  6'ahkh.  has  aha?;z  vatsyami;  Ajvala- 
yana,  ida»z  vatsyama/i.  The  commentator  says  that  instead  of  idaw 
the  Ajrama  is  to  be  named  which  the  student  chooses  to  enter  upon, 
forinstance,'Devadatta,we  will  dwellinthe  state  of  ahouseholder, sir!' 


Ill    ADHYAVA,    lO    KAA^DIKA,    II.  23 1 


3.  With  a  loud  voice  (the  words)  following  after 
the  name. 

4.  '  Of  inhalation  and  exhalation  ' — (this  he  says) 
with  a  low  voice, 

5.  And  (the  verse),  '  Come  hither,  Indra,  with  thy 
lovely-sounding,  fallow-coloured  (horses)'  (Rig-veda 

111,45,0- 

6.  The  aoed  one  then  murmurs,  '  To  inhalation 

and  exhalation  I,  the  wide-extended  one,  resort  with 
thee.  To  the  god  Savitrz  I  give  thee  in  charge' — 
and  the  verse. 

7.  When  he  has  finished  (that  verse),  and  has 
muttered,  '  Om !  Forwards!  Blessing!'  and  recited 
(over  the  student  the  hymn), '  The  great  bliss  of  the 
three'  (Rig-veda  X,  185) — (he  should  dismiss  him). 

8.  On  one  who  has  been  thus  dismissed,  danger 
comes  from  no  side — thus  it  is  understood  (in  the 
6'ruti). 

9.  If  he  hears  (on  his  way)  disagreeable  voices  of 
birds,  he  should  murmur  the  two  hymns, '  Shrieking, 
manifesting  his  being'  (Rig-veda  II,  42,  43),  and  (the 
verse),  '  The  divine  voice  have  the  gods  created ' 
(Rig-veda  VIII,  100,  11). 

10.  '  Praise  the  renowned  youth  who  sits  on  the 
war-chariot'  (Rig-veda  II,  2>3^  n) — if  (lie  hears  dis- 
agreeable voices)  of  deer. 

11.  From  the  direction,  or  from  the  (being)  from 
which  he  expects  danger,  towards  that  direction  he 
should  throw  a  fire-brand,  burning  on  both  sides,  or 
having  twirled  about  a  churning-stick  from  the  right 
to  the  left,  with  (the  words),  '  Safety  be  to  me,  Mitra 


6.  T  have  translated,  as  Prof.  Stenzler  has  also  done,  according 
to  ^ahkhayana's  reading,  prawapana  ...  tvaya.  The  'aged 
one  '  is  the  teacher,  the  verse  that  which  is  quoted  in  Siitra  5. 


2  32  ASVALAVANA-G/i/HYA-S^TRA. 

and  Varu;^a ;  encounter  the  foes  and  burn  them  up 
with  your  flame.  May  they  find  none  who  knows 
them  and  no  support ;  divided  by  discord  may  they 
go  to  death  ' — 

12.  He  turns  the  churning-stick  downwards  with 
(the  verse),  '  The  combined  weahh  of  both,  heaped 
together'  (Rig-veda  X,  84,  7). 

Kandika  11. 

I.  If  unknown  danger  from  all  sides  (menaces  him), 
he  should  sacrifice  eight  A^ya  oblations  with  (the 
formulas), 

'  Pmhivi  (the  earth)  is  covered  ;  she  is  covered  by 
Agni.  By  her,  the  covered  one,  the  covering  one, 
I  ward  off  the  danger  of  which  I  am  in  fear.    Svaha  ! 

'  Antariksha  (the  air)  is  covered ;  it  is  covered  by 
Viyu.  By  it,  the  covered,  the  covering,  I  ward  off 
the  danger  of  which  I  am  in  fear.     Svahd ! 

'  Dyaus  (the  heaven)  is  covered ;  she  is  covered  by 
Aditya  (the  sun).     By  her,  &c. 

*  The  quarters  (of  the  horizon)  are  covered ; 
they  are  covered  by  i^andramas  (the  moon).  By 
them,  &c. 

'  The  waters  are  covered ;  they  are  covered  by 
Varu;2a.      By  them,  &c. 

'  The  creatures  are  covered  ;  they  are  covered  by 
Pra;2a  (the  breath).     By  them,  &c. 

'  The  Vedas  are  covered  ;  they  are  covered  by  the 
metres.     By  them,  &c. 

'  All  is  covered ;  it  is  covered  by  Brahman.  By 
it,  &c.     Svaha  ! ' 

II,  I.  'Covered'  is  vrz'ta;  'I  ward  off'  is  the  causative  of  the 
same  verb,  varaye. 


Ill  ADHYAYA,    12  KAiVDIKA,   lO.  233 

2.  Then,  stationino-  himself  towards  the  north- 
east,  he  murmurs  the  Svasti-Atreya  and,  '  Of  what 
we  are  in  fear,  Indra'  (Rig-veda  VIII,  6i,  13  seqq.), 
down  to  the  end  of  the  hymn. 


KAiVDiKA    12. 

1.  When  a  battle  is  beginning,  (the  royal  Purohita) 
should  cause  the  king  to  put  on  his  armour  (in  the 
following  way). 

2.  (The  Purohita)  stations  himself  to  the  west  of 
(the  king's)  chariot  with  (the  hymn  ?),  T  have  brought 
thee  hither;  be  here'  (Rig-veda  X,  173). 

3.  With  (the  verse),  '  Like  a  thunder-cloud  is  his 
countenance'  (Rig-veda  VI,  75,  i),  he  should  tender 
the  coat  of  mail  to  him. 

4.  With  the  following  (verse)  the  bow. 

5.  The  following  (verse)  he  should  cause  him  to 
repeat. 

6.  He  should  murmur  himself  the  fourth. 

7.  With  the  fifth  he  should  tender  the  quiver  to 
him. 

8.  When  (the  king)  starts,  the  sixth. 

9.  The  seventh  (he  recites)  over  the  horses. 

10.  The  eighth  he  should  cause  (the  king)  to 
repeat  while  looking  at  the  arrows ; 

2.  The  Svasti-Atreya  is  the  part  of  the  hymn  V,  51,  which  very 
frequently  contains  the  word  svasti  (vv.  11-15).  There  is  a  Khila 
appended  to  that  hymn  (Rig-veda,  vol.  iii,  p.  30),  which,  according 
to  Narayawa,  is  also  to  be  murmured  on  this  occasion. 

12,  2.  According  to  Naraya;/a  the  Pratika  here  signifies  not  the 
verse,  but  the  whole  hymn,  though  a  whole  Pada  is  given  (comp. 
iSrauta-sCitra  I,  i,  17). 


2  34  A5VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 


11.  (The  verse),  'Like  a  serpent  it  encircles  the 
arm  with  its  windings'  (Rig-veda  VI,  75,  14),  when 
he  ties  to  his  arm  the  leather  (by  which  the  arm  is 
protected  against  the  bow-string). 

12.  He  then  mounts  up  to  (the  king  on  his 
chariot),  while  he  is  driving,  and  causes  him  to 
repeat  the  Abhivarta  hymn  (Rig-veda  X,  174)  and 
the  two  verses,  '  He  who,  Mitra  and  Varu;2a'  (Rig- 
veda  Vni,  loi,  3  seq.). 

13.  He  then  should  look  at  him  with  the  Aprati- 
ratha,  Sksa.,  and  Saupar/za  hymns. 

14.  The  Saupar;^a  is  (the  hymn),  'May  the 
streams  of  honey  and  ghee  flow  forwards.' 

15.  (The  king)  should  drive  (in  his  chariot  suc- 
cessively) to  all  quarters  (of  the  horizon). 

16.  He  should  commence  the  battle  in  the  line 
of  battle  invented  by  Aditya  or  by  U^anas. 

17.  He  should  touch  the  drum  with  the  three 
verses,  '  Fill  earth  and  heaven  with  thy  roar'  (Rig- 
veda  VI,  47,  29  seqq.). 

18.  With  (the  verse),  'Shot  off  fall  down'  (Rig- 
veda  VI,  75,  16),  he  should  shoot  off  the  arrows. 


12.  The  Abhivarta  hymn  begms  with  the  word  abhivartena, 
and  is  ascribed  to  Abhivarta  Ahgirasa. 

13.  The  Apratiratha  hymn  is  Rig-veda  X,  103  (ascribed  to 
Apratiratha  Aindra) ;  the  6'asa,  X,  152  (ascribed  to  6'asa  Bharad- 
v%-a).     On  the  Saupar«a,  see  the  next  Sutra. 

14.  This  hymn  is  not  found  in  any  Vedic  Sa;«hita,  as  far 
as  I  know,  nor  does  it  occur  in  the  Suparwadhyaya.  I  have  fol- 
lowed Prof.  Stenzler's  conjecture  pra  dhara  yantu  instead  of 
pradharayantu,  which  is  confirmed  by  Sayawa's  note  on 
Aitareya  Brahma«a  VI,  25,  7;  VIII,  10,  4  (pp.  365,  399,  ed. 
Aufrecht). 

17,  18.  According  to  Narayawa  the  subject  is  the  king. 


Ill  ADHYAYA,   12  KAA^DIKA,   20.  235 

19.  '  Where  the  arrows  fly'  (1. 1.  v.  17) — this  (verse) 
he  should  murmur  while  they  are  fighting. 

20.  Or  he  should  teach  (the  king  the  texts  men- 
tioned).    Or  he  should  teach  (the  king). 

End  of  the  Third  Adhyaya. 


19.  Here  the  subject  is  the  Puiohita. 


236  A5VALAYANA-Gi?/IIYA-S0TRA. 


Adhyaya  IV,  Kaa^dika  1. 

1.  If  disease  befalls  one  who  has  set  up  the  (sacred 
^'raiita)  fires,  he  should  leave  his  home  (and  go  away) 
to  the  eastern,  or  northern,  or  north-eastern  direction. 

2.  '  The  sacred  fires  are  fond  of  the  village' — thus 
it  is  said. 

3.  Longing  for  it,  desirous  of  returning  to  the 
village  they  might  restore  him  to  health — thus  it  is 
understood  (in  the  6'ruti). 

4.  Being  restored  to  health,  he  should  offer  a 
Soma  sacrifice,  or  an  animal  sacrifice,  or  an  ordinary 
sacrifice,  and  take  his  dwelling  (again  in  the  village). 

5.  Or  without  such  a  sacrifice. 

6.  If  he  dies,  one  should  have  a  piece  of  ground 
dug  up  to  the  south-east  or  to  the  south-west — 

7.  At  a  place  which  is  inclined  towards  the  south 
or  towards  the  south-east. 

8.  According  to  some  (teachers),  inclined  towards 
south-west. 

9.  (The  piece  of  ground  dug  up  should  be)  of  the 
length  of  a  man  with  upraised  arms, 

10.  Of  the  breadth  of  one  Vyama  (fathom), 

1,  I.  Comp.  »S'rauta-sutra  VI,  9,  i.  The  funeral  rites  according 
to  the  Gn'hya-sutras  have  been  treated  of  by  Prof.  Max  INIiiller, 
Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft,  vol.  ix. 

3.  I.  e.  longing  for  the  village.  I  here  differ  from  Prof. 
Stenzler's  translation,  'Indem  sie,  um  nach  dem  Dorfe  zu  kommen, 
ihm  Gutes  wiinschen.'  Prof.  Stenzler  here  follows  Narayawa,  who 
has  the  following  note,  gramam  agantum  iWianto^gnd-js,  enam 
ahitagnim  aj-awsante,  ayam  agado  bhaved  iti. 

4.  Comp.  .Srauta-sfitra  VI,  9,  7. 

5.  »Srauta-sutra  VI,  10,  i. 


IV  ADHYAYA,   2  KANDIKA,    I.  2^7 

1 1.  Of  the  depth  of  one  Vitasti  (span). 

12.  The  cemetery  should  be  free  from  all  sides. 

13.  It  should  be  fertile  in  herbs. 

14.  But  plants  with  thorns  and  with  milky  juice, 
&c.,  as  stated  above. 

15.  From  which  the  waters  flow  off  to  all  sides: 
this  is  a  characteristic  required  for  the  cemetery 
(^mai-ana)  where  the  body  is  to  be  burned. 

1 6.  '  They  cut  off  (from  the  dead  bod)-)  the  hair, 
the  beard,  the  hairs  of  the  body,  and  the  nails ' — 
this  has  been  stated  above. 

17.  (They  should  provide)  plenty  of  sacrificial 
grass  and  of  butter. 

1 8.  They  here  pour  clarified  butter  into  curds. 

19.  This  is  the  'sprinkled  butter'  used  for  the 
Fathers  (i.  e.  Manes). 

KAiVjDIKA    2. 

I.  (The  relations  of  the  dead  person)  now  carry 
(his  sacred)  fires  and  (his)  sacrificial  vessels  in  that 
direction. 


12.  Narayawa:  By  the  word  ^ma^rana  (cemetery)  two  different 
jma^nas  are  designated  here,  because  below  (Siatra  15)  a  dis- 
tinction is  added  (to  the  word  jma^ana),  in  the  words,  '  This  is 
a  characteristic  required  for  the  jma^ana  where  the  body  is  to  be 
burned.'  Thus  the  i)lace  where  the  body  is  burned,  and  the  place 
where  the  gathered  bones  are  deposited,  both  are  called  jma^ana. 

14.  See  above,  II,  7,  5. 

15.  See  the  note  on  Sfitra  12. 

16.  See  the  -Srauta-sGtra  VI,  10,  2.  • 

17.  Dvigulphaw  barhir  agya.n  /(-a.  Narayawa  explains  dvigulpha 
by  prabhflta.     Comp.  bahulatr/;/a,  Kiityayana  XXV,  7,  15. 

18.  'Here'  means,  at  a  ceremony  directed  to  the  Manes. 
Narayawa, 

2,  I.  In  the  direction  stated  above,  chap,  i,  6. 


2^8  A5VALAYANA-Gi27HYA-sOTRA. 


■J 


2.  After  them  aged  persons  forming  an  odd 
number,  men  and  women  not  going  together,  (carry) 
the  dead  body. 

3.  Some  (say)  that  (the  dead  body  should  be 
carried)  in  a  cart  with  a  seat,  drawn  by  cows. 

4.  (Some  prescribe)  a  she-animal  for  covering  (the 
dead  body  with  its  limbs) : 

5.  A  cow, 

6.  Or  a  she-goat  of  one  colour. 

7.  Some  (take)  a  black  one. 

8.  They  tie  (a  rope)  to  its  left  fore-foot  and  lead 
it  behind  (the  dead  body). 

9.  Then  follow  the  relations  (of  the  dead  person), 
wearing  their  sacrificial  cords  below  (round  their 
body),  with  the  hair-locks  untied,  the  older  ones 
first,  the  younger  ones  last. 

10.  When  they  have  thus  arrived  at  the  place, 
the  performer  (of  the  rites)  walks  three  times  round 
the  spot  with  his  left  side  turned  towards  it,  and 
with  a  Sa.mi  branch  sprinkles  water  on  it,  with  (the 
verse),  'Go  away,  withdraw,  and  depart  from  here' 
(Rig-veda  X,  14,  9). 

11.  To  the  south-east,  on  an  elevated  corner  (of 

A 

that  place),  he  places  the  Ahavaniya  fire, 

12.  To  the  north-west  the  Garhapatya  fire, 

13.  To  the  south-west  the  Dakshi;^a  fire. 

14.  After  that  a  person  that  knows  (how  to  do  it), 
piles  up  between  the  fires  a  pile  of  fuel. 


4.  See  chap.  3,  20-25. 

10.  Karlodakena  (i.  e.  karta  udakena)  is  evidently  the  right 
reading,  not  gartodakena. 

12,  13.  The  words,  'on  an  elevated  corner'  (Siitra  11)  have  to 
be  supplied. 

14.  As  to  the  pronoun  enam,  which  refers,  with  an  irregular 


IV  ADHYAYA,    2  KAiVDIKA,  2  2.  239 

15.  After  sacrificial  grass  and  a  black  antelope's 
skin  with  the  hair  outside  has  been  spread  out  there, 
they  place  the  dead  body  thereon,  which  they  have 
carried  so  as  to  pass  by  the  Garhapatya  fire  on  its 
north-side,  turning  its  head  towards  the  Ahavaniya. 

16.  To  the  north  (of  the  body  they  place)  the  wife 
(of  the  deceased), 

1 7.  And  a  bow  for  a  Kshatriya. 

18.  Her  brother-in-law,  being  a  representative  of 
her  husband,  or  a  pupil  (of  her  husband),  or  an  aged 
servant,  should  cause  her  to  rise  (from  that  place) 
with  (the  verse),  '  Arise,  O  wife,  to  the  world  of  life  ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  i8,  8). 

19.  The  performer  (of  the  rites)  should  murmur 
(that  verse),  if  a  KS'tidra  (makes  her  rise  from  the  pile). 

20.  With  (the  verse),  '  Taking  the  bow  out  of  the 
hand  of  the  deceased'  (Rig-veda  X,  18,  9),  (he  takes 
away)  the  bow. 

21.  It  has  been  stated  (what  is  to  be  done)  in 
case  a  6'udra  (should  perform  this  act). 

22.  Having  bent  the  bow,  he  should,  before  the 
piling  up  (of  the  things  mentioned  below,  which  are 
put  on  the  dead  body)  is  done,  break  it  to  pieces, 
and  throw  it  (on  the  pile). 

construction,  to  the  dead  person,  comp.  ^atapatha  Brahmawa  XII, 

5,  2,  7- 

1 6.  The  wife  is  made  to  lie  down  on  the  pile. 

18.  Possibly  the  words  devara^  and  patisthaniya^  refer  to 
two  different  persons,  so  that  we  should  have  to  translate,  '  Her 
brother-in-law,  (or  some  other)  representative  of  her  husband,  &c.' 

19.  This  refers  to  the  case  of  the  aged  servant.  The  word  for 
which  we  have  put  ^Tidra  here  and  in  Sfitra  21,  is  vr/shala. 

22.  See  Sfttra  19. 


240  A5'VALAYANA-G/27HYA-SUTRA. 


KAiVDIKA    3. 

1.  He  should  then  put  the  following  (sacrificial) 
implements  (on  the  dead  body). 

2.  Into  the  right  hand  the  (spoon  called)  6^uhu. 

3.  Into  the  left  the  (other  spoon  called)  Upabhr^'t. 

4.  On  his  right  side  the  (wooden  sacrificial  sword 
called)  Sphya,  on  his  left  (side)  the  Agnihotrahavani 
(i.  e.  the  ladle  with  which  the  Agnihotra  oblations 
are  sacrificed). 

5.  On  his  chest  the  (big  sacrificial  ladle  called) 
Dhruva.  On  his  head  the  dishes.  On  his  teeth 
the  pressing-stones. 

6.  On  the  two  sides  of  his  nose  the  two  (smaller 
sacrificial  ladles  called)  Sravas. 

7.  Or,  if  there  is  only  one  (Sruva),  breaking  it  (in 
two  pieces). 

8.  On  his  two  ears  the  two  Pra«fitrahara;zas  (i.  e. 
the  vessels  into  which  the  portion  of  the  sacrificial 
food  belonging  to  the  Brahman  is  put). 

9.  Or,  if  there  is  only  one  (Prai^itrahara/^a),  breaking 
it  (in  two  pieces). 

10.  On  his  belly  the  (vessel  called)  Patri, 

11.  And  the  cup  into  which  the  cut-off  portions 
(of  the  sacrificial  food)  are  put. 

12.  On  his  secret  parts  the  (staff  called)  6'amya. 

13.  On  his  thighs  the  two  kindling  woods. 


3,  I.  On  the  different  implements  mentioned  in  the  following 
Sutras,  comp.  Prof.  INIax  IMuller's  paper  in  the  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft,  vol.  ix,  pp.  vii  seqq. ; 
Ixxviii  seqq. 

8.  On  the  Pra^itra  and  the  Prajitrahara;zas,  comp.  Hillebrandt, 
Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer,  pp.  119  (with  note  6),  120,  131. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    3  KAiVDIKA,   23.  24 1 

14.  On  his  legs  the  mortar  and  the  pestle. 

15.  On  his  feet  the  two  baskets. 

16.  Or,  if  there  is  only  one  (basket),  tearing  it  (in 
two  pieces). 

1 7.  Those  (of  the  implements)  which  have  a 
hollow  (into  which  liquids  can  be  poured),  are  filled 
with  sprinkled  butter. 

18.  The  son  (of  the  deceased  person)  should  take 
the  under  and  the  upper  mill-stone  for  himself. 

19.  And  the  implements  made  of  copper,  iron, 
and  earthenware. 

20.  Taking  out  the  omentum  of  the  she-animal  he 
should  cover  therewith  the  head  and  the  mouth  (of 
the  dead  person)  with  the  verse,  *  Put  on  the  armour 
(which  will  protect  thee)  against  Agni,  by  (that  which 
comes  from)  the  cows'  (Rig-veda  X,  i6,  7). 

21.  Taking  out  the  kidneys  (of  the  animal)  he 
should  lay  them  into  the  hands  (of  the  dead  body) 
with  the  verse,  '  Escape  the  two  hounds,  the  sons  of 
Sarama'  (Rig-veda  X,  14,  10),  the  right  (kidney) 
into  the  right  (hand),  the  left  into  the  left. 

22.  The  heart  (of  the  animal  he  puts)  on  the  heart 
(of  the  deceased). 

23.  And  two  lumps  (of  flour  or  rice),  according  to 
some  (teachers). 


17.  Narayawa  explains  ase^'anavanti  by  bilavanti.  On 
pr/shada_^ya  ('sprinkled  butter')  comp.  the  two  last  Sfitras  of  the 
first  chapter. 

19.  The  statement  in  6'atapatha  Brahma;/a  XII,  5,  2,  14  is 
somewhat  different. 

20.  Anustara«yS  vapam.     See  chap.  2,  4. 

23.  Narayawa  states  that  these  lumps  are  not  put,  as  one  would 
be  inclined  to  believe,  on  the  heart,  but  into  the  hands  of  the 
deceased,     Sfitra  24  shows  that  this  interpretation  is  correct. 

[29]  R 


242  A5'VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 

24.  (Onl)^)  if  there  are  no  kidneys,  according  to 
some  (teachers). 

25.  Having  distributed  the  whole  (animal),  limb 
by  limb  (placing  its  different  limbs  on  the  corre- 
sponding limbs  of  the  deceased),  and  having  covered 
it  with  its  hide,  he  recites,  when  the  Pra;^ita  water  is 
carried  forward,  (the  verse),  '  Agni,  do  not  overturn 
this  cup'  (Rig-veda  X,  16,  8). 

26.  Bending  his  left  knee  he  should  sacrifice  A^ya 
oblations  into  the  Dakshi;^a  fire  with  (the  formulas), 
'  To  A^ni  svaha !  To  Kama  svaha  !  To  the  world 
svaha  !     To  Anumati  svaha  ! ' 

27.  A  fifth  (oblation)  on  the  chest  of  the  deceased 
with  (the  formula),  '  From  this  one  verily  thou  hast 
been  born.  May  he  now  be  born  out  of  thee,  N.  N. ! 
To  the  heaven-world  svaha!' 

KAiVDIKA    4. 

1.  He  gives  order,  '  Light  the  fires  together.' 

2.  If  the  Ahavaniya  fire  reaches  (the  body)  first, 
he  should  know,  '  It  has  reached  him  in  the  heaven- 
world.  He  will  live  there  in  prosperity,  and  so  will 
this  one,  i.  e.  his  son,  in  this  world.' 

3.  If  the  Garhapatya  fire  reaches  (the  body)  first, 
he  should  know,  '  It  has  reached  him  in  the  air- 
world.  He  will  live  there  in  prosperity,  and  so  will 
this  one,  i.  e.  his  son,  in  this  world.' 


24.  I.  e.  if  there  is  no  Anustarawi  animal,  which  is  considered  as 
optional  (see  chap.  2,  4). 

25.  Comp.  Katyayana  XXV,  7,  35. 

27.  He  who  is  born  out  of  the  deceased,  is  Agni.    See  iSatapatha 
Brahmawa  II,  3,  3,  5;  and  also  XII,  5,  2,  15. 
4,  2.  iSatapalha  Brahma/za  XII,  5,  2,  10. 
3.  ^Satapatha  Brahmawa  1.  1.  §  9. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    4  KAA^DIKA,    I O.  243 

4.  If  the  Dakshi;;a  fire  reaches  (the  body)  first, 
he  should  know,  '  It  has  reached  him  in  the  ^vorld  of 
men.  He  will  live  there  in  prosperity,  and  so  will 
this  one,  i.  e.  his  son,  in  this  world.' 

5.  If  (the  three  fires)  reach  (the  body)  in  the  same 
moment,  they  say  that  this  signifies  the  highest 
luck, 

6.  While  (the  body)  is  burning,  he  recites  over  it 
the  same  texts,  'Go  on,  go  on,  on  the  ancient  paths' 
(Rig-veda  X,  14,  7). 

7.  Being  burnt  by  a  person  who  knows  this,  he 
goes  to  the  heaven-world  together  with  the  smoke 
(of  the  funeral  pile) — thus  it  is  understood  (in  the 
6'ruti). 

8.  To  the  north-east  of  the  Ahavaniya  fire  he 
should  have  a  knee-deep  pit  dug  and  should  have 
an  Avaka,  i,  e.  (the  water-plant  called)  ^'ipala  put 
down  into  it.  From  that  (pit)  he  (i.  e.  the  deceased) 
goes  out  and  together  with  the  smoke  he  goes  up 
to  the  heaven-world — thus  it  is  understood  (in  the 
6'ruti). 

9.  After  he  has  recited  (the  verse),  '  These  living 
ones  have  separated  from  the  dead '  (Rig-veda  X, 
18,  3),  they  turn  round  from  right  to  left  and  go 
away  without  looking  back. 

10.  When  they  have  come  to  a  place  where  standing 
water  is,  having  once  (plunged  into  it  and)  emerged 

4.  ^atapatha  Brahma?/a  1.  1.  §  11. 

5.  6'atapatha  Brahmawa  1.  1.  §  12. 

6.  '  The  same  texts '  means  that  the  texts  indicated  in  the 
.Srauta-sfttra  VI,  10,  19  (twenty-four  verses  taken  from  the  hymns 
X,  14,  16,  17,  18,  154)  have  to  be  recited. 

8.  Comp.  above,  II,  8,  14. 

10.  'All  the  Sanianodaka  relations  (see  IManu  V,  60),  men  and 
women,  should  pour  out  one  handful  of  water  each.    Pronouncing 

R  2 


244  A5VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-StJTRA. 


from  it,  they  pour  out  one  handful  (of  water),  pro- 
nounce the  Gotra  name  and  the  proper  name  (of  the 
deceased),  go  out  (of  the  water),  put  on  other  gar- 
ments, wring  out  (the  old  garments)  once,  lay  them 
away  with  their  skirts  to  the  north,  and  sit  down 
until  the  stars  appear. 

11.  Or  they  may  enter  (their  houses),  when  still  (a 
part)  of  the  sun-disk  is  seen, 

12.  The  younger  ones  first,  the  older  ones  last. 

13.  When  they  have  come  to  the  houses,  they 
touch  a  stone,  the  fire,  cow's  dung,  fried  barley, 
sesamum  seeds,  and  water. 

14.  Let  them  not  cook  food  during  that  night. 

1 5.  Let  them  subsist  on  bought  or  ready-made  food. 

16.  Let  them  eat  no  saline  food  for  three  nights. 

17.  Let  them  optionally  for  twelve  nights  avoid 
the  distribution  of  gifts  and  the  study  (of  Vedic  texts), 
if  one  of  the  chief  Gurus  (has  died). 

18.  Ten  days  after  (the  death  of)  Sapi;/^as, 

the  Gotra  name  and  the  proper  name  of  the  deceased,  saying,  for 
instance,  "  Devadatta,  belonging  to  the  Gotra  of  the  Ka^yapas,  this 
water  is  for  thee  ! " — they  sprinkle  it  out,  with  southward-turned 
faces.'    Naraya^za. 

12.  Possibly  pva.viseyii/i  (they  should  enter)  belongs  to  this 
Sutra.  In  Prof.  Stenzler's  edition  and  in  the  commentary  of 
Narayawa  it  is  taken  as  belonging  to  Sutra  1 1 . 

15.  Vasish//^a  IV,  15.  Narayawa  here  observes,  'Some  authori- 
ties omit  this  Sutra.' 

1 7.  '  Father  and  mother  and  the  teacher  who,  after  having  per- 
formed the  Upanayana  for  him,  has  taught  him  the  whole  Veda, 
are  the  chief  Gurus.  When  these  have  died,  they  should  avoid 
giving  gifts  and  studying  the  Veda  either  for  twelve  nights,  or  for 
ten  nights,  this  rule  standing  in  correlation  with  the  following  one.' 
Narayawa. 

18.  The  Sapiwfl'a  relationship  is  generally  defined  as  the  relation- 
ship within  six  degrees,  though  the   statements  in   the  different 


■7  O 


23 


IV  ADIIYAYA,    5  KAiVDIKA,  4.  245 

19.  And  of  a  Guru  who  is  no  Sapi;^(/a, 

20.  And  of  unmarried  female  relations. 

2 1 .  Three  nights  after  (the  death  of)  other  teachers, 
And  of  a  relation  who  is  no  Sapi;^rt^a, 
And  of  married  female  relations, 

24.  Of  a  child  that  has  no  teeth, 

25.  And  of  a  dead-born  child. 

26.  One  day,  after  (the  death  of)  a  fellow-pupil, 

27.  And  of  a  ^Srotriya  of  the  same  village. 


KAiVDIKA   5. 

1.  The  gathering  (of  the  bones  is  performed)  after 
the  tenth  (Tithi  from  the  death),  (on  a  Tithi)  with 
an  odd  number,  of  the  dark  fortnight,  under  a  single 
Nakshatra. 

2.  A  man  into  a  male  urn  without  special  marks, 
a  woman  into  a  female  one  without  special  marks. 

3.  Aged  persons  of  an  odd  number,  not  men  and 
women  together  (gather  the  bones). 

4.  The  performer  of  the  ceremony  walks  three 
times  round  the  spot  with  his  left  side  turned  towards 

texts  do  not  exactly  agree.  See  Apastamba  II,  15,  2  ;  Manu  V, 
60;  Gauiama  XIV,  13  (with  Prof.  Buhler's  note.  Sacred  Books, 
vol.  ii,  p.  247,  &c.). 

21.  Comp.  Sutras  17,  19. 

5.  I.  Narayawa  (comp.  the  Ajvalayana-GriTiya-Parmsh/a  III,  7) 
understands  this  Sutra  in  a  different  way.  '  After  the  tenth  Tithi 
of  the  dark  fortnight,  on  a  Tithi  with  an  odd  number,  i.  e.  on  the 
eleventh,  thirteenth,  or  fifteenth.'  The  single  Nakshatras  are  those 
the  name  of  which  does  not  denote  two  Nakshatras  (as,  for  instance, 
the  two  Ashar///as).    Comp.  Katy.-6'raut.  XXV,  8,  i  ;  Manu  V,  59. 

2.  Urns,  with  or  without  protuberances  like  female  breasts,  are 
considered  as  female  or  male  accordingly. 

3.  See  chap.  2,  2. 

4.  Comp.  chap.  2,  10. 


246  A^VALAYANA-GT^/HYA-SUTRA. 

it,  and  sprinkles  on  it  with  a  ^'ami  branch  milk  mixed 
with  water,  with  the  verse,  '  O  cool  one,  O  thou  that 
art  full  of  coolness'  (Rig-veda  X,  16,  14). 

5.  With  the  thumb  and  the  fourth  finger  they 
should  put  each  single  bone  (into  the  urn)  without 
making  a  noise, 

6.  The  feet  first,  the  head  last. 

7.  Having  well  gathered  them  and  purified  them 
with  a  winnowing  basket,  they  should  put  (the  urn) 
into  a  pit,  at  a  place  where  the  waters  from  the 
different  sides  do  not  flow  together,  except  rain 
water,  with  (the  verse),  '  Go  to  thy  mother  Earth 
there'  (Rig-veda  X,  18,  10). 

8.  With  the  following  (verse)  he  should  throw 
earth  (into  the  pit). 

9.  After  he  has  done  so,  (he  should  repeat)  the 
following  (verse). 

10.  Having  covered  (the  urn)  with  a  lid  with 
(the  verse),  '  I  fasten  to  thee'  (Rig-veda  X,  18,  13), 
they  then  should  go  away  without  looking  back, 
should  bathe  in  water,  and  perform  a  ^'raddha  for 
the  deceased. 

Kaa^ziika  6. 

1.  They  who  have  lost  a  Guru  by  death,  or  are 
afflicted  by  other  misfortune,  should  perform  on  the 
new-moon  day  an  expiatory  ceremony. 

2.  Before    sunrise    they   should   carry    their    fire 

7.  Narayawa  explains  pavana  by  jurpa.  He  says  that  the 
'  performer '  (kartr/)  repeats  this  and  the  following  texts. 

10.  'They  should  give  a  >5Yaddha  to  the  deceased  exclusively, 
according  to  the  Ekoddish/a  rite.'    Naraya;za. 

6,  2.  According  to  Narayawa  the  fire  means  here  not  the  sacred 
domestic  fire,  but  a  common  kitchen  fire.    I  doubt  whether  the 


IV  ADHYAYA,    6  KAiSTDIKA,   5.  247 


together  with  its  ashes  and  with  its  receptacle  to  the 
south  with  the  half-verse,  *  I  send  far  away  the  flesh- 
devouring  Agni'  (Rig-veda  X,  i6,  9). 

3.  Having  thrown  that  (fire)  down  at  a  place 
where  four  roads  meet  or  somewhere  else,  they  walk 
round  it  three  times,  turning  their  left  sides  towards 
it,  beating  their  left  thighs  with  their  left  hands. 

4.  They  then  should  return  home  without  looking 
back,  bathe  in  water,  have  their  hair,  their  beards 
the  hair  of  their  bodies,  and  their  nails  cut,  and 
furnish  themselves  with  new  jars,  pots,  vessels  for 
rinsing  the  mouth,  wreathed  with  garlands  of  K^ami 
flowers,  with  fuel  of  6'ami  wood,  with  two  pieces  of 
6'ami  wood  for  kindling  fire,  and  with  branches  to  be 
laid  round  the  fire,  with  bull's  dung  and  a  bull's  hide, 
fresh  butter,  a  stone,  and  as  many  bunches  of  Ku^a 
grass  as  there  are  young  women  (in  the  house). 

5.  At  the  time  of  the  Agni(-hotra)  he  should 
kindle  fire  with  the  hemistich,  '  Here  may  this  other 
6^atavedas'  (Rig-veda  X,  16,  9). 

commentator  is  right.  Tlie  ceremonies  described  in  the  following 
Sutras  seem  to  point  rather  to  a  renewal  of  the  sacred  Grzliya 
fire,  the  old  one  having  proved  unlucky  to  the  sacrificer.  In  the 
same  way,  in  the  -Srauta  ritual,  a  sacrificer  who,  after  having  per- 
formed the  Adhana,  has  bad  luck,  performs  the  Punaradheya. 

3.  Comp.  Katyayana-6'rauta-sutra  V,  10,  15. 

5.  The  text  has  agnivelayam,  which  Narayawa  explains  by 
agnihotraviharawakale  aparahne.  He  states  that  the  fire 
should  be  produced  by  attrition  of  two  new  kindling  woods 
(arawi),  mentioned  in  SCitra  4.  The  fire  thus  kindled  is  to  be  used, 
he  says,  as  a  kitchen-fire.  Herein  he  seems  to  me  to  have  mis- 
understood the  meaning  of  the  ceremony;  see  the  note  on  Sutra  2. 
The  hemistich  quoted  in  this  Sutra  (which  is  the  second  half  of 
the  same  verse  of  which  the  first  half  is  prescribed  in  Sutra  2) 
clearly  points  to  the  sacred  quality  of  the  fire  in  question  ;  it  runs 
thus,  'Here  may  this  other  Gatavedas  carry  the  offerings  to  the 
gods,  the  knowing  one.' 


248  A5VALAYANA-G227HYA-S^TRA. 

6.  Keeping  that  (fire)  burning,  they  sit  till  the 
silence  of  the  night,  repeating  the  tales  of  the  aged, 
and  getting  stories  of  auspicious  contents,  Itihasas 
and  Pura;zas,  told  to  them. 

7.  When  all  sounds  have  ceased,  or  when  (the 
others)  have  gone  to  the  house  or  the  resting-place, 
(the  performer  of  the  ceremony)  should  pour  out  an 
uninterrupted  stream  of  water,  beginning  at  the  south 
side  of  the  door,  with  (the  verse),  '  Spinning  the 
thread  follow  the  light  of  the  aerial  space  '  (Rig-veda 
^>  53'  ^)'  (g'oi'^g  round  the  house),  ending  at  the 
north  side  of  the  door. 

8.  Having  then  given  its  place  to  the  fire,  and 
having  spread  to  the  west  of  it  a  bull's  hide  with  the 
neck  to  the  east,  with  the  hair  outside,  he  should 
cause  the  people  belonging  to  the  house  to  step  on 
that  (hide)  with  (the  verse),  'Arise  to  long  life, 
choosing  old  age'  (Rig-veda  X,   18,  6). 

9.  With  (the  verse),  '  This  I  lay  round  the  living ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  18,  4),  he  should  lay  branches  round 
(the  fire). 

10.  After  having  with  (the  words),  '  A  mountain 
(i.  e.  a  stone)  they  shall  place  between  themselves 
and  death,'  placed  a  stone  to  the  north  of  the  fire, 
and  having  sacrificed  with  the  four  (verses),  '  Go 
hence,  O  death,  on  another  way'  (Rig-veda  X,   18, 

7.  The  person  who  pours  out  the  water  is,  as  Narayawa  says, 
the  kavtrf,  i.  e.  the  performer  of  the  whole  ceremony.  The  word 
cannot  be  translated,  as  Prof.  Stenzler  does,  der  Bestatter,  no 
funeral  ceremonies  being  here  treated  of. 

8.  See  above,  I,  8,  9.  Here  Narayawa  sees  that  the  fire  is  the 
sacred  one.  He  says,  atha^-abdo  ^  smin  kale^gnyantaram  aupa- 
sanam  upasamadadhyad  iti  ^Tidpanartham. 

10.  The  words,  'A  mountain,'  Ac,  stand  at  the  end  of  the  verse 
quoted  in  Sutra  9. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    6  KAiVfllKA,    1 8.  249 

1-4),  verse  by  verse,  he  should  look  at  his  people 
with  (the  verse),  '  As  the  days  follow  each  other ' 
(ibid.  5). 

11.  The  young  women  (belonging  to  the  house) 
should,  with  each  hand  separately,  with  their  thumbs 
and  fourth  fingers,  with  young  Darbha  blades,  salve 
their  eyes  with  fresh  butter,  and  throw^  (the  Darbha 
blades)  away,  turning  their  faces  away. 

12.  (The  performer  of  the  ceremony)  should  look 
at  them,  while  they  are  salving  themselves,  with  (the 
verse),  '  These  women,  being  no  widows,  having 
noble  husbands'  (Rig-veda  X,  i8,  7). 

13.  With  (the  verse),  '  Carrying  stones,  (the  river) 
streams  forward  ;  take  hold  of  each  other '  (Rig-veda 
^.  53'  S) — the  performer  (of  the  ceremony)  first 
should  touch  the  stone. 

14.  After  that,  stationing  himself  to  the  north- 
east, while  (the  others)  go  round  with  the  fire,  with 
bull's  dung,  and  with  an  uninterrupted  stream  of 
water,  repeating  the  three  verses,  '  O  waters,  )'e  are 
wholesome '  (Rig-veda  X,  9,  i  seqq.),  he  should 
murmur  the  verse,  '  These  have  led  round  the  cow ' 
(Rig-veda  X,  155,  5). 

15.  A  tawny-coloured  bull  should  he  lead  round — 
thus  they  say. 

16.  They  then  sit  down  at  a  place  where  they 
intend  to  tarry,  having  put  on  garments  that  have 
not  yet  been  w^ashed. 

17.  (There)  they  sit,  avoiding  to  sleep,  till  sun- 
rise. 

18.  After  sunrise,  having  murmured  the  hymns 
sacred  to  the  sun  and  the  auspicious  hymns,  having 

18.  See  above,  II,  3,  13. 


2  50  a.9Valayana-g/?/hya-sCtra. 

prepared  food, having  made  oblations  with  (the  hymn), 
*  May  he  drive  evil  away  from  us  with  his  shine ' 
(Rig-veda  I,  97),  verse  by  verse,  having  given  to  the 
Brahma;^as  to  eat,  he  should  cause  (them)  to  pronounce 
auspicious  words. 

19.  A  cow,  a  cup  of  metal,  and  a  garment  that  has 
not  yet  been  washed,  constitute  the  sacrificial  fee. 


Katvdika  7. 

1.  Now  at  a  .Sraddha  ceremony,  at  that  which  is 
celebrated  on  the  Parvan  day,  or  for  the  attainment 

A 

of  special  wishes,  or  at  the  Abhyudayika  .S'raddha 
(i.  e.  the  ^raddha  celebrated  when  some  good  luck 
has  happened),  or  at  the  Ekoddish/a  6'raddha  (the 
.Sraddha  directed  to  a  single  dead  person) — 

2.  He  causes  Brahma;zas  who  are  endowed  with 
learning,  moral  character,  and  correct  conduct^  or 
with  one  of  these  (characteristics),  who  have  been 
invited  in  time,  who  have  taken  a  bath,  washed  their 
feet,  and  sipped  water,  to  sit  down,  as  representa- 
tives of  the  Fathers,  with  their  faces  turned  to  the 
north,  one  for  each  one  of  the  Fathers,  or  two  for 
each,  or  three  for  each. 

3.  The  larger  their  number  is,  the  greater  is  the 
reward  (which  the  sacrificer  is  entitled  to  expect). 

4.  But  in  no  case  one  (Brahma^^a)  for  all  (the 
fathers). 


7,  I.  Comp.  on  the  ^Sraddha  ceremonies  in  general  the  note  on 
-S'ahkhayana-Gr/hya  IV,  i,  i,and  the  quotations  given  there.  The 
Parvawa  -5'raddha,  which  is  celebrated  on  the  new-moon  day,  is 
treated  of  by  -Sahkhayana  IV,  i,  the  Abhyudayika  ^'raddha,  IV, 
4,  the  Ekoddish/a  »S'raddha,  IV,  2. 


IV  ADIIYAVA,    7  KAiVDIKA,    II.  25  I 

5.  Optionally  (he  ma)-  invite  onl)'  one  Brahma;m) 
except  at  the  first  (^'racldha). 

6.  By  (the  exposition  of)  the  F'mda.  sacrifice  (the 
corresponding  rules)  have  been  declared  (for  the 
^'raddha  ceremonies  also). 

7.  Having  given  water  (to  the  Brahma;/as), 

8.  Havine  eiven  to  them  double-folded  Darbha 
blades,  and  a  seat, 

9.  Having  (again)  given  water  (to  them), 

10.  Having  poured  water  into  three  vessels  of 
metal,  of  stone,  and  of  earthen-ware,  or  (into  three 
vessels)  made  of  the  same  substance,  over  which  he 
has  put  Darbha  grass, 

1 1 .  And  having  recited  over  (that  water  the  verse), 
*  For  luck  and  help  the  divine  waters '  (Rig-veda  X, 
9,  4),  he  pours  sesamum  seeds  into  it  with  (the 
formula),  '  Sesamum  art  thou ;  Soma  is  thy  deity ; 
at  the  Gosava  sacrifice  thou  hast  been  created  by 

5.  Anadye.  Of  the  different  interpretations  of  this  word  which 
Naraya/za  gives,  it  may  suffice  here  to  quote  two.  The  first 
6'raddha  may  either  mean  the  Parvawa  6'raddha,  because  this  stands 
first  among  the  different  kinds  of  A'addha  ceremonies  enumerated 
in  Sfitra  i ;  or  it  may  mean  the  Sapiwrf'ikarawa  (see  6'ahkhayana  IV, 
3),  for  this  is  the  first  occasion  on  which  a  dead  person  receives 
i^'raddha  oblations  together  with  two  others  of  the  Fathers. 

6.  The  sacrifice  to  the  IManes,  as  forming  part  of  the  ^rauta 
ritual,  is  explained  in  the  i5'rauta-sfttra  II,  6  seq. 

8.  Ya^Ttavalkya  I,  229. 

9.  Y%itavalkya  I,  230.  The  reading  of  several  words  of  the 
INIantra  is  doubtful,  and  the  parallel  texts,  as  Prof.  Slenzler  has  not 
failed  to  observe,  differ;  especially  die  words  pratnavadbhi/z 
pratta/i  seem  to  me  to  be  corrupt.  The  word  pratnavat  is 
only  known  to  the  Petersburg  Dictionary  as  having  the  meaning, 
'containing  the  word  pratna,'  which  will  not  do  here.  Thus,  I 
think  that  the  reading  prat  nam  adbhi//  przkta//  should  be 
adopted  ;  the  translation  would  be,  '  Anciently  thou  hast  been 
mixed  with  water.' 


252  A5VALAYANA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 

the  gods.  By  the  ancients  thou  hast  been  offered. 
Through  the  funeral  oblation  render  the  Fathers  and 
these  worlds  propitious  to  us,     Svadha  !    Adoration  !' 

12.  (The  different  rites  are  performed)  from  the 
right  to  the  left. 

1 3.  With  (the  part)  of  the  other  (i.  e.  left)  hand 
between  the  thumb  (and  the  fore-finger),  because  he 
wears  the  sacrificial  cord  over  his  left  shoulder,  or 
with  the  right  hand  which  he  seizes  with  the  left  (he 
offers  the  Arghya  water  to  the  Fathers  with  the 
words),  '  Father,  this  is  thy  Arghya.  Grandfather, 
this  is  thy  Arghya.  Great-grandfather,  this  is  thy 
Arghya' — having  first  offered  (ordinary)  water  (to 
the  Fathers). 

14.  When  he  is  going  to  hand  over  that  (Arghya 
water  to  the  Brahma^^as  who  represent  the  Fathers, 
he  says  once  each  time),  '  Svadha !  The  Arghya 
water  !' 

15.  Over    (the    Arghya   water)    which   has   been 

12.  Comp.  -Sankhayana-Gr/hya  IV,  4,  6. 

13.  The  part  of  the  hand  above  the  thumb  is  called  the  '  Tu-tha 
belonging  to  the  Manes  ; '  see,  for  instance,  Baudhayana's  Dharma- 
sutra  I,  8,  1 6.  The  sacrificer  is  here  understood  to  wear  his  sacrificial 
cord  suspended  over  the  left  shoulder  (he  is  'ya^fiopavitin').  But 
as  the  oblation  here  treated  of  is  directed  to  the  Manes,  it  is 
required  that  he  should  be  pra/('inavitin.  Now  he  is  considered 
as  pra/('inavitin,  according  to  Narayawa,  not  only  if  the  cord  is 
suspended  over  his  right  shoulder  (which  is  the  ordinary  meaning 
of  pra/^inavitin),  but  also  if  the  hand  with  which  he  performs  the 
rites,  and  the  shoulder  over  which  he  wears  the  sacred  cord,  are 
either  both  right  or  both  left.  Thus  here,  acting  with  the  left-hand 
and  wearing  the  cord  over  the  left  shoulder,  he  becomes  pra,^ina- 
vitin. 

The  last  word  (appurvam)  is  separated  by  Naraya^^a  from  the 
rest,  so  that  it  forms  a  separate  Sfitra, 

15.  The  sacrificer  gives  the  water  to  the  Brahma^zas,  and  these 


IV  ADHYAYA,    7  KAiVZJIKA,   20.  253 

poured  out,  he  should  recite  the  verse, '  The  celestial 
waters  which  have  been  produced  on  the  earth,  the 
aerial  waters  and  the  waters  which  are  terrestrial, 
the  gold-coloured  ones,  apt  for  sacrifice,  may  these 
waters  brins^  us  luck  and  be  kind  to  us.'  Pouringr 
together  what  has  been  left  (in  the  three  Arghya 
vessels)  he  moistens  his  face  with  that  water,  if  he 
desires  that  a  son  should  be  born  to  him. 

16.  '  He  should  not  take  up  the  first  vessel,  into 
which  the  Arghya  water  for  the  Fathers  has  been 
poured.  Hidden  the  Fathers  dwell  therein  :  thus 
vS'aunaka  has  said.' 

17.  In  that  moment  the  gifts  of  perfumes,  gar- 
lands, incense,  lights,  and  clothes  are  offered  (to  the 
Brahma;-jas). 

18.  Having  taken  some  food  (of  the  Sthalipaka 
prepared  for  the  Fbidapitrzyao-ua),  and  having  be- 
smeared it  wath  ghee,  he  asks  (the  Brahma;2as)  for 
their  permission  by  saying,  '  I  shall  offer  it  in  the 
fire,'  or,  '  I  will  sacrifice  my  offering  in  the  fire.'  or, 
*  I  will  offer  it  in  the  fire.' 

19.  The  permission  (is  given  in  the  words).  '  It 
may  be  offered,'  or,  '  Sacrifice  thy  offering,'  or, 
'  Offer  it.' 

20.  He  then  sacrifices  in  the  fire  as  stated  above. 


pour  it  out.  Instead  of  prz'thivi  sambabhfivu/;  (pr/thivi  beino- 
intended  as  a  locative;  see  Lanman,  Noun-inflection  in  the  Veda, 
p.  389)  we  should  read,  no  doubt,  as  the  parallel  texts  have,  payasa 
sambabhiivu^ :  '  The  celestial  waters  which  have  united  themselves 
with  milk.' 

16.  This  is  a  -Sloka. 

17.  INIanu  III,  209;  Ya^7lavalkya  I,  231. 

20.  The  oblations  alluded  to  in  this  SOtra  are  prescribed  in 
the  6'rauia-sfitra,  II,  6, 12.  They  are  directed  to  Soma  pitr/mat  and 
to  Agni  kavyavahana. 


2  54  A^VALAY  AN  A-G2?/HYA-S0tR  A. 

21.  Or,  if  they  give  their  permission,  in  the 
hands  (of  the  Brahma/^as). 

2  2.  '  The  mouth  of  the  gods  verily  is  the  fire,  the 
mouth  of  the  Fathers  is  the  hand  ' — thus  says  the 
Brahma;^a. 

23.  If  in  the  hands,  he  assigns  to  them  other  food, 
after  they  have  sipped  water. 

24.  The  food  (is  put  together)  with  the  food. 

25.  It  is  said,  'What  is  given  away  and  offered, 
that  brings  prosperity.' 

26.  When  he  sees  that  they  are  satiated,  he  should 
recite  (the  verses)  containing  the  word  madhu,  and 
(the  verse),  '  They  have  eaten,  they  have  enjoyed 
themselves'  (Rig-veda  I,  82,  2). 

27.  Having  asked  them,  '  Relished?'  and  having 
taken  the  food,  whatever  food  he  has  used,  together 
with  the  Sthalipaka,  in  order  to  make  lumps  thereof, 
he  should  offer  the  rest  (to  the  Brahma;zas). 

28.  After  they  have  either  accepted  (that  rest  of 
food),  or  left  it  (to  him),  and  have  finished  eating, 
he  should,  before  they  have  sipped  water,  put  down 
the  lumps  for  the  Fathers. 

21.  According  to  Manu  (III,  212)  this  is  done  only  in  case  there 
is  no  fire.  Possibly  abhyanu^nayam  belongs  to  Sutra  20,  so 
that  we  should  have  to  translate,  '  He  then  sacrifices  ...  if  they 
give  their  permission.    Or  in  the  hands.' 

24.  'The  food  which  is  left  from  the  oblations  he  puts  with  the 
food  (Sutra  23)  which  is  to  be  eaten  by  the  Brahmawas,  and  has 
been  put  into  the  vessels.'     Narayawa. 

25.  Is  sr/sh/am  to  be  understood  in  the  sense  of  visrzsh/am  ? 
Narayawa  explains  it  by  prabhutam. 

26.  The  verses  containing  the  word  madhu  are  Rig-veda  I,  90, 
6-8. 

27.  On  the  question,  'Relished.'"'  compare  ASahkhayana-Grzliya 
IV,  2,  5.  For  several  kinds  of  -Sraddha  ceremonies  a  Sthalipaka  is 
prescribed,  for  others  it  is  not ;  for  the  .Sraddhas  of  the  last  kind 
the  words  '  Together  with  the  Sthalipaka '  are  not  valid. 


IV  ADHYAYA,    8  KAJVDIKA,    12.  255 

29.  After  they  have  sipped  water,  according  to 
some  (teachers). 

30.  Having  strewn  the  food  on  the  ground  and 
suspended  the  sacrificial  cord  over  his  left  shoulder, 
he  should  dismiss  the  Brahma;2as,  (saying  to  them), 
'Say  Om!  Svadha!' 

31.  Or,  'So  be  it!    Svadha!' 

KAiVDIKA    8. 

1.  Now  the  spit-ox  (sacrificed  to  Rudra). 

2.  In  autumn  or  in  spring,  under  the  (Nakshatra) 

A 

Ardra. 

3.  The  best  of  his  herd, 

4.  (An  ox)  which  is  neither  leprous  nor  speckled; 

5.  One  with  black  spots,  according  to  some  ; 

6.  If  he  likes,  a  black  one,  if  its  colour  inclines  to 
copper-colour. 

7.  He  sprinkles  it  with  water,  into  which  he  has 
thrown  rice  and  barley, 

8.  From  head  to  tail, 

9.  With  (the  formula),  *  Grow  up,  agreeable  to 
Rudra  the  great  god.' 

10.  He  should  let  it  grow  up.  When  it  has  cut 
its  teeth,  or  when  it  has  become  a  bull — 

11.  To  a  quarter  (of  the  horizon^  which  is  sacri- 
ficially  pure, 

12.  At  a  place  which  cannot  be  seen  from  the 
village, 

30.  They  reply,  '  Om  !  Svadha  1 ' 

8,  I.  According  to  Narayawa,  the  'spit-ox'  sacrifice  is  so  called 
because  it  is  offered  to  Rudra  the  spit-wearer. 

5.  Kalmasho  nama  kr/sh«abinduX-ita/^.    Narayawa. 

10.  This  Sutra  should  rather  be  divided  into  two. 

11.  I.  e.  to  the  east  or  the  north. 


256  AS-V  ALAYAN  A-G/2/H  YA-sOtR  A. 

13.  After  midnight, 

14.  According  to  some,  after  sunrise. 

15.  Having  caused  a  Brahman  who  is  versed  in 
learning  and  knows  the  practice  (of  this  sacrifice),  to 
sit  down,  having  driven  a  fresh  branch  with  leaves 
into  the  ground  as  a  sacrificial  post,  (having  taken) 
two  creeping  plants  or  two  Kusa  ropes  as  two 
girdles,  and  having  wound  the  one  round  the  sacri- 
ficial post,  and  tied  the  other  round  the  middle  of  the 
animal's  head,  he  binds  it  to  the  sacrificial  post  or  to 
the  girdle  (which  he  had  tied  to  that  post)  with  (the 
formula),  '  Agreeable  to  him  to  w^hom  adoration  (is 
brought),  I  bind  thee/ 

16.  The  sprinkling  with  water  and  what  follows  is 
the  same  as  at  the  animal  sacrifice. 

17.  We  shall  state  what  is  different. 

18.  Let  him  sacrifice  the  omentum  with  the  Patri 
or  with  a  leaf — thus  it  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti) — 

19.  With  (the  formulas),  '  To  Hara,  Mrida,  ^Sarva, 
6'iva,  Bhava,  Mahadeva,  Ugra,  Bhima,  Pa^upati, 
Rudra,  ^'afikara,   Ij-ana  svaha!' 

20.  Or  with  the  last  six  (parts  of  that  formula), 

21.  Or  with  (the  formula),  '  To  Rudra  svaha !' 

22.  Let  him  make  Bali  offerings  towards  the  four 
quarters  (of  the  horizon),  to  each  on  four  rings  of 
Ku5a  net-work,  with  (the  formulas),  '  The  hosts, 
Rudra,  which  thou  hast  towards  the  eastern  direction. 


15.  Round  the  middle  of  the  head  means,  between  the  two  horns. 
Narayawa. 

16.  See  above,  I,  11. 

22.  This  BaU  offering  is  performed,  according  to  Naraya72a, 
before  the  Svish/akn't  oblation  of  the  chief  sacrifice.  On  kujasuna 
the  commentator  has  the  note, '  Darbhastambais  trm&is  /C'a  kalpavad 
(or  rather,  as  Prof.  Stenzler  writes,  ka/akavad)  grathitva  sarvesham 
a.gv2Lm  gr^liitva,  ekikr/tya  grathita/z  kujasuna  u/C-yante.' 


IV    ADHYAYA,    8    KAiVDIKA,    29.  257 

to  them  this  (offering  is  brought).  Adoration  to 
thee!  Do  no  harm  to  me!'  In  this  way  the 
assigning  (of  the  offerings  is  performed)  according 
to  the  different  quarters  (of  the  horizon). 

23.  With  the  following  four  h)'mns  he  should 
worship  the  four  quarters,  viz.  '  What  shall  we  to 
Rudra,'  '  These  prayers  to  Rudra,'  '  To  thee,  O 
father/  '  These  songs  to  Rudra  with  the  strong  bow  ' 
(Rig-veda  I,  43,  114;  II,  33  ;  VII,  46). 

24.  (This)  worship  to  the  quarters  (of  the  horizon) 
(is  performed)  at  all  sacrifices  to  Rudra. 

25.  The  husks  and  chaff  (of  the  rice),  the  tail,  the 
skin,  the  head,  the  feet  (of  the  sacrificial  animal)  he 
should  throw  into  the  fire. 

26.  He  should  turn  the  skin  to  some  use,  according 
to  Sa-Pivatya. 

27.  To  the  north  of  the  fire,  on  rows  of  Darbha 
grass,  or  on  rings  of  Ku^a  net-work,  he  should  pour 
out  the  blood  (of  the  sacrificial  animal)  with  (the 
formula),  '  Hissing  ones  !  Noisy  ones  !  Searching 
ones  !  Seizing  ones  !  Serpents  !  What  here  belongs 
to  you,  take  that.' 

28.  Then,  turning  to  the  north,  (he  assigns  it)  to 
the  serpents  (in  the  words),  '  Hissing  ones  I  Noisy 
ones !  Searching  ones !  Seizing  ones !  Serpents  ! 
What  here  belongs  to  you,  take  that.' 

Then  the  serpents  take  whatever  has  flowed  down 
there  of  blood  or  of  the  contents  of  stomach  and 
entrails. 

29.  All   names,  all   hosts,  all   exaltations  belong 


26.  Perhaps  Samvaty^.  is  a  mis-spelling  of  the  name  of  the  well- 
known  Grihya.  teacher  ^Sambavya. 

27.  Darbhavita  is  explained  in  the  commentary  by  darbhara^i. 

[29]  S 


258  A5VALAYAN  A-Gi?7HYA-StJTR  A. 

to  him ; — to  a  sacrificer  who  knows  that,  he  gives 

joy- 

30.  Even  to  a  man  who  only  with  words  sets 
forth  (some  part)  of  that  (ceremony),  he  will  do  no 
harm ;  thus  it  is  understood  (in  the  ^'ruti). 

31.  He  should  not  partake  of  that  (sacrifice). 

32.  They  should  not  take  anything  belonging  to 
it  into  the  village.  For  this  god  will  do  harm  to 
(human)  creatures. 

33.  He  should  keep  away  his  people  from  the 
vicinity  (of  the  place  where  he  has  sacrificed). 

34.  On  an  express  injunction,  however,  he 
should  partake  (of  that  sacrificial  food),  for  it  will 
bring  luck. 

35.  This  spit-ox  sacrifice  procures  wealth,  (open) 
space,  purity,  sons,  cattle,  long  life,  splendour. 

36.  After  he  has  sacrificed,  he  should  let  loose 
another  (animal). 

37.  He  should  not  be  without  such  an  animal. 

38.  Then  he  will  not  be  without  cattle — thus  it  is 
understood  (in  the  ^'ruti). 

39.  Muttering  the  vSantatiya  hymn,  he  should  go 
to  his  house. 

40.  If  disease  befalls  his  cattle,  he  should 
sacrifice  to  that  same  god  in  the  midst  of  his  cow- 
stable — 

41.  A  mess  of  cooked  food,  which  he  sacrifices  in 
its  entirety. 


32.  Instead  of  abhimaruka  we  ought  to  read  abhimanuka. 
See  Aitareya  Brahmawa  III,  34,  and  the  Petersburg  Dictionary 
s.  V.  abhimanuka. 

36.  He  should  destine  another  young  animal  in  the  way  stated 
above  (Sfitras  7  seqq.)  to  a  new  iSulagava  sacrifice. 

39.  Rig-veda  VII,  35.     Comp.  above,  II,  8,  11. 


IV   ADHYAYA,    8  KANDIKA,    44.  059 


^  42.  Having  thrown  the  sacrificial  grass  and  the 
A^^ya  into  the  fire,  he  should  lead  his  cows  throuj^h 
the  smoke. 

43-  Murmuring  the  ^^antatiya  hymn,  he  should  go 
m  the  midst  of  his  cattle. 

44.  Adoration  to  ^-aunaka!  Adoration  to  ^aunaka ! 
End  of  the  Fourth  Adhyaya. 


End  of  the  A^val^yana-GWhya-siltra. 


s  2 


PARASKARA-Gi^/HYA- 
SUTRA. 


INTRODUCTION 


TO    THE 


PARASKARA-Gt^/HYA-SUTRA. 


The  Grzhya-sutra  of  Paraskara,  which  belongs  to  the 
White  Ya^r-veda  and  forms  an  appendix  to  Katyayana's 
5rauta-sutra,  has  been  edited,  with  a  German  translation, 
by  the  scholar  who  was  the  first  to  make  a  Grzhya  text 
accessible  to  Orientalists  and  to  begin  to  grapple  with  the 
first  and  most  serious  difficulties  that  beset  its  interpre- 
tation, and  who  has  continued  since  to  do  more  than  any- 
one else  towards  elucidating  that  important  branch  of  Vedic 
literature.  It  would  be  very  unbecoming  in  any  one  engaged 
in  the  study  of  Grz'hya  texts,  not  to  acknowledge  most 
warmly  the  debt  of  gratitude  which  he  owes  to  Professor 
S  t  e  n  z  1  e  r.  At  the  same  time  the  respect  due  to  the  veteran 
editor  and  interpreter  of  Aj-valayana  and  Paraskara  not 
only  allows,  but  requires  that  one  who  proposes  to  himself 
the  same  task  at  which  Prof.  Stenzler  has  worked  with  so 
much  learning,  should  state  as  clearly  as  possible  what 
that  distinguished  scholar  has  left  for  others  to  do,  and 
why  one  who  prepares  an  English  translation  of  Piraskara 
has  a  very  different  task  from  merely  translating  into 
English  the  German  translation  of  Prof.  Stenzler. 

If  I  may  venture  to  express  in  one  word  the  difference 
between  Prof.  Stcnzler's  method,  as  I  understand  it,  for 
getting  at  the  meaning  of  a  doubtful  or  obscure  passage, 
and  the  method  which  I  have  endeavoured  to  follow,  I 
should  say  that   with   Prof.  Stenzler   the    first  step   and, 


264  PARASKARA-G22/HYA-SUTRA. 

I  believe,  in  many  cases  also  the  last  step  is  to  ask  how 
(7ayarama  and  Ramak?'/sh;/a  understand  the  passage  in 
question,  while  I  hold  that  we  ought  rather  to  make  our- 
selves independent  from  those  commentators  in  the  sense 
in  which  Prof.  Max  Mliller  once  expressed  himself^,  'not 
that  I  ever  despise  the  traditional  interpretation  which  the 
commentators  have  preserved  to  us,  but  because  I  think 
that,  after  having  examined  it,  we  have  a  right  to  judge  for 
ourselves.'  There  exists  a  commentary  on  the  Paraskara- 
Grihya  which  far  surpasses  in  trustworthiness  6'ayarama's 
Sa^^anavallabha  and  Ramakrzsh;^a's  Sa;/^skaraga7/apati, 
and  which  is   not   composed  by  an  author  who,  as   says 

Goethe, 

—  im  Auslegen  ist  munter  ; 

Legt  er  nicht  aus,  so  legt  er  unter. 
But  the  leaves  of  that  commentary  are  scattered  through 
a  good  many  volumes.  Here  we  find  a  few  lines  of  it  in  the 
^atapatha  Brahma;/a  or  in  Katyayana's  vSrauta-sutra  ;  there 
vSahkhayana  or  Aj-valayana  has  preserved  a  word  or  a  sen- 
tence that  belongs  to  it ;  or  the  law-books  of  Manu  or 
Ya^>7avalkya  help  us  to  understand  a  difficult  or  doubtful 
aphorism  of  our  text.  In  one  word :  the  only  true  com- 
mentary on  a  work  like  Paraskara's  Grthya.  is  that  which 
the  ancient  literature  itself  furnishes.  No  one  will  say  that 
in  Prof.  Stenzler's  translation  and  notes  this  commentary 
has  not  been  consulted.  But  it  has  been  consulted  perhaps 
not  quite  as  much  as  it  ought  to  have  been,  and^  Rama- 
krtsh;ia.  and  (^ayarama  have  been  consulted  too  much. 
They  have  been  consulted  and  followed  in  many  in- 
stances, where  a  continued  consideration  of  what  can  be 
the  meaning  of  a  word  and  what  can  not,  and  of  what  the 
parallel  texts  say  with  regard  to  the  subject  in  question, 
would  have  shown  that  those  commentators,  instead  of 
interpreting  Paraskara's  meaning,  father  on  him  vague 
opinions  of  their  own. 

Perhaps  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  here  .to  point  our 

^  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  vol.  xv,  p.  2,  note  2. 


INTRODUCTION.  265 


criticism,  lest  it  should  be  deemed  unjust,  by  a  few  remarks 
on  a  single  passage  of  Paraskara  in  which  the  difference  of 
Prof.  Stenzler's  way  of  translating  and  of  our  own  becomes 
manifest.  Of  the  numerous  passages  which  could  be  se- 
lected for  this  purpose,  I  choose  Sutra  I,  2,  5,  belonging 
to  the  description  of  the  setting  up  of  the  sacred  domestic 
fire.     The  text  of  that  SQtra  runs  thus  : 

5.  ara;/ipradanam  eke. 
Prof.  Stenzler  translates  as  follows  : 

'  Einige  sagen,  es  miisse  durch  Reibholzer  erzeugtes  Feuer 
sein.' 

The  two  Sutras  which  precede  give  a  description  of 
that  ceremony  from  which  evidently  the  opinion  of  the 
'eke'  mentioned  in  this  Sutra  differs,  or  to  which  they 
find  it  necessary  to  add  something.  Those  Sutras  run 
thus : 

3.  After  he  has  fetched  fire  from  the  house  of  a  Vaijya 
who  is  rich  in  cattle — 

4.  AH  ceremonies  are  performed  as  at  the  cooking  of  the 
^atushprai-ya  food^ 

It  seems  evident  that  the  AMryas  to  whom  the  opinion 
spoken  of  in  Sutra  5  belongs,  add,  or  perhaps  substitute,  to 
the  fetching  of  the  fire  which  is  to  be  worshipped  as  the 
sacrificer's  domestic  fire,  from  a  rich  Vaij-ya's  house,  another 
rite  in  which  an  ara;d,  i.  e.  a  stick  for  kindling  the  fire  by 
attrition,  is  made  use  of  in  some  way  or  other. 

Now  if  this  may  be  accepted  as  a  vague  expression  of 
the  general  purport  of  the  Sutra,  what  is  the  literal  mean- 
ing of  the  words  ?  '  Some  (teachers),'  it  says,  '  (prescribe) 
the  pradana  of  the  kindling  stick  (or,  of  the  kindling  sticks).' 

What  does  pradana  mean  ?     6^ayarama  says, 

'praj-abda  upajabdarthe.  ara;/yupadanakam  eka  &/ca.rya. 
i>^^//anti.' 


'  The  food  which  is  eaten  by  the  four  chief  officiating  priests  of  the  5rauta 
ritual.  For  these  priests  a  mess  of  food  is  prepared  at  the  ceremony  of  the 
adhana  of  the  6'rauta  fires. 


266  PARASKARA-G/2/HYA-StjTRA. 

That  is :  '  The  word  pra  stands  in  the  sense  of  the  word 
upa.  Some  teachers  desire  that  it  (i.  e.  the  fire)  should 
have  the  kindhng  sticks  as  its  physical  basis ^' 

Thus,  if  6"ayarama  is  right,  Prof.  Stenzler's  translation 
would  be  justified.  But  can  we  acquiesce  indeed  in  simply 
accepting  the  commentator's  opinion?  Pradana  is  pra- 
dana  and  not  upadana,  as  pradadati  is  not  upadatte. 
Pradadati  means  'he  hands  over,'  and  pradana  'the 
handing  over.'  This  is  an  established  fact,  and  an  inter- 
preter of  a  Vedic  text  should  not  allow  himself  to  be 
induced  by  a  statement  like  that  of  6'ayarama  about  the 
preposition  pra  standing  in  the  sense  of  upa,  to  abate  one 
iota  of  it.  Thus  we  are  obliged,  until  passages  have  been 
discovered  which  modify  our  knowledge  of  what  pradana 
means — but  such  passages  most  certainly  will  never  be 
discovered — to  translate  : 

5.  Some  (teachers  say  that)  the  handing  over  of  the 
kindhng  sticks  (takes  place). 

We  should  give  that  translation  even  if  we  were  not  able 
to  find  an  explanation  for  it.  It  appears  that  Prof.  Stenzler, 
as  far  as  we  can  judge  from  his  note,  has  not  even  thought 
of  the  possibility  of  disregarding  the  authority  of  6^ayarama 
and  Ramaknshwa,  or  of  looking  through  the  parallel  texts 
to  see  whether  they  do  not  throw  light  on  what  that 
'  handing  over  of  the  kindling  sticks '  signifies.  The  text 
to  be  consulted  first  is  of  course  Katyayana's  vSrauta-sutra. 
As  the  vSrauta  ritual  contains  a  description  of  an  adhana 
which  is  in  some  way  the  prototype  of  the  corresponding 
Grzhya  ceremony,  we  may  possibly  expect  to  discover,  in 
the  course  of  that  description,  the  statements  regarding  the 
ara;d-pradana  for  which  we  are  searching.  Now  Katya- 
yana^,  having  described  the  setting  up  of  the  fire  in  the 
garhapatyagara,  states  that  at  sunset  the  sacrificer  and  his 


'  Ramakrzshwa  also,  according  to  Prof.  Stenzler's  note,  explains  pradana 
by  npadana,  karawa,  utpattisthana. 

^  IV,  7,  15  seqq.  The  corresponding  passage  of  the  Paddhati  is  found  at 
p.  358  of  Prof.  Weber's  edition. 


INTRODUCTION.  267 


wife  sit  down  to  the  west  of  the  fire  which  has  just  been 
established,  and  then  the  Adhvaryu  hands  over  to  them 
the  two  kindling  sticks^  The  Paddhati,  in  describing 
that  act,  goes  into  further  details.  The  Adhvaryu  hands 
over  to  the  sacrificer  the  two  Ara«is,  which,  as  required 
by  custom,  are  wrapped  up  in  new  clothes.  The  wife 
takes  the  adharara;/i  from  his  hand  and  puts  it  on  her  lap  ; 
the  sacrificer  puts  the  uttarara;/i  on  his  lap,  and  they  do 
homage  to  them  with  flowers,  saffron,  sandal  wood,  &c. ; 
then,  after  the  performance  of  some  other  ceremonies,  they 
put  the  two  Arawis  away  on  a  chair  or  bench.  The  two 
Ara;/is  have  to  be  kept  by  the  sacrificer  ;  if  they  are  lost  or 
burnt  or  destroyed  in  any  other  way,  other  Arawis  must 
be  procured,  and  by  their  attrition  a  new  fire  must  be 
kindled^. 

Apastamba  likewise  mentions,  in  his  description  of  the 
Agnyadhana^,  the  handing  over  of  the  two  Ara;/is,  and 
indicates  a  Mantra  which  the  Adhvaryu  recites  in  giving 
them  to  the  sacrificer,  and  two  other  Mantras  with  the  one 
of  which  the  sacrificer  receives  them,  while  he  recites  the 
other  over  the  Arawis,  after  having  taken  them  into  his 
hands. 

Finally  we  may  quote  here,  as  bearing  witness  to  the 
custom  of  the  Arawipradana,  a  passage  taken  from  Nara- 
ya//a's  commentary  on  the  5ahkhayana-G;'zhya.  Though 
the  decisive  words  in  that  passage  rest  only  on  the  autho- 
rity of  the  commentator  and  not  of  the  Sutrakara  himself, 
they  deserve  to  be  taken  notice  of,  as  they  are  not  subject 
to  the  suspicion  that  they  could  be  influenced  by  a  mis- 
understanding of  that  very  Sutra  of  Paraskara  of  which 
we  are  treating.  Naraya/za  says,  in  his  explanation  of 
^ilhkhayana  I,  i,  10^:  'To  the  west  of  the  fire  the  sacri- 
ficer, and  southwards  (of  him)  the  wife  sits  down.     The 


*  IV,  7,  22  :  ajvatthajamigarbhara«I  praya/',(7/ati. 

*  See  the  commentary  on  IV,  7,  22,  and  the  passages  of  the  Karmapradipa 
quoted  there. 

^  Jrauta-sutra  V,  8,  7  ;  vol.  i,  p.  255,  of  Prof  Garbe's  edition. 

*  Sayamahutisawskaroidhvaryupratyaya  ity  iU'arya//. 


268  PARASKARA-Gi2/IiYA-StjTRA. 


handing  over  of  the  kindling  sticks  does  not  take 
place.  For  it  is  a  fire  fetched  (from  a  Vaii-ya's  house,  &c.) 
which  is  inaugurated  here^'  Then  the  commentator  goes 
on  to  quote  a  6"loka  : 

'  The  handing  over  of  the  Arawis  which  the  Adhvaryu 
sometimes  performs, 

'Is  not  in  accordance  with  the  opinion  of  Suya^;7a^;  he 
does  not  approve  of  kindling  the  fire  by  attrition^.' 

Thus,  I  think,  no  doubt  can  remain  as  to  the  real  meaning 
of  Paraskara's  Sutra :  it  means  what  its  words  signify  and 

A 

what  is  in  accordance  with  Katyayana  and  Apastamba, 
and  it  does  not  mean  what  the  commentators  most  gratui- 
tously would  make  it  mean. 

Perhaps  I  have  dwelt  here  too  long  on  the  interpretation 
of  a  few  words  which  are  of  no  peculiar  interest  in  them- 
selves. But  I  venture  to  hope  that  the  discussion  on  these 
words  will  serve  as  a  specimen,  by  which  the  fundamental 
difference  of  two  methods  of  handling  our  texts  may  be 
discerned.  Let  us  never  forget  how  much  we  owe  to  the 
scholars  who  have  followed  the  first  of  these  methods,  but 
for  ourselves  let  us  choose  the  second. 


^  Agne/i  Tpaskad  ya^raano  dakshi«ata/i  patni  ia  npavii-ati.   ara;^ipradana;« 
na  karta\'yaw.    ahr/tasyagner  eva  sawskara//. 

^  On  this  name  of  6'ankhayana,  see  my  Introduction  to  the  translation  of  the 
^ankhayana-GrzTiya,  above,  p.  3. 

3  Atrara«ipradana;«  yad  adhvaryu//  kurute  kva,5it, 

mataw  tan  na  Suya^;7asya  mathitaw  so^tra  neAk/iaii. 


paraskara-g;?/hya-sutra. 


KaNDA    I,    KAiVDIKA  1. 

1.  Now  henceforth  the  performance  of  the  do- 
mestic sacrifices  of  cooked  food  (will  be  explained). 

2.  Having  wiped  (around  the  surface  on  which 
he  intends  to  perform  a  sacrifice),  having  be- 
smeared it  (with  cowdung),  having  drawn  the  lines 
thereon,  having  taken  the  earth  out  (of  the  lines), 
having  besprinkled  (the  place  with  water),  having 
established  the  (sacred)  fire,  having  spread  out  the 
seat  for  the  Brahman  to  the  south,  having  carried 
forward  (the  Pra;/ita  water),  having  spread  (Kuj-a 
grass)  round  (the  fire),  having  put  down  (the  dif- 
ferent things  used  at  the  sacrifice)  according  as  they 
are  wanted,  having  prepared  two  (Ku^a  blades  used 
as)    strainers,    having    consecrated    the    Proksha;^ 


1,1.  Comp.  6'ahkhayana-Gn'hya  I,  i ;  Aj-valayana-GnTiya  I,  i, &c. 
It  seems  to  me  that  Professor  Stenzler  is  not  quite  right  in  giving 
to  the  opening  words  of  the  text  athala//,  which  he  translates  '  nun 
also,'  the  explanation:  'das  heisst,  nach  Beendigung  des  »S'rauta-s(atra 
von  Katyayana.'  I  think  rather  it  can  be  shown  that  at  a//  does 
not  contain  a  reference  to  something  preceding ;  thus  the  ^'rauta- 
sfltra,  which  forms  the  first  part  of  the  whole  Sutra  collection,  is 
opened  in  the  same  way  by  the  words  athato^dhikara//. 

2.  The  description  of  the  standard  form  of  domestic  sacrifice 
opens  with  an  enumeration  of  the  five  so-called  bhijsaOTskara 
(parisamuhya,  &c.).    On  the  samiihana  (for  parisamuhya  is  derived 


2  70  PARASKARA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

water,  having  sprinkled  (with  that  water  the  sacri- 
ficial implements)  according  to  what  is  needed, 
having  poured  out  (the  A^ya  or  sacrificial  butter 
into  the  pot),  and  having  put  the  sacrificial  butter  on 
the  fire,  he  should  (lustrate  the  butter  by)  moving  a 
fire-brand  round  it. 

3.  Having  warmed  the  (sacrificial  spoon  called) 
Sruva,  having  wiped  it,  having  besprinkled  it  (with 
water),  and  warmed  it  again,  he  should  put  it  down. 

4.  Having  taken  the  A^ya  from  the  fire,  having 
purified  it,  having  looked  at  it,  and  (having  purified) 
the  Proksha;^t  water  as  above,  having  taken  up  the 
Ku^a  blades  with  which  he  is  to  take  hold  (of  the 
Ao-ya.  pot)  by  its  under  surface,  having  put  pieces  of 
wood  on  (the  fire),  and  having  sprinkled  (water  round 
it),  he  should  sacrifice. 

5.  This  is  the  rite  wherever  a  sacrifice  is  per- 
formed. 

KAiV£»IKA    2. 

I.  The  setting  up  of  the  Avasathya  (or  sacred 
domestic)  fire  (is  performed)  at  the  time  of  his 
wedding. 


from  the  root  uh,  not  from  vah  ;  comp.  below,  II,  4,  2  :  pa7iinagnim 
parisamuhati),  see  6'ankhayana  I,  7, 1 1 ;  Gn'hya-sawgraha-parijish/a 
I,  37,  &c.  On  the  lines  drawn  on  the  sacrificial  surface,  see  Sah- 
khayana  I,  7,  6  seq.;  Ajvalayana  I,  3,  i ;  GnTiya-saw^graha-parij-ish/a 
I,  47  seq. 

4.  Purvavat  ('as  above')  can  possibly,  as  Professor  Stenzler 
understands  it,  have  been  said  with  regard  to  Katyayana's  rule,  II, 
3,  33  :  Tabhyam  (scil.  pavitrabhyam)  utpunati  Savitur  va  iti.  But 
it  is  also  possible  that  the  expression  may  refer  to  the  second  Sutra 
of  this  chapter,  where  it  is  said,  proksha7zi/^  saw/skrz'tya.  On  upa- 
yamanan  kuj-an,  comp.  Katyayana  I,  10,6-8. 

2,  I.  Comp.  -Sahkhayana-Gnhya  I,  1,3. 


I  KANDA,    2  KAA^DIKA,  8.  27I 

2.  At  the  time  of  the  division  of  the  inheritance, 
according  to  some  (teachers). 

3.  After  he  has  fetched  fire  from  the  house  of  a 
Vaii'ya  who  is  rich  in  cattle, — 

4.  All  ceremonies  are  performed  as  at  the  cooking 
of  the  /'atushprai"ya  food. 

5.  Some  (say  that)  the  handing  over  of  the  kin- 
dling sticks  (should  take  place), 

6.  Because  the  ^Sruti  says,  *  There  are  five  great 
sacrifices.' 

7.  Having  cooked  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food  for  the 
deities  of  the  Agnyadheya,  and  having  sacrificed  the 

A  A 

two  A^ya  portions,  he  sacrifices  (the  following)  A^ya 
oblations  : 

8.  '  Thou,  Agni '  (Va^.  Sa?;2hita  XXI,  3) ;  '  Thus 

2.  6'ahkhiyana  I,  i,  4.  3.  ^Safikhayana  I,  1,8. 

4.  The  Mtushprajya  food  is  prepared,  at  the  time  of  the  setting  up 
of  the  .Srauta  fires,  for  the  four  chief  officiating  priests  of  the 
6rauta  sacrifices.  Comp.  ^Satapatha  Brahmawa  II,  i,  4.  Katya- 
yana's  corresponding  rules  with  regard  to  the  Adhana  of  the  6"rauta 
fires  are  found  at  IV,  7,  15.  16. 

5.  Comp.  the  remarks  on  this  Sijtra,in  the  Introduction,  pp.  265  seq. 

6.  6'atapatha  Brdlima«a  XI,  5,  6,  i  :  '  There  are  five  great 
sacrifices  which  are  great  Sattras,  viz.  the  sacrifice  to  Hving  beings, 
the  sacrifice  to  men,  the  sacrifice  to  the  Manes,  the  sacrifice  to  the 
gods,  the  Brahmaya^Tia.'  As  the  GnTiya  ceremonies  are  included 
here  under  the  category  of  mahayag'Tiris  or  great  sacrifices,  they 
require,  according  to  the  teachers  whose  opinion  is  staled  in 
Sfitra  5,  a  form  of  the  Agnyadhana  (setting  up  of  the  sacred  fire) 
analogous  to  the  Agnyadhana  of  the  6Yauta  ritual,  and  containing, 
like  that  Adhana,  the  act  of  the  Arawipradana  or  handing  over  of 
the  kindling  woods  (SGtra  5). 

7.  The  deities  of  the  Agnyadheya,  or  of  the  -Srauta  ceremony 
corresponding  to  the  Gr/hya  rite  here  treated  of,  are  Agni  pava- 
mana,  Agni  pavaka,  Agni  juX'i,  Aditi.  On  the  A^yabhagas,  see 
^ankhayana  I,  9,  7,  &c. 

8.  The  verses  Va^.  Sawh.  XXI,  3,  4,  the  two  verses  quoted 


272  PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-stjTRA. 

thou,  Agni'  (Va^.  Sa;;Aita  XXI,  4);  'This,  O 
Variwa'(XXI,  i) ;  '  For  this  I  entreat  thee'  {XXI, 
2);  '  Thy  hundred '  (Katy.-6'raut.  XXV,  i,  11);  'And 
quick,  Agni '  (Katy.  1. 1.) ;  '  The  highest  one '  (Va^. 
Samh.  XII,  12) ;  'Be  both  to  us'  (ibid.  V,  3) — with 
(these  verses  he  sacrifices)  eight  (oblations)  before 
(the  oblations  of  cooked  food). 

9.  Thus  he  sacrifices  also  afterwards,  after  he  has 
made  oblations  of  the  mess  of  cooked  food  to  the 
deities  of  the  Agnyadheya. 

TO.  And  to  (Agni)  Svish/akr^'t, 

11.  With  (the  formulas),  'Into  the  quick  one 
(has  been  put)  Agni's  (sacrificial  portion)  over 
which  the  word  vasha/  has  been  spoken  ; '  '  What  I 
have  done  too  much  ;'  '  O  gods  who  know  the  way.' 

12.  Having  sacrificed  the  Barhis,  he  partakes  (of 
the  sacrificial  food). 

1 3.  Then  food  is  given  to  the  Brahma;zas. 


Katy.  XXV,  i,  11,  and  fifthly  the  verse  Yag.  Sa?«h.  XII,  12,  are 
prescribed  for  the  Sarvaprayai'/l'itta  (or  general  expiatory  ceremony), 
see  Katyayana  1. 1. 

11.  Professor  Stenzler,  following  G^ayarama,  takes  the  whole  as 
one  Mantra,  which  he  translates :  '  Ungehemmet  sei  Agni's  Spende, 
die  durch  die  That  ich  iiberreich  machte,  bahnschaffende  Gotter ! ' 
But  the  words  y at  karma«atyartri/^am  are  the  opening  words 
of  a  Mantra  quoted  ^atapatha  Brahma?za  XIV,  9,  4,  24,  (comp. 
also  Ajvalayana-Gn'hya  I,  10,  23;  the  connection  in  which  atyari- 
ri/^am  there  stands,  shows  that  the  word  designates  a  mistake  made  in 
the  sacrificial  work  by  doing  too  much.)  The  words  deva  gatu- 
viday^  are  the  Pratika  of  Va^.  Sa7?zhita  VIII,  21.  Thus  I  have  no 
doubt  that  also  ayasy  Agner  vasha/kr/tam  (or  possibly  ayasy 
Agner  (?)  and  vasha/krz'tam  (?))  is  a  Pratika.  Of  course,  the 
translation  of  these  words  must  remain  uncertain  until  the  ]\Iantra 
to  which  they  belong  has  been  discovered. 

12.  On  the  throwing  into  the  fire  of  the  Barhis,  comp.  Katyayana 
III,  8. 


I  KAiVDA,   3  KAiVDIKA,  Q.  273 


Kaa'dika  3. 

1.  To  six  persons  the  Arghya  reception  is  due: 
to  a  teacher,  to  an  officiating  priest,  to  the  father-in- 
law,  to  the  king,  to  a  friend,  to  a  Snataka. 

2.  They  should  honour  them  (with  the  Arghya 
reception)  once  a  year. 

3.  But  officiating  priests  (they  should  receive) 
whenever  they  intend  to  perform  a  sacrifice. 

4.  Having  ordered  a  seat  to  be  got  (for  the  guest), 
he  says,  '  Well,  sir  !  sit  down !  We  will  do  honour 
to  you,  sir  ! ' 

5.  They  get  for  him  a  couch  (of  grass)  to  sit  down 
on,  another  for  the  feet,  water  for  washing  the  feet, 
the  Argha  water,  water  for  sipping,  and  the  honey- 
mixture,  i.  e.  curds,  honey,  and  ghee,  in  a  brass 
vessel  with  a  brass  cover. 

6.  Another  person  three  times  announces  (to  the 
guest)  the  couch  and  the  other  things  (when  they 
are  offered  to  him). 

7.  He  accepts  the  couch. 

8.  He  sits  down  thereon  with  (the  verse),  '  I  am 
the  highest  one  among  my  people,  as  the  sun  among 
the  thunder-bolts.  Here  I  tread  on  whosoever 
infests  me.' 

9.  With  the  feet  (he  treads)  on  the  other  (bundle 
of  grass). 

3,  I.  On   vaivahya,  which    1   have   translated   'father-in-law,' 
comp.  the  note  on  ^ankhayana  II,  15,  i. 

2,  3.  Comp.  below,  SGtra  31,  and  6aukhayana-Gr«'hya  II,  15,  10. 
6.  Ajvalayana-Gr/liya  I,  24,  7. 

8.  I  have  translated    according    to  the  reading  of  Ajvalayana 
(1.1.  §  8),  vidyutdrn  instead  of  udyatam. 

9,  10.  There  is  no  doubt  that  these  Siitras  should  be  divided 

[29]  T 


2  74  PARASKARA-G2?/HYA-S'UTRA. 


10.  When  he  is  seated  on  the  couch,  he  washes 
(for  his  guest)  the  left  foot  and  then  the  right  foot. 

1 1.  If  (the  host)  is  a  Brahma/^a,  the  right  first. 

12.  (He  does  so)  with  (the  formula),  'The  milk 
of  Viraf  art  thou.  The  milk  of  Viraf  may  I  obtain. 
(May)  the  milk  of  Padya  Vira^  (dwell)  in  me.' 

13.  He  accepts  the  Arghya  water  with  (the 
words),  '  Waters  are  ye.  May  I  obtain  through  you 
all  my  wishes.' 

14.  Pouring  it  out  he  recites  over  (the  waters  the 
formula),  '  To  the  ocean  I  send  you  ;  go  back  to 
your  source.  Unhurt  be  our  men.  May  my  sap 
not  be  shed.' 

15.  He  sips  water  with  (the  formula),  'Thou 
camest  to  me  with  glory.  Unite  me  with  lustre. 
Make  me  beloved  by  all  creatures,  the  lord  of  cattle, 
unhurtful  for  the  bodies.' 

16.  With  (the  formula),  'With  Mitra  s '  (Va^. 
S2im\\.,  Ka;^va5akha  H,  3,  4)  he  looks  at  the  Ma- 
dhuparka. 

1 7.  With  (the  formula),  '  By  the  impulse  of  the 
god  SavitW '  (Va^.  Sawh.  1. 1.)  he  accepts  it 

18.  Taking  it  into  his  left  hand  he  stirs  it  about 

thus :  padayor  anyaw.  vish/ara  asinaya  savya?«  pada/zz  prakshalya 
dakshiwaw  prakshalayati.  Thus  it  is  said  in  the  Khadira-Gr/hya  : 
vish/aram  Sstirya  .  .  .  adhyasita.  padayor  dvitiyaya  (scil.  riki)  dvau 
/tet.     Gobhila  has  the  Sutra :  padayor  anyam. 

11.  The  words  brahmawa^-  kel  refer  to  the  host,  as  the  com- 
parison of  Ajvalayana  I,  24,  11,  shows. 

12.  Comp.  A^valayana  1.  1.  §  22;  ^ahkhayana  III,  7,  5. 

13.  The  play  on  words  (apas  =  waters,  avapnavani  =  may  I 
obtain)  is  untranslatable. 

16.  Ai'valayana-Gr^'hya  I,  24,  14. 

17.  Ai'valayana-Gr/hya  I,  24,  15. 

18.  Ajvalayana-Gnhya  L  1.  Annaxane  instead  of  annaj-ane  is 
simply  a  mistake  in  spelling. 


I  KANDA,    3  KAiViJIKA,  27.  275 

three  times  with  the  fourth  liiiLrer  of  his  ria;ht  hand 
with  (the  formula),  '  Adoration  to  the  brown-faced 
One.  What  has  been  damaged  in  thee,  when  the 
food  was  eaten,  that  I  cut  off  from  thee.' 

19.  And  with  the  fourth  finger  and  the  thumb  he 
spirts  away  (some  part  of  the  Madhuparka)  three 
times. 

20.  He  partakes  of  it  three  times  with  (the 
formula),  '  What  is  the  honied,  highest  form  of 
honey,  and  the  enjoyment  of  food,  by  that  honied, 
highest  form  of  honey,  and  by  that  enjoyment  of 
food  may  I  become  highest,  honied,  and  an  enjoyer 
of  food.' 

21.  Or  with  (the  verses)  that  contain  the  word 
'  honey,'  verse  by  verse. 

22.  Let  him  give  the  remainder  (of  the  Madhu- 
parka) to  a  son  or  a  pupil  who  is  sitting  to  the  north. 

23.  Or  let  him  eat  the  whole  of  it  (himself). 

24.  Or  he  should  pour  out  (the  remainder)  to  the 
east,  at  an  unfrequented  spot. 

25.  Having  sipped  water,  he  touches  his  bodily 
organs  with  (the  formula),  '  May  speech  dwell  in 
my  mouth,  breath  in  my  nose,  sight  in  my  eyes, 
hearing  in  my  ears,  strength  in  my  arms,  vigour  in 
my  thighs.  May  my  limbs  be  unhurt,  may  my  body 
be  united  with  my  body  ! ' 

26.  When  (the  guest)  has  sipped  water,  (the 
host),  holding  a  butcher's  knife,  says  to  him  three 
times,  '  A  cow  ! ' 

27.  He  replies,  '  The  mother  of  the  Rudras,  the 
daughter  of  the  Vasus,  the  sister  of  the  Adityas,  the 

21.  These  are  the  three  verses,  Va^.  Sawhita  XIII,  27-29. 

22.  Analayana-Gr/hya  I,  24,  25.  23.  Ajvalayana  1. 1.  §  27. 
24.  Ai'valayana  1. 1.  §  26. 

T  2 


276  PARASKARA-Gi^/HYA-StjTRA. 

navel  of  immortality.  To  the  people  who  understand 
me,  I  say,  "  Do  not  kill  the  guiltless  cow,  which  is 
Aditi."  I  kill  my  sin  and  N.N.'s  sin,' — thus,  if  he 
chooses  to  have  it  killed. 

28.  But  if  he  chooses  to  let  it  loose,  he  should 
say,  '  My  sin  and  N.N.'s  sin  has  been  killed.  Om ! 
Let  it  loose !    Let  it  eat  grass  ! ' 

29.  But  let  the  Argha  not  be  without  flesh. 

30.  On  the  occasion  of  a  sacrifice  and  of  a  wed- 
ding let  (the  guest)  say,  '  Make  it  (ready).' 

31.  Even  if  he  performs  more  than  one  Soma 
sacrifice  during  one  year,  let  only  priests  who  have 
received  (from  him)  the  Arghya  reception,  officiate 
for  him,  not  such  who  have  not  received  it ;  for  this 
has  been  prescribed  in  the  .^'ruti. 


KAiVDIKA    4. 

1.  There  are  four  kinds  of  Pakaya^?/as,  viz.  the 
huta,  the  ahuta,  the  prahuta,  and  the  prai-ita. 

2.  On  the  following  five  occasions,  viz.  the  w^ed- 
ding,  the  tonsure  (of  the  child's  head),  the  initiation 
(of  the  BrahmaMrin),  the  cutting  of  the  beard,  and 
the  parting  of  the  hair,  (on  these  occasions)  in  the 
outer  hall, 

3.  On  a  place  that  has  been  smeared  (with  cow- 
dung),  which  is  elevated,  and  which  has  been  sprin- 
kled (with  water),  he  establishes  the  fire, 

29,  30.  These  Sutras  are  identical  uith  two  Siatras  in  the  -5'ahkha- 
yana-G/Vhya  II,  15,  2,  3.  See  the  note  there.  It  seems  to  me  inad- 
missible to  translate  §  29,  as  Professor  Stenzler  does:  Der  Argha 
darf  aber  nicht  immer  ohne  Fleisch  sein. 

31.  -S'ahkhayana-Grz'hya  II,  15,  10. 

4.  1-5.  See  6'ahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  5,  1-5  and  the  notes. 


I  KAiVDA,  4   KAiVDIKA,    I  3.  277 

4.  Having  kindled  it  by  attrition,  according  to 
some  teachers,  at  his  marriage.     ' 

5.  During  the  northern  course  of  the  sun,  in  the 
time  of  the  increasing  moon,  on  an  auspicious  day  he 
shall  seize  the  hand  of  a  girl, 

6.  U  nder  one  of  the  (three  times)  three  Nakshatras 
of  which  a  constellation  designated  as  Uttara  is  first, 

7.  Or  under  (the  Nakshatras)  Svati,  M/'/gai'iras, 
or  Rohi?^i. 

8.  Three  (wives  are  allowed)  to  a  Brahma;/a,  in 
accordance  with  the  order  of  the  castes, 

9.  Two  to  a  Ra^anya, 

10.  One  to  a  Vaii'ya, 

11.  One  6'udra  wife  besides  to  all,  according  to 
some  (teachers),  without  using  Mantras  (at  the 
ceremonies  of  wedding,  &c.). 

12.  He  then  makes  her  put  on  the  (under)  gar- 
ment with  (the  verse),  '  Live  to  old  age  ;  put  on  the 
garment !  Be  a  protectress  of  the  human  tribes 
against  imprecation.  Live  a  hundred  years  full  of 
vigour ;  clothe  thyself  in  wealth  and  children. 
Blessed  with  life  put  on  this  garment ! ' 

13.  Then  the  upper  garment  with  (the  verse), 
'  The  goddesses  who  spun,  who  wove,  who  spread 

6.  I.  e.  under  the  constellations  Uttaraphalguni  or  the  two  con- 
stellations following  it,  UttarashiW/iil  or  the  two  constell  "itions  follow- 
ing it,  Ultarabhadrapada  or  the  two  constellations  following  it. 

12.  The  words  of  the  Mantra  bhava  kr/sh/inam  abhijasti- 
pava  no  doubt  are  an  imitation  of  Rig-veda  I,  76,  3,  bhava  ya^Tta- 
nam  abhi^astipava  (where  the  w-ords  are  applied  to  Agni).  Thus 
the  use  of  the  masculine  abhijastipava  with  reference  to  the  bride 
may  be  accounted  for. 

13.  Comp.  Atharva-veda  XIV,  i,  45.  This  parallel  passage 
shows  us  the  way  to  correct  the  text  of  this  very  much  corrupted 
INIantra. 


278  paraskara-g/?7hya-sOtra. 

out,  and  who  drew  out  the  threads  on  both  sides, 
may  those  goddesses  clothe  thee  for  the  sake  of 
long  life.     Blessed  with  life  put  on  this  garment ! ' 

14.  (The  bride's  father?)  anoints  the  two,  (while 
the  bridegroom  recites  the  verse,)  '  May  the  Vii"ve 
devas,  may  the  waters  unite  our  hearts.  May 
Matari-s-van,  may  Dhatr^,  may  Desh/ri  (the  '  show- 
ing '  goddess)  join  us.' 

15.  (The  bridegroom),  having  accepted  her  who  is 
given  away  by  her  father,  takes  her  and  goes  away 
(from  that  place)  with  (the  verse),  '  When  thou 
wanderest  far  away  with  thy  heart  to  the  regions  of 
the  world  like  the  wind,  may  the  gold-winged 
Vaikar;^a  (i.e.  the  wind  ?)  grant  that  thy  heart  may 
dwell  with  me!    N.N.!' 

16.  He  then  makes  them  look  at  each  other 
(while  the  bridegroom  repeats  the  verses),  '  With  no 
evil  eye,  not  bringing  death  to  thy  husband,  bring 
luck  to  the  cattle,  be  full  of  joy  and  vigour.  Give 
birth  to  heroes  ;  be  godly  and  friendly.  Bring  us 
luck,  to  men  and  animals. 

'  Soma  has  acquired  (thee)  first  (as  his  wife)  ;  after 
him  the  Gandharva  has  acquired  (thee).  Thy  third 
husband  is  Agni ;  the  fourth  is  thy  human  husband. 

14.  The  literal  translation  would  be:  '  He  salves  together  (sama?!- 
^ayati)  the  two  .  .  .  May  the  waters  salve  together  (sama;;^antu) 
our  hearts.'  It  was  a  real  anointing  of  the  bridegroom  and  of  the 
bride,  that  took  place,  and  we  cannot  accept  Professor  Stenzler's 
translation  (based  on  (9ayarama's  note :  sama7\o-ayati  parasparaw 
sammukhikaroti),  by  which  the  proper  signification  of  sama^l^ayati 
is  effaced:  Dann  heisst  (der  Vater  der  Braut)  sie  beide  zusam- 
mentreten.  See  the  note  on  6'ankhayana-Gr/hya  I,  12,  5.  The 
parallel  passage  of  the  Khadira-Gr/hya  runs  thus :  aparewagnim 
auduko  gatva  pa«igraha?«  murdhany  avasi«/('ed,  vadhuw  kd.,  saman- 
^antv  ity  avasikta/;. 

16.  Comp.  Rig-veda  X,  85,  44.  40.  41.  37. 


I  KANDA,    5  KAiV/)IKA,   7.  279 

'  Soma  has  given  thee  to  the  Gandharva ;  the 
Gandharva  has  given  thee  to  Agni.  Wealth  and 
children  Agni  has  given  to  me,  and  besides  this  wife. 

'  Pushan  !  Lead  her  to  us,  the  highly  blessed  one. 
Sa  na  uru  u-<ratt  vihara,  yasyam  usa.nt3./i  praharama 
stp3.7n  )asyam  u  kdma  bahavo  nivish/ya  (nivish/i  ?) 

iti; 

Kaa^dika  5. 

1.  Having  led  her  around  the  fire,  keeping  it  on 
his  right  side,  according  to  some  (teachers) — 

2.  Having  pushed  with  his  right  foot  a  bundle  of 
grass  or  a  mat  to  the  west  of  the  fire,  he  sits  down. 

3.  While  (the  bride)  touches  him,  (the  following 
oblations  are  made  :)  the  two  Aghara  oblations,  the 
two  A^^a  portions,  the  Mahavyahmis,  the  general 
expiation,  the  Pr^^apatya  oblation,  and  the  Svish- 
/ak;'/t. 

4.  These  are  regular  (oblations)  at  every  sacrifice. 

5.  The   Svish/akm  comes  before  the  Mahavya- 

A 

hmis,  if  the  sacrificial  food  is  different  from  A^^rya. 

6.  The  place  for  the  insertion  (of  the  peculiar 
oblations  belonging  to  the  different  sacrifices)  is  the 
interval  between  the  general  expiation  and  the 
oblation  to  Pra^apati. 

7.  At  the  wedding  (he  may  make  oblations)  with 
the  R4sh/rabh/7't  formulas  (i.  e.  the  formulas  pro- 
curing royal  power),  if  he  likes,  and  with  the  C'aya 
and  Abhyatana  formulas  (i.e.  the  formulas  procuring 

5,  3.  See  the  note  on  ^ankhayana-Gr/hya  I,  9,  12. 

6.  See  the  note  1.  1. — I  have  altered  the  division  of  SQiras  6  and 
7,  so  as  to  draw  the  word  vivilhe  to  the  seventh  Sfitra.  The  rule 
in  §  6  has  an  entirely  general  character ;  the  formulas  stated  in  §  7 
are  given  for  the  particular  occasion  of  the  vivaha  ceremony. 


28o  paraskara-g/?7Hya-sOtra. 

victory,  and  aiming  [at  the  hostile  powers]),  if  he 
knows  them — 

8.  Because  it  has  been  said,  '  By  what  sacrifice  he 
wishes  to  attain  success.' 

9.  (The  6^aya  formulas  run  thus)  :  '  Thought  and 
thinking.  Intention  and  intending.  The  understood 
and  understanding.  The  mind  and  the  ^Sakvari 
(verses).  The  new  moon  and  the  full  moon.  Brzhat 
and  Rathantara. 

'  Pra/apati,  the  powerful  one  in  victorious  battles, 
has  given  victories  (or,  the  6^aya  formulas)  to  manly 
Indra.  To  him  all  subjects  bowed  down  ;  he  has 
become  powerful  and  worthy  of  sacrifice.     Svaha  ! ' 

10.  (The  Abhyatana  formulas  run  thus) :  '  May 
Agni,  the  lord  of  beings,  protect  me.  May  Indra, 
(the  lord)  of  the  noblest,  Yama,  of  the  earth,  Vayu, 
of  the  air,  the  Sun,  of  heaven,  the  Moon,  of  the 
Nakshatras,  Br/haspati,  of  the  Brahman,  Mitra,  of 
truth,  Varu;2a,  of  the  waters,  the  sea,  of  the  rivers, 
food,  the  lord  of  royalty,  protect  me.  May  Soma,  (the 
lord)  of  herbs,  Savitrz,  of  impulses,  Rudra,  of  cattle, 
Tvash^ri,  of  forms,  Vlsh/m,  of  mountains,  the  Maruts, 
the   lords   of  hosts,  protect  me.     May  the  fathers, 

8.  Taittiriya  Sa;«hita  III,  4,  6,  i  :  '  By  what  sacrifice  he  wishes 
to  attain  success,  at  that  (sacrifice)  he  should  make  oblations  with 
them  (i.e.  with  the  Abhyatana  INIantras) :  then  he  will  attain  success 
by  that  sacrifice,' 

9.  Instead  of  sa  i  havya^  we  ought  to  read  probably  sa  u 
havya^,  or,  as  the  Taitt.  Sa»;h.  Ill,  4,  4,  i  gives,  sa  hi  havya^. 
The  Maitr.  Sa;;/h.  has  vihavya//  (II,  10,  2). 

10.  The  words,  'in  this  power  of  holiness  .  .  .  svaha!'  are  to  be 
added  to  each  member  of  the  whole  formula  (comp.  Atharva-veda 
V,  24).  The  expressions  'fathers'  and  '  grandfathers,' which  are 
twice  identically  repeated  in  the  translation,  stand  the  first  time  for 
pitara>^  pitamaha,^,  and  then  for  tatas  tatamaha//  of  the  San- 
skrit text. 


I  KANDA,  6  KAA^ZJIKA,    I.  28  I 

the  grandfathers,  the  former,  the  later,  the  fathers, 
the  grandfathers  protect  me  here  in  this  power  of 
hoHness,  in  this  worldly  power,  in  this  prayer,  in  this 
Purohitaship,  in  this  sacrifice,  in  this  invocation  of 
the  orods.     Svaha  ! ' — this  is  added  each  time. 

11.  (He  then  makes  other  oblations  with  the  fol- 
lowing texts  :) 

'  May  Agni  come  hither,  the  first  of  gods.  May 
he  release  the  offspring  of  this  wife  from  the  fetter 
of  death.  That  may  this  king  Varu;?a  grant,  that 
this  wife  may  not  weep  over  distress  (falling  to  her 
lot)  through  her  sons.     Svaha  ! 

'  May  Agni  Garhapatya  protect  this  woman.  May 
he  lead  her  offspring  to  old  age.  With  fertile  womb 
may  she  be  the  mother  of  living  children.  May  she 
experience  delight  in  her  sons.     Svaha ! 

'  Make,  Agni,  all  ways  of  heaven  and  earth 
blissful  to  us,  O  thou  who  art  worthy  of  sacrifices. 
What  is  great,  born  on  this  (earth),  and  praised,  (born) 
in  heaven,  that  bestow  on  us,  rich  treasures.  Svah^ ! 

'  Come  hither,  showing  us  an  easy  path.  Give  us 
bright,  undecaylng  life.  May  death  go  away ;  may 
immortality  come  to  us.  May  Vivasvat's  son  make 
us  safe  from  danger.     Svaha  ! ' 

12.  And  the  (verse),  'Another  way,  O  death' 
(Vko-  S^mh.  XXXV,  7),  after  the  eating  (of  the 
remnant  of  the  sacrificial  food),  according  to  some 
(teachers). 

KAiVDiKA    6. 

I.  The  girl's  brother  pours  out  of  his  joined  hands 
into  her  joined  hands  fried  grain  mixed  with  ^'ami 
leaves. 

6,  I.  .Sahkhayana  I,  13,  15;  Ajvalayana  I,  7,  8. 


282  PARASKARA-G/LTHYA-stjTRA. 

2.  This  she  sacrifices,  with  firmly  joined  hands, 
standing,  (while  the  bridegroom  recites  the  verses,) 

'  To  the  god  Aryaman  the  girls  have  made  sacri- 
fice, to  Agni ;  may  he,  god  Aryaman,  loosen  us  from 
here,  and  not  from  the  husband.     Sv^ha ! 

'  This  woman,  strewing  grains,  prays  thus,  "  May 
my  husband  live  long  ;  may  my  relations  be  pros- 
perous."    Svaha ! 

*  These  grains  I  throw  into  the  fire  :  may  this 
bring  prosperity  to  thee,  and  may  it  unite  me  with 
thee.     May  Agni  grant  us  that.     N.  N,  !     Svaha ! ' 

3.  He  then  seizes  her  right  hand  together  with 
the  thumb,  with  (the  verses), 

'  I  seize  thy  hand  for  the  sake  of  happiness,  that 
thou  mayst  live  to  old  age  with  me,  thy  husband. 
Bhaga,  Aryaman,  Savitr^,  Purandhi,  the  gods  have 
given  thee  to  me  that  we  may  rule  our  house. 

*  This  am  I,  that  art  thou  ;  that  art  thou,  this  am  I. 
The  Saman  am  I,  the  Rik  thou  ;  the  heaven  I,  the 
earth  thou. 

'  Come  !  Let  us  marry.  Let  us  unite  our  sperm. 
Let  us  beget  offspring.  Let  us  acquire  many  sons, 
and  may  they  reach  old  age. 

'  Loving,  bright,  with  genial  minds  may  we  see  a 
hundred  autumns,  may  we  live  a  hundred  autumns, 
may  we  hear  a  hundred  autumns  ! ' 

Kaatdika  7. 

I.  He  then  makes  her  tread  on  a  stone,  to  the 
north  of  the  fire,  with  her  right  foot,  (repeating  the 

2.  -S'Shkhayana  1,  18,  3;   14,  i  ;  A^-valayana  I,  7,  13. 

3.  Rig-veda  X,  85,  36;  ^Sahkhayana  I,  13,  4,  &c. 

7,  I.  Aj'valayana-Grzhya  I,  7,  7;    6'ahkhayana-Gn'hya  I,  13,  12. 


I  KAA'DA,    8   KAiVDIKA,    I.  283 


verse,)  '  Tread  on  this  stone  ;  like  a  stone  be  firm. 
Tread  the  foes  down  ;  turn  away  the  enemies.' 

2.  He  then  sings  a  song:  '  Sarasvati !  Promote 
this  (our  undertaking),  O  gracious  one,  bountiful 
one,  thou  whom  we  sing  first  of  all  that  is,  in  whom 
what  is,  has  been  born,  in  whom  this  whole  world 
dwells — that  song  I  will  sing  to-day  which  will  be 
the  highest  glory  of  women.' 

3.  They  then  go  round  (the  fire)  with  (the  verse, 
which  the  bridegroom  repeats,) 

'  To  thee  they  have  in  the  beginning  carried  round 
SCirya  (the  Sun-bride)  with  the  bridal  procession. 
Mayst  thou  give  back,  Agni,  to  the  husbands  the 
wife  together  with  offspring.' 

4.  Thus  (the  same  rites  are  repeated)  twice  again, 
beginning  from  the  fried  grain. 

5.  The  fourth  time  she  pours  the  whole  fried 
grain  by  the  neb  of  a  basket  (into  the  fire)  with  (the 
words),  '  To  Bhaga  svaha  ! ' 

6.  After  he  has  led  her  round  (the  fire)  three 
times,  and  has  sacrificed  the  oblation  to  Pra^apati — 

KAiVZJIKA   8. 

I.  Then  he  makes  her  step  forward  in  a  northern 
direction  seven  steps  (with  the  words), 

'  One  for  sap,  two  for  juice,  three  for  the  pros- 
pering of  wealth,  four  for  comfort,  five  for  cattle,  six 
for  the  seasons.  Friend  !  be  with  seven  steps  (united 
to  me).     So  be  thou  devoted  to  me.' 

4.  See  chap.  6,  i. 

5.  Comp.  Khadira-Gr/'hya  I,  3  :  jfirpe/za  i-ish/an  agnav  opya  pra- 
gudi/'im  utkramayet.     See  also  Gobhila  II,  2  ;  Ajvalayana  I,  7,  14. 

8,  I.  The  parallel  texts  have  sakha  and  saptapadi  for  sakhe 
and  saptapada  of  Paraskara. 


284  PARASKARA-GiJ/IIYA-SUTRA. 

2.  (The  words),  'May  Vish;m  lead  thee '  are  added 
to  every  part  (of  the  formula). 

3.  From  the  moment  of  their  going  away  a  man 
who  holds  a  water-pot  on  his  shoulder,  stands  silent 
to  the  south  of  the  fire  ; 

4.  To  the  north,  (according  to  the  opinion)  of 
some  (teachers). 

5.  From  that  (pot)  he  sprinkles  her  (with  water) 
on  her  head  (with  the  formula), 

'  The  blessed,  the  most  blessed  waters,  the  peace- 
ful ones,  the  most  peaceful  ones,  may  they  give 
medicine  to  thee  ' — 

6.  And  with  the  three  (verses),  'Ye  waters  are' 
(Va^.  Sa;;^!.  XI,  50-52). 

7.  He  then  makes  her  look  at  the  sun  with  (the 
verse),  'That  eye'  (Va^^.  Sa?;2h.  XXXVI,  24). 

8.  He  then  touches  her  heart,  (reaching)  over  her 
right  shoulder,  with  (the  words),  '  Into  my  will  I  take 
thy  heart ;  thy  mind  shall  follow  my  mind  ;  in  my 
word  thou  shalt  rejoice  with  all  thy  heart ;  may 
Pra^apati  join  thee  to  me.' 

9.  He  then  recites  over  her  (the  verse), '  Auspicious 
ornaments  does  this  woman  wear.  Come  up  to  her 
and  behold  her.  Having  brought  luck  to  her,  go 
away  back  to  your  houses.' 

10.  A    strong    man   snatches    her    up    from    the 


3.  See  above,  I,  4,  15.  The  water  mentioned  here  is  desig- 
nated as  stheya  apa// ;  see  ^ahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  13,  5  seq.; 
Gr^liya-sawzgraha  II,  26.  35. 

8.  See  the  note  on  6'ankhayana-Gn'hya  II,  3,  3. 

9.  Rig-veda  X,  85,  33. 

10.  The  Atharva-veda  (XX,  127,  12)  has  the  reading  pra 
^ayadhvam  instead  of  ni  shidantu  (in  the  first  Pada);  the  second 
hemistich  there  runs  thus  :  iho  sahasradakshi/zo  ^pi  Pusha  ni  shidati. 


I  KANDA,    8  KAiVDIKA,    1 9.  285 

ground,  and  sets  her  down  in  an  eastern  or  nortliern 
direction  in  an  out-of-the-way  house,  on  a  red  bull's 
hide,  with  (the  words), 

'  Here  may  the  cows  sit  down,  here  the  horses, 
here  the  men.  Here  may  sacrifice  with  a  thousand 
gifts,  here  may  Pushan  sit  down.' 

1 1.  And  what  (the  people  in)  the  village  tell  them, 
that  they  should  do. 

1 2.  For  it  is  said,  '  At  weddings  and  funerals  he 
shall  enter  the  village  ; ' 

13.  (And)  because  the  ^'ruti  says,  '  Therefore  on 
these  two  occasions  authority  rests  with  the  village.' 

14.  To  the  teacher  (who  helps  at  the  \vedding 
ceremonies)  he  gives  an  optional  gift. 

15.  A  cow  is  the  optional  gift  to  be  given  by  a 
Brahma7za, 

16.  A  village  by  a  Ra^anya, 

1 7.  A  horse  by  a  Vaij-ya. 

18.  A  hundred  (cows)  with  a  chariot  (he  gives  to 
a  father)  who  has  only  daughters. 

19.  After  sunset  he  shows  her  the  firm  star  (i.e. 
the  polar-star)  with  (the  words), 

*  Firm  art  thou  ;  I  see  thee,  the  firm  one.  Firm 
be  thou  with  me,  O  thriving  one  ! 

12.  I  have  ventured,  differing  from  Professor  Stenzler  {' Bei  der 
Hochzeit  und  auf  der  Leichenstatte  richte  er  sich  nach  dem 
Dorfe'),  to  translate  pravijatat  according  to  its  original  meaning. 
Could  this  possibly  be  a  rule  for  Vanaprasthas  who  live  in  the 
forest  and  enter  the  village  only  on  exceptional  occasions  ? 

15-17.  6'ahkhayana  I,  14,  13  seqq. 

18.  iSahkhayana  I,  14,  16.     Comp.  the  note  there. 

19.  In  the  text  the  word  '  firm'  (dhruva)  is  neuter  in  the  two 
first  instances,  and  refers  to  the  '  firm  star ; '  the  third  time  it  is 
feminine,  referring  to  the  bride.  Paraskara  has  the  vocative 
poshye  for  the  nominative  poshya  of  .Sahkhayana  I,  17,  3;  comp. 
above,  §  i  sakhe  for  sakha. 


2  86  PARASKARA-Gi27HYA-StjTRA. 

'  To  me  Brz'haspati  has  given  thee ;  obtaining 
offspring  through  me,  thy  husband,  Hve  with  me  a 
hundred  autumns.' 

20.  If  she  does  not  see  (the  polar-star),  let  her  say- 
notwithstanding,  '  I  see/  &c. 

21.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  they  shall 
eat  no  saline  food ;  they  shall  sleep  on  the  ground  ; 
through  one  year  they  shall  refrain  from  conjugal 
intercourse,  or  through  a  period  of  twelve  nights,  or 
of  six  nights,  or  at  least  of  three  nights. 

Kandika  9. 

1.  Beginning  from  the  wedding  the  worshipping  of 
the  Aupasana  (i.  e.  sacred  domestic)  fire  (is  prescribed). 

2.  After  sunset  and  before  sunrise  (the  fire  should 

21.  6'ahkhayana  I,  17,  5.  6  ;  Ajvalayana  I,  8,  10.  11. 

9,  I.  The  expression  which  I  have  translated  'beginning  from 
the  wedding'  is  upayamanaprabhrz'ti.  The  Indian  commen- 
tators and  Professor  Stenzler  explain  the  term  upayamana  as 
implying  a  reference  to  the  Sutra  I,  i,  4,  upayamanan  kujan 
a  day  a  ('having  taken  up  the  Kusa.  blades  with  which  he  is  to 
take  hold  of  the  lower  surface  of  the  A^ya  pot').  'The  worship- 
ping of  the  domestic  fire,'  says  Stenzler,  following  the  native 
authorities,  '  consists  in  the  rites  which  have  been  prescribed 
above  (I,  i,  4),  beginning  from  the  word  upayamana,  i.e.  in 
the  taking  up  of  the  Kuxa  blades,  the  putting  of  wood  on  the 
fire,  the  sprinkling  and  sacrificing.  As  the  rites  preceding  that 
word,  such  as  the  preparation  of  the  sacrificial  spoon  (I,  i,  3),  are 
hereby  excluded,  the  oblations  are  offered  with  the  hand.'  It 
would  be  easy  to  show  that  the  upayamana  A  ku^a/z  have 
nothing  at  all  to  do  with  the  regular  morning  and  evening  obla- 
tions of  which  these  Siitras  treat.  The  comparison  of  A^valayana- 
Gr/hya  I,  9,  i  (see  also  Manu  III,  67,  &c.)  leaves  no  doubt  that 
upayamana  is  to  be  understood  here  as  derived  from  upayaX'X7;ati 
in  its  very  frequent  meaning  of  marrying.  I  have  translated  the 
Sfitra  accordingly. 

2.  On  the  different  statements  of  Vedic  authors  with  regard  to 
the  proper  time  of  the  morning  oblations,  see  Weber's  Indische 
Studien,  X,  329. 


I  KANDA,    lO  KAiVKIKA,   2.  287 


be  worshipped)  with  (oblations  of)  curds,  (rice)  grains, 
or  fried  crrains. 

3.  (He  sacrifices)  in  the  evening  with  (the  for- 
mulas), '  To  Agni  svaha  !     To  Pra^apati  svaha  ! ' 

4.  In  the  morning  with  (the  formulas),  '  To  Surya 
svaha  !     To  Pra^apati  svaha  ! ' 

5.  '  Men  are  both  Mitra  and  Varu^^a  ;  men  are  both 
the  A^vins  ;  men  are  Indra  and  Surya.  May  a  man 
be  born  in  me  !  Again  svaha  ! ' — with  (this  verse)  a 
wife  who  desires  to  conceive,  (should  offer)  the  first 
(oblation). 

KAiVDIKA   10. 

1.  If  (in  the  chariot)  of  a  king  the  axle  breaks,  or 
somethincr  that  is  bound  loosens  itself,  or  the  chariot 
is  overturned,  or  if  another  accident  happens,  or  (if 
one  of  these  same  things  occurs)  when  a  bride  is 
carried  home,  he  establishes  the  same  fire,  prepares 
A^ya,  and  sacrifices  (two  A^ya  oblations)  separately 
with  the  two  Mantras,  '  Here  is  joy'  (Va^.  Sa^;^h. 

VIII,  51a). 

2.  Having  got  ready  another  chariot,  he  (i.e.  the 
Purohita  or  the  bridegroom)  should  make  the  king 
or  the  woman  sit  down  thereon  with  (the  formula), 
*  In  royal  power'  down  to  the  word,'  in  sacrifice' 


5.  Comp.  5ahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  1 7,  9,  where  the  reading  and 
the  construction  slightly  differ.  Tlie  words  puna//  svaha  at  the 
end  of  the  Mantra  seem  to  be  corrupt ;  the  frequent  repetition  of 
pu  maws  am  and  puman  through  the  whole  verse  suggests  the 
correction  pu7«se  svaha,  or  pumbhyaA  svaha,  'to  the  man 
svaha  ! '  or  '  to  the  men  svaha  I' 

10,  I.  '  The  same  fire"  is  the  senagni  (the  fire  belonging  to  the 
army)  in  the  case  of  the  king,  the  nuptial  fire  in  the  second  case. 
The  two  Mantras  are  the  two  parts  of  Va^.  Sawh.  VIII,  51  a. 


2  88  PARASKARA-Gi^HYA-StjTRA. 

(Vaf.  Sa;;/h.  XX,  lo),  and  with  the  (verse),  '  I  have 
seized  thee'  (ibid.  XII,  ii). 

3.  The  two  beasts  that  draw  the  chariot,  consti- 
tute the  sacrificial  fee. 

4.  (This  is)  the  penance. 

5.  Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahmai^^as. 

KAiVDIKA   11. 

1.  In  the  fourth  night  (after  the  wedding),  towards 
morning,  (the  husband)  establishes  the  fire  within 
(the  house),  assigns  his  seat,  to  the  south  (of  it), 
to  the  Brahman,  places  a  pot  of  water  to  the  north, 
cooks  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  sacrifices  the  two 
A^ya  portions,  and  makes  (other)  A^ya  oblations 
with  (the  following  Mantras)  : 

2.  '  Agni !  Expiation  !  Thou  art  the  expiation  of 
the  gods.  I,  the  Brahma/^a,  entreat  thee,  desirous 
of  protection.  The  substance  which  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  death  to  her  husband,  that  extirpate  in 
her.     Svaha ! 

*  Vayu  !  Expiation  !  Thou  art  the  expiation  of 
the  gods.  I,  the  Brahma;2a,  entreat  thee,  desirous 
of  protection.  The  substance  which  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  death  to  her  children,  that  extirpate  in 
her.     Svaha ! 

'  Stirya  !  Expiation  !  Thou  art  the  expiation  of 
the  gods.  I,  the  Brahma;^a,  entreat  thee,  desirous 
of  protection.  The  substance  which  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  death  to  cattle,  that  extirpate  in  her. 
Sv^ha ! 

*  A"andra  !  Expiation  !  Thou  art  the  expiation 
of  the  gods.     I,  the  Brahma?^a,  entreat  thee,  desirous 


11,  2.  Comp.  -Sahkhayana-Gr^'hya  I,  18,  3. 


I  KANDA,     II    KAiVDiKA,  8.  289 

of  protection.  The  substance  which  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  destruction  to  the  house,  that  extirpate 
in  her.     Svaha ! 

'  Gandharva  !  Expiation  !  Thou  art  the  expiation 
of  the  gods.  I,  the  Brahma;m,  entreat  thee,  desirous 
of  protection.  The  substance  which  dwells  in  her 
that  brings  destruction  to  fame,  that  extirpate  in  her. 
Svaha  ! ' 

3.  He  sacrifices  of  the  mess  of  cooked  food  with 
(the  words),  '  To  Pra^apati  svaha  ! ' 

4.  Each  time  after  he  has  sacrificed,  he  pours  the 
remainder  of  the  oblations  into  the  water-pot,  and 
out  of  that  (pot)  he  besprinkles  her  on  her  head  with 
(the  words),  '  The  evil  substance  which  dwells  in  thee 
that  brings  death  to  thy  husband,  death  to  thy  chil- 
dren, death  to  cattle,  destruction  to  the  house, 
destruction  to  fame,  that  I  change  into  one  that 
brings  death  to  thy  paramour.  Thus  live  with  me 
to  old  age,  N.N.!' 

5.  He  then  makes  her  eat  the  mess  of  cooked 
food  with  (the  words),  '  I  add  breath  to  thy  breath, 
bones  to  thy  bones,  flesh  to  thy  flesh,  skin  to  thy  skin.' 

6.  Therefore  one  should  not  wish  for  sport  with 
the  wife  of  a  6rotriya  who  knows  this  ;  for  the  other 
one  is  a  person  who  knows  this  (and  is  thereby 
enabled  to  destroy  a  lover  of  his  wife). 

7.  After  he  has  led  her  to  his  house,  he  should 
cohabit  with  her  after  each  of  her  monthly  periods, 

8.  Or  as  he  likes,  because  it  has  been  said,  '  May 
we  have  intercourse  as  we  like,  until  a  child  is  born.' 

4.  The  water-pot  is  that  mentioned  in  Sfitra  i. 
6.  6'atapatha  Brahmawa  I,  6,  i,  18  ;  XIV,  9,  4,  11  (  =  Br/liad 
Ara?/yaka  VI,  4,  12  ;  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  vol.  xv,  p.  218). 
8.  Taittiriya  Sa/«hita  II,  6,  i,  5. 
[29]  U 


290  PARASKARA-G/27HYA-s0tRA. 

9.  He  then  touches  her  heart,  (reaching)  over  her 
right  shoulder,  with  (the  verse),  '  O  thou  whose  hair 
is  well  parted !  Thy  heart  that  dwells  in  heaven,  in 
the  moon,  that  I  know ;  may  it  know  me.  May  we 
see  a  hundred  autumns ;  may  we  live  a  hundred 
autumns ;  may  we  hear  a  hundred  autumns/ 

10.  In  the  same  way  afterwards. 

Ka7VZ)IKA   12. 

1.  At  the  beginning  of  each  half-month  he  cooks 
a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  sacrifices  to  the  deities  of 
the  festivals  of  the  new  and  full  moon  (as  stated  in 
the  ^'rauta  ritual),  and  then  sacrifices  to  the  following 
deities :  to  Brahman,  to  Praj^apati,  to  the  Vii've 
devas,  and  to  Heaven  and  Earth. 

2.  To  the  Vii-ve  devas  a  Bali  is  offered,  to  the 

A 

domestic  deities,  and  to  Aka^-a  (i.e.  the  Ether). 

3.  From  the  Vaii'vadeva  food  he  makes  oblations 
in  the  fire  with  (the  formulas),  '  To  Agni  svaha ! 
To  Pra^apati  svaha !  To  the  Vii've  devas  svaha  ! 
To  Agni  Svish^'akrzt  svaha ! ' 

4.  Outside  (the  house)  the  wife  offers  the  Bali 
with  (the  formulas), '  Adoration  to  the  wife !  Adoration 
to  the  man !  To  every  time  of  life,  adoration  !  To 
the  white  one  with  the  black  teeth,  the  lord  of  the 
bad  women,  adoration ! 

*  They  who  allure  my  offspring,  dwelling  in  the 
village  or  in  the  forest,  to  them  be  adoration ;  I  offer 

9.  See  above,  chap.  8,  8. 

12,  I.  Comp.  -Sahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  3,  3.  The  deities  of  the 
corresponding  -Srauta  festivals  are,  at  the  full  moon,  Agni  and 
Agni-shomau ;  at  the  new  moon,  Agni,  Vish7zu,  and  Indragni. 

2.  Comp. below,  11,9,  3- 

3.  ^ahkhayana-Grzliya  II,  14,  3,4. 


I  KANDA,     14  KAiVDiKA,   3.  29 1 

a  Bali  to  them.     Be  welfare  to  me  !     May  they  give 
me  offspring.' 

5.  The  remainder  he  washes  out  with  water. 
Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma;/as. 

Ka^vdika  13. 

I.  If  she  does  not  conceive,  he  should,  after  having 
fasted,  under  (the  Nakshatra)  Pushya,  lay  down  (in 
his  house)  the  root  of  a  white-blooming  Si;;2hi  plant, 
and  on  the  fourth  day,  after  (his  wife)  has  bathed,  he 
should  in  the  night-time  crush  it  in  water  and  insert 
it  into  her  right  nostril  with  (the  verse),  '  This  herb 
is  protecting,  overcoming,  and  powerful.  May  I,  the 
son  of  this  great  (mother),  obtain  the  name  of  a 
father ! ' 

Kajvdika  14. 

1.  Now  the  Pu?;^savana  (i.e.  the  ceremony  to 
secure  the  birth  of  a  male  child), 

2.  Before  (the  child  in  his  mother's  womb)  moves, 
in  the  second  or  third  month  (of  pregnancy). 

3.  On  a  day  on  which  the  moon  stands  in  con- 
junction with  a  Nakshatra  (that  has  a  name)  of  mas- 
culine gender,  on  that  day,  after  having  caused  (his 
wife)  to  fast,  to  bathe,  and  to  put  on  two  garments 
which  have  not  yet  been  washed,  and  after  having 
in  the  night-time  crushed  in  water  descending  roots 
and  shoots  of  a  Nyagrodha  tree,  he  inserts  (that  into 
her  right  nostril)  as  above,  with  the  two  (verses), 

13,  I.  I  have  translated  according  to  the  reading  of  a  similar 
INIantra  found  in  the  Atharva-veda  (VIII,  2,  6),  which  no  doubt  is 
correct,  sahasvati  instead  of  sarasvati. 

14,  3.  The  words  '  as  above  '  refer  to  chap.  13,  i. 

U  2 


292  PARASKARA-Gi?/HYA-SUTRA. 

*  '  The  gold-child '  (Va,^.  Sa7;/h.  XIII,  4)  and  '  Formed 

of  water'  (ibid.  XXXI,  17); 

4.  A  Ku5-a  needle  and  a  Soma  stalk,  according  to 
some  (teachers). 

5.  And  he  puts  gall  of  a  tortoise  on  her  lap. 

If  he  desires,  '  May  (the  son)  become  valiant,'  he 
recites  over  him  (i.e.  over  the  embryo),  modifying  the 
rite  (?),  '  The  Supar;2a  art  thou  '  (Va^.  Samh.  XII,  4), 
(the  Ya^us)  before  (the  formulas  called)  '  steps  of 
Vish?m.' 

KAiVDIKA    15, 

1.  Now  the  Simantonnayana  (or  parting  of  the 
pregnant  wife's  hair). 

2.  (It  is  performed)  like  the  Pu;;/savana  ; 

3.  In  her  first  pregnancy,  in  the  sixth  or  eighth 
month. 

4.  After  he  has  cooked  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food, 
containing  sesamum  and  Mudga  beans,  and  has  sacri- 
ficed to  Pra^ipati,  he  parts  for  the  wife,  who  is  seated 
to  the  west  of  the  fire  on  a  soft  chair,  her  hair 
upwards  (i,  e.  beginning  from  the  front)  with  a  bunch 
containing  an  even   number   of  unripe   Udumbara 

4.  Comp.  6'ahkhayana-Grz'hya  I,  20,  3. 

5.  The  commentators  state  that  kurmapitta  (gall  of  tortoise) 
means  'a  dish  with  water.'  I  place  no  confidence  in  this  statement, 
though  I  cannot  show  at  present  what  its  origin  is.  I  am  not  sure 
about  the  translation  of  vikr/tya  (or  vikrz'tya  ?).  But  it  seems 
impossible  to  me  that  it  should  be  the  name  of  the  metre  Vikr/ti. 
'  Steps  of  Vish«u'  is  a  name  for  the  Ya^us  following  in  the  Sa7/;hita 
on  the  one  prescribed  in  this  Siltra.  It  begins,  '  Vish;/u's  step  art 
thou,  &c.'  (Va^.  Samh.  XII,  5). 

15,  2.  I.e.  the  Nakshatra  under  which  the  ceremony  is  per- 
formed, should  be  of  male  gender ;  the  wife  is  to  fast,  &c.  (see 
chap.  14,  3). 

4.  -5'ahkhayana-G;7hya  I,  22,  8  ;  A^valSyana  I,  14,  4. 


I  KANDA,     1 6  KAiVZIIKA,    3.  293 

fruits,  and  with  three  bunches  of  Darbha  grass,  with 
a  porcupine's  quill  that  has  three  white  spots,  with 
a  stick  of  Viratara  wood,  and  with  a  full  spindle, 
with  the  words,  *  Bhur  bhuva//  sva/2.' 

5.  Or  {he  parts  the  hair  once)  with  each  of  the 
(three)  ]\Iah^vyahr/tis. 

6.  He  ties  (the  Udumbara  fruits,  &c.)  to  a  string 
of  three  twisted  threads  with  (the  words),  '  Rich  in  sap 
is  this  tree  ;  like  the  tree,  rich  in  sap,  be  thou  fruitful. 

7.  (The  husband)  then  says  to  two  lute-players, 
'  Sing  ye  the  king,  or  if  anybody  else  is  still  more 
valiant.' 

8.  Here  some  also  prescribe  a  certain  stanza  (to  be 
sung  by  the  lute-players) :  '  Soma  alone  is  our  king. 
May  these  human  tribes  dwell  on  thy  banks,  O 
(river)  whose  dominion  Is  unbroken,  N.N. !' — here  he 
names  the  name  of  the  river  near  which  they  dwell. 

9.  Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma;^as. 

KAiVDIKA   16. 

1.  Soshyantim  adbhir  abhyukshaty  e^atu  da^a- 
masya  iti  (Vaf.  Sa?;2h.  VHI,  28)  prag  yasyai  ta  iti 
(ibid.  29). 

2.  Athavaravapatanam,  avaitu  prism  sev3\a.m  sune. 
^;farayv  attave,  naiva  mawsena  pivari  na  kasmiwjr 
^anayatam  ava^^ardyu  padyatim  iti. 

3.  When  the  boy  is  born,  he  performs  for  him, 
before  the  navel-string  is  cut  off,  the  medha^anana 

6.  -Sahkhayana  I,  22,  10. 

7.  6"ankhSyana  1. 1.  §§  11,  12  ;  Ajvalayana  1. 1.  §  6. 

8.  Ajvaldyana  1. 1.  §  7.  I  take  avimuktaX-akre  to  be  the  vocative 
of  the  feminine. 

16,   I.  .Satapatha  Brahmaz/a  XIV,  9,  4,  22. 
2.  Atharva-veda  I,  11,  4. 


294  PARASKARA-Gi?7HYA-Sl}TRA. 

(production  of  intelligence)  and  the  ayushya  (rite 
for  procuring  long  life). 

4.  (The  medha^anana  is  performed  in  the  follow- 
ing way  :)  With  his  fourth  finger  and  with  (an  in- 
strument of)  gold  he  gives  (to  the  child)  honey 
and  ghee,  or  ghee  (alone),  to  eat  with  (the  formulas), 
'  Bhu/^  I  put  into  thee  ;  bhuva/^  I  put  into  thee ; 
sva//  I  put  into  thee.  Bhur  bhuva^  sva/i  everything 
I  put  into  thee.' 

5.  He  then  performs  the  ayushya. 

6.  Near  his  navel  or  his  right  ear  he  murmurs  : 
'  Agni  is  long-lived  ;  through  the  trees  he  is  long- 
lived.     By  that  long  life  I  make  thee  long-lived. 

*  Soma  is  long-lived  ;  through  the  herbs  he  is,  &c. 

'  The  Brahman  is  long-lived ;  through  the  Brah- 
ma;^as  it  is,  &c. 

'  The  gods  are  long-lived ;  through  ambrosia 
{a.mrtta.)  they  are,  &c. 

'  The  i?/shis  are  long-lived  ;  through  their  ob- 
servances they  are,  &c. 

'  The  Fathers  are  long-lived  ;  through  the  Svadha 
oblations  (or  oblations  made  to  the  Manes)  they 
are,  &c. 

'  Sacrifice  is  long-lived  ;  through  sacrificial  fee  it 
is,  &c. 

'  The  ocean  is  long-lived ;  through  the  rivers  it  is 
long-lived.   By  that  long  life  I  make  thee  long-lived;' 

7.  And  three  times  the  verse, '  The  threefold  age  ' 
(Va^.  Sawh.  Ill,  62). 

8.  If  he  desires,   '  May  he  live  his  full  term  of 

4.  Comp.  ^'atapatha  Brahmawa  XIV,  9,  4,  23  seqq.  (Brzliad 
Arawyaka  VI,  4,  24  seqq.;  S. B. E.,  XV,  222  seq.).  The  text  has 
anamikaya  suvar7/antarhitaya,  which  literally  is  :  with  the  nameless 
(or  fourth)  finger,  between  which  (and  the  food)  gold  has  been  put. 


I  KANDA,    1 6  KAiN^DIKA,   1 8.  295 

life,'  he  should  touch  him  with  the  Vatsapra  hymn 
(Va^.  Sa;;zh.  XII,  18-29). 

9.  From  the  Anuvaka  beginning  with  '  From 
heaven'  (XII,  18  seqq.)  he  omits  the  last  Rz^ 
(XII,  29). 

10.  Having  placed  five  Brahma;^as  towards  the 
(five)  regions,  he  should  say  to  them,  '  Breathe  ye 
upon  this  (child).' 

1 1.  The  (Brahma;^a  placed)  to  the  east  should  say, 
'  Up-breathing! ' 

12.  The  one  to  the  south,  '  Back-breathing  ! ' 

13.  The  one  to  the  west,  '  Down-breathing! ' 

14.  The  one  to  the  north,  '  Out-breathing  !  ' 

15.  The  fifth  one,  looking  upwards,  should  say, 
'  On-breathing  ! ' 

16.  Or  (the  father)  may  do  that  himself,  going 
round  (his  child),  if  he  can  find  no  (Brahma?^as). 

17.  He  recites  over  the  place  at  which  (the  child) 
is  born :  '  I  know,  O  earth,  thy  heart  that  dwells  in 
heaven,  in  the  moon.  That  I  know  ;  may  it  know 
me.  May  we  see  a  hundred  autumns  ;  may  we  live  a 
hundred  autumns ;  may  we  hear  a  hundred  autumns.' 

18.  He  then  touches  him  with  (the  verse),  '  Be  a 
stone,  be  an  axe,  be  imperishable  gold.  Thou  indeed 
art  the  Self  called  son  ;  thus  live  a  hundred  autumns.' 


II  seqq.  In  translating  the  technical  terms  for  the  different 
kinds  of  breath,  I  adopt  the  expressions  chosen  by  Professor  INIax 
Miiller,  S.  B.  E.,  XV,  94.   As  to  the  whole  rite,  comp.  ^atap.  Br.  XI, 

8,  3>  6. 

17.  Comp.  above,  I,  11,  9.  The  comparison  of  the  parallel 
Mantra  leaves  scarcely  any  doubt  that  veda  (the  first  word  of  the 
verse)  is  the  first,  not  the  third  person,  and  bhilmi  the  vocative 
case.  Compare  the  vocative  darvi  of  the  Va^.  SawhitS,  while 
the  Atharva-veda  has  darve.     Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  p.  390. 

18.  ^atapatha  Brahmawa  XIV,  9,  4,  26;  Ajvalayana  1, 15,  3. 


296  PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-sOtRA. 

19.  He  then  recites  over  his  mother  (the  verse), 
'  Thou  art  I<^a,  the  daughter  of  Mitra  and  Varu;^a ; 
thou  strong  woman  hast  born  a  strong  son.  Be  thou 
blessed  with  strong  children,  thou  who  hast  blessed 
us  with  a  strong  son.' 

20.  He  then  washes  her  right  breast,  and  gives  it 
to  the  child  with  (the  verse),  '  This  breast'  (Va^. 
Sa;;^h.  XVH,  S7); 

21.  The  left  (breast)  with  (the  verse),  '  Thy  breast 
which  '(ibid.  XXXV HI,  5) — with  these  two  (verses). 

22.  He  puts  down  a  pot  of  water  near  her  head 
with  (the  verse),  *  O  waters,  you  watch  with  the  gods. 
As  you  watch  with  the  gods,  thus  watch  over  this 
mother  who  is  confined,  and  her  child.' 

23.  Having  established  near  the  door  the  fire 
that  has  been  kept  from  (the  wife's)  confinement,  he 
throws  into  that  fire  at  the  time  of  the  morning  and 
evening  twilight,  until  (the  mother)  gets  up  (from 
childbed),  mustard  seeds  mixed  with  rice  chaff  (pro- 
nouncing the  following  names  of  demons  and  goblins) : 
'  May  Sdi?id2i  and  Marka,  Upavira,  6'au;^^ikeya, 
Uldkhala,  Malimlu/^a,  Dro;^asa,  A'yavana  vanish 
hence.    Sv^ha ! 

A 

'  May  Alikhat,  Animisha,  Kiwvadanta,  Upa^ruti, 
Haryaksha,  Kumbhin,  6atru,  Patrapa;^i,  Nr/ma;n, 
Hantrimukha,  Sarshaparu;;a,  i^^yavana  vanish  hence. 
Svaha!' 

24.  If  (the  demon  bringing  disease)  Kumara 
attacks  the  boy,  the  father  covers  him  with  a  net 

19.  ^'atapathaBrahmaz/al.!.  §  27.  Comp.  Professor  Max  Miiller's 
note,  S.  B.E.,  XV,  223  seq. 

21.  ^Satapatha  Brahmawa  1.  1.  §  28, 

23.  On  the  sutikagni,  comp.  ^atap.  Br.  1. 1.  §  23  ;  .Sahkhayana- 
Grihyz  I,  25,  4,  &c. 

24.  Kiirkura  seems  to  me,  and  this  is  also  Professor  Stenzler's 


I  KAA^ZJA,    17  KAiVDIKA,    4.  297 

or  with  an  upper  garment,  takes  him  on  his  lap, 
and  murmurs  :  '  Kurkura,  Sukurkura,  Kurkura,  who 
holds  fast  children.  K^X. !  k^X. !  doggy !  let  him 
loose.  Reverence  be  to  thee,  the  Sisara,  barker, 
bender. 

'  That  is  true  that  the  gods  have  given  a  boon  to 
thee.     Hast  thou  then  chosen  even  this  boy  ? 

'  ^et !  /^et !  doggy  !  let  him  loose.  Reverence  be 
to  thee,  the  Sisara,  barker,  bender. 

'  That  is  true  that  (the  divine  she-dog)  Sarama  is 
thy  mother,  Sisara  thy  father,  the  black  and  the 
speckled  (two  dogs  of  Yama)  thy  brothers. 

'  A'et !  ktX. !  doggy !  let  him  loose.  Reverence  be 
to  thee,  the  Sisara,  barker,  bender.' 

25.  He  then  touches  (the  boy)  with  (the  words), 
'  He  does  not  suffer,  he  does  not  cry,  he  is  not  stiff, 
he  is  not  sick,  when  we  speak  to  him  and  when  we 
touch  him.' 

KAiVZ)IKA    17. 

1.  On  the  tenth  day  (after  the  birth  of  the  child) 
the  father,  having  made  (his  wife)  get  up,  and  having 
fed  the  Brahma;^as,  gives  a  name  (to  the  child), 

2.  Of  two  syllables,  or  of  four  syllables,  beginning 
with  a  sonant,  with  a  semivowel  in  it,  with  a  long 
vowel  (or)  the  Visarga  (at  its  end),  with  a  K;Vt 
(suffix),  not  with  a  Taddhita  ; 

3.  With  an  uneven  number  of  syllables,  ending  in 
a,  with  a  Taddhita  (suffix)  to  a  girl. 

4.  (The   name)  of  a   Brahma/^a   (should   end   in) 

opinion,  identical  with  kurkura,  kukkura  ('dog ').     The  Peters- 
.burg  Dictionary  explains  it,  '  Name  eines  die  Kinder  bedrohenden 
Damons  (vielleicht  eine  Personification  dcs  Hustens).' 
17,  I.  Comp.  Gobhiia  II,  8,  14;  Ajvalayana  I,  15,  4. 


298  PARASKARA-Gi?/HYA-sOTRA. 

i'arman  (for  inst.  Vish/^ui-arman),  that  of  a  Kshatriya 
in  varman  (for  inst.  Lakshmivarman),  that  of  a 
Vaii^ya  in  gupta  (for  inst.  iTandragupta). 

5.  In  the  fourth  month  (follows)  the  going  out. 

6.  He  makes  (the  child)  look  at  the  sun,  pro- 
nouncing (the  verse),  'That  eye'  (Va^.  Sa;;2hita 
XXXVI,  24). 

KAiVZ)IKA    18. 

1.  When  he  returns  from  a  journey,  he  approaches 
his  house  in  the  manner  stated  above. 

2.  When  he  sees  his  son,  he  murmurs,  '  From 
limb  by  limb  thou  art  produced  ;  out  of  the  heart 
thou  art  born.  Thou  indeed  art  the  Self  called  son ; 
so  live  a  hundred  autumns  ! ' 

3.  He  then  kisses  his  head  with  (the  words), 
*  With  the  hi;;2kara  (the  mystical  syllable  hih)  of 
Pra^apati,  which  gives  thousandfold  life,  I  kiss  thee, 
N.  N. !    Live  a  hundred  autumns  ! ' — 

4.  And  three  times  with  (the  words),  '  With  the 
hi;;^kara  of  the  cows.' 

5.  In  his  right  ear  he  murmurs,  '  Bestow  on  us, 
O  bountiful,  onward-pressing  Indra,  plentiful,  rich 
treasures.  Give  us  a  hundred  autumns  to  live  ; 
give  us  many  heroes,  strong-jawed  Indra  ; ' 

6.  In  the  left  ear,  '  Indra,  bestow  on  us  the  best 
treasures,  insight  of  mind,  happiness,  increase  of 
wealth,  health  of  our  bodies,  sweetness  of  speech, 
and  that  our  days  may  be  good  days.' 

7.  For  a  girl  he  only  kisses  the  head  silently. 

18,  I.  See  Katyayana,  6"rauta-sutra  IV,  12,  22  seq. :  With  the 
words,  'House,  be  not  afraid,'  &c.  (Va^.  Sa7«h.  Ill,  41)  he 
approaches  the  house.  With,  '  For  peace  you '  (III,  43)  he 
enters  it. 

5.  Rig-veda  III,  36,  10.  6.   Rig-veda  II,  21,  6. 


I  KANDA,    19  KAJVjDIKA,    8.  299 


KAiVi)IKA    19. 

1.  In  the  sixth  month  the  Annaprai'ana  (or  first 
feeding  with  soHd  food). 

2.  Having  cooked  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  and 

A  A 

sacrificed  the  two  Aj^yabhagas,  he  offers  two  A^ya 
oblations,  (the  first  with  the  verse,)  '  The  gods  have 
generated  the  goddess  Speech  ;  manifold  animals 
speak  her  forth.  May  she,  the  sweet-sounding,  the 
cow  that  (for  milk)  gives  sap  and  juice  to  us,  Speech, 
the  highly-praised  one,  come  to  us.     Svaha  ! ' 

3.  And  the  second  (oblation)  with  (the  verse), 
'  May  vigour  us  to-day'  (Va^.  Sawhita  XVIII,  33). 

4.  He  then  sacrifices  (four  oblations)  of  cooked 
food  with  (the  formulas), 

'  Through  up-breathing  may  I  enjoy  food.   Svahi  ! 

'Through  down-breathing  may  I  enjoy  smells. 
Svahd ! 

'  Through  my  eye  may  I  enjoy  visible  things. 
Svaha ! 

'  Through  my  ear  may  I  enjoy  renown.     Svaha  ! ' 

5.  After  he  has  eaten  (himself),  he  should  set 
apart  food  of  all  kinds,  and  of  all  different  sorts  of 
flavour, and  should  give  it  to  him  (i.e.  to  his  son)  to  eat, 

6.  Silently  or  with  (the  word), '  Hanta '  (i.e.  Well !). 
For  it  is  said  in  the  ^'ruti,  '  Men  (live  on)  the  word 
hanta.' 

7.  (He  feeds  the  child)  with  flesh  of  (the  bird 
called)  Bhiradv^i,  if  he  wishes  (to  the  child) 
fluency  of  speech, 

8.  With  flesh  of  partridge,  if  abundance  of  nourish- 
ment, 

A 

2.  Rig-veda  VIII^  100,  11.  6.  Bnliad  Ara«yaka  V,  8. 


300  paraskara-g/2/hya-sOtra. 

9.  With  fish,  if  swiftness, 

10.  (With  flesh)  of  (the  bird)  Kr^  kasha,  if  long  hfe, 

11.  (With  flesh)  of  (the  bird)  A/i,  if  desirous  of 
holy  lustre, 

12.  With  all,  if  desirous  of  all. 

13.  Or  each  (sort  of)  food  one  by  one.  Then 
(follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma/^as,  or  each  (sort  of) 
food  one  by  one.     Then  feeding  of  the  Brahma/^as. 

End  of  the  First  Kknda. 


II  KANDA,    I   KAA'DIKA,  9.  30  I 


Kajvda  II,   Kaa^dika  1. 

1.  When  (the  son)  is  one  year  old,  the  Kudaka.r3.71a. 
(i.e.  the  tonsure  of  his  head,  should  be  performed), 

2.  Or  before  the  lapse  of  the  third  (year). 

3.  When  he  is  sixteen  years  old,  the  Ke^anta  (i.e. 
the  shaving  of  his  beard,  is  to  be  done), 

4.  Or,  according  as  it  is  considered  auspicious  by 
all  (the  different  families). 

5.  After  food  has  been  distributed  to  the  Brah- 
ma^^as,  the  mother  takes  the  boy,  bathes  him,  puts 
on  him  an  under  and  an  upper  garment  which 
have  not  yet  been  washed,  and  putting  him  on  her 
lap,  she  sits  down  to  the  west  of  the  fire. 

6.  The  father  taking  hold  (of  his  wife)  sacrifices 
A^^ya  oblations,  and  after  he  has  partaken  of  the 
(sacrificial)  food,  he  pours  warm  water  into  cold 
water  with  (the  words),  '  With  warm  water  come 
hither,  Vayu  !    Aditi,  cut  the  hair.' 

7.  At  the  Kei-anta  ceremony  (Siitra  3),  '  hair  and 
beard  '  (instead  of  '  hair '). 

8.  He  throws  a  piece  of  fresh  butter,  or  of  ghee, 
or  some  curds  into  it  (i.e.  into  the  water,  Sutra  6). 

9.  Taking  some  (water)  he  moistens  the  hair 
near  the  right  ear  with  (the  formula),  '  On  the 
impulse  of  Savitr/  may  the  divine  waters  moisten 

1,  6.  I  see  no  reason  why  we  should  not  take  Aditi  for  the  name 
of  the  goddess.  Comp.  Atharva-veda  VI,  68,  2  :  Aditi//  jma^ru 
vapatu.  Ajvaldyana-Gr/'hya  I,  17,  7.  Stenzler  translates  :  Unge- 
bundener,  die  Haare  schneide. 

9.  The  text  has,  dakshiwa///  godanam  undati.  The  commentary 
on  Katyayana  V,  2,  14  explains  dakshiwa  godana  :  dakshiwakar- 
wasamipavartinaw  jira/zpradejam.  Saya«a  on  6atapatha  Brahmawa 
III,  I,  2,  4  (p.  323,  ed.  Weber):  godanaw  nama  kar«asyopari 
pradeja/;.     The  Mantra  reoccurs  in  Kal)ayana,  loc.  cit. — Savitra 


302  PARASKARA-Gi?7HYA-sOTRA. 

thy  body,  in  order  that  long  Hfe  and  splendour  may 
be  thine.' 

1 0.  Having  unravelled  (the  hair)  with  a  porcupine's 
quill  that  has  three  white  spots,  he  puts  three  young 
Kui-a  shoots  into  it  with  (the  formula),  '  Herb'  (Vaf. 
Saw^h.  IV,  i). 

11.  Taking  up  a  copper  razor  with  (the  formula), 
'  Friendly  by  name'  (Vaf.  Sa;;2h.  HI,  63  a),  he  cuts 
(the  hair)  with  (the  formula),  '  I  cut  off'  (ibid.  63b), 
(and  with  the  formula,)  '  The  razor  with  which 
Savitr^,  the  knowing  one,  has  shaven  (the  beard)  of 
king  Soma  and  Varu;/a,  with  that,  ye  Brahma;^as, 
shave  his  (head),  in  order  that  he  may  be  blessed 
with  long  life  and  may  reach  old  age.' 

12.  Cutting  off  (the  Kui-a  shoots)  together  with 
the  hair,  he  throws  them  on  a  lump  of  bull's  dung 
which  they  keep  northwards  of  the  fire. 

13.  In  the  same  way  two  other  times  silently. 

1 4.  The  moistening  and  the  other  rites  are  repeated 
with  the  two  other  (tufts  of  hair). 

15.  Behind  with  (the  verse),  'The  threefold  age' 
(Vaf.  Sa;;2h.  Ill,  62). 

16.  Then  on  the  left  side  with  (the  verse),  'With 
that  prayer  by  which  mayst  thou,  a  mighty  one,  go 
to  heaven,  and  long  mayst  thou  see  the  sun  :  with 
that  prayer  I  shave  thee  for  the  sake  of  life,  of 
existence,  of  glory,  of  welfare.' 

prasfita-^  should   not  be  translated  as  Prof.  Stenzler  does:   von 
Sav.  erzeugt,  but :  von  Sav.  angetrieben. 

10.  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  Katyayana-xSraut.  V,  2,  15. 

11.  Compare  Katyayana  1.  1.  §  17.  The  Mantra,  Va^.  Sa;«h. 
Ill,  63  b,  is  that  given  by  Katyayana,  the  following  one  is  that 
which  the  other  Grz'hya  texts  prescribe. 

16.  See  the  various  readings  of  the  INIantra  given  by  Professor 
Stenzler,  p.  53  of  his  critical  annotations,  and  compare  Ajvalayana- 
Grihya.  I,  17,  13. 


11  KANDA,    2  KAA^OIKA,    2.  "^O 


-i 


ly.  Three  times  he  shaves  round  the  head,  from 
left  to  right ; 

1 8.  Including  the  face,  at  the  Kei"anta  ceremony. 

19.  (He  recites  the  verse,)  '  When  the  shaver 
shaves  his  hair  with  the  razor,  the  woundine,  the 
well-shaped,  purify  his  head,  but  do  not  take  away 
his  life.' 

20.  He  adds  (the  word),  '  his  face '  at  the  Kei-anta 
ceremony. 

21.  With  that  water  (Sutras  6,  8)  he  moistens  his 
head,  and  gives  the  razor  to  the  barber  with  (the 
words),  '  Without  wounding  him,  shave  him.' 

2  2.  The  locks  of  hair  which  are  left  over,  are  to 
be  arranged  as  it  is  considered  auspicious  (in  his 
family). 

23.  Having  put  away  that  lump  of  dung  with  the 
hair  so  that  it  is  hidden  in  a  cow-stable,  or  in  a 
small  pond,  or  in  the  vicinity  of  water,  he  gives  an 
optional  gift  to  the  teacher  ; 

24.  A  cow  at  the  Kei'anta  ceremony. 

25.  After  the  Ke^anta  has  been  performed,  (the 
youth)  should  observe  chastity  and  should  not  be 
shaven  through  one  year,  or  twelve  nights,  or  six 
nicrhts,  or  at  least  three  nigfhts. 

Kajvdika  2. 

1.  He  should  initiate  a  Brahma;/a,  when  he  is 
eight  years  old,  or  in  the  eighth  year  after  the  con- 
ception, 

2.  A  Ra^anya,  when  he  is  eleven  years  old, 

A 

19.  Ajvalayana  1. 1.  §  16;  Atharva-veda  VIII,  2,  17. 

20.  He  repeats  the  Mantra,  given  in  Sfttra  19,  in  this  form  : 
'  When  the  shaver  shaves  his  hair  and  his  face,'  &c. 

23.  See  above,  Sfltra  12. 


304  paraskara-g/?7iiya-s0tra. 


3.  A  Vai^ya,  when  he  is  twelve  years  old. 

4.  Or  according  as  it  is  considered  auspicious  by 
all  (the  different  families). 

5.  He  should  feed  the  Brahma;/as.  And  they 
lead  him  (i.  e.  the  boy  who  is  to  be  initiated)  on,  with 
his  head  shaven  all  round, and  decked  with  ornaments. 

6.  (The  teacher)  makes  him  place  himself  to  the 
west  of  the  fire  and  say,  '  I  have  come  hither  for  the 
sake  of  studentship  (brahma/i'arya).'  And,  '  I  will  be 
a  student  (brahma-^arin).' 

7.  He  then  makes  him  put  on  a  garment  with  (the 
verse),  '  In  the  way  in  which  Br/haspati  put  the 
garment  of  immortality  on  Indra,  thus  I  put  (this 
garment)  on  thee,  for  the  sake  of  long  life,  of  old 
age,  of  strength,  of  splendour.' 

8.  He  ties  round  him  the  girdle  with  (the  verse 
which  the  youth  recites),  '  Here  has  come  to  me, 
keeping  away  evil  words,  purifying  my  kind  as  a 
purifyer,  clothing  herself,  by  (the  power  of)  inhalation 
and  exhalation,  with  strength,  this  sisterly  goddess, 
this  blessed  girdle.' 

9.  Or,  '  A  youth,  well  attired,  dressed,  came 
hither.  He,  being  born,  becomes  glorious.  Wise 
sages  extol  him,  devout  ones,  turning  their  minds 
to  the  gods.' 

10.  Or  silently. 

11.  He  gives  him  the  staff. 

6  seqq.  Comp.  ^atapatha  Brahmawa  XI,  5,  4. 

8.  The  commentators  diflfer  as  to  whether  the  Ay^arya  or  the 
youth  should  recite  the  verse.  The  comparison  of  »S'ahkhayana  II, 
2,  I  would  rather  tend  to  show  that  it  is  the  teacher,  but  Gobhila  II, 
10  says  expressly  :  athaina?^  tri/z  pradakshiwara  mml^amekhalaw 
pariharan  va/^ayatiyaw  duruktatparibadhamanety  r/tasya  goptriti  va. 

9.  Rig-veda  III,  8,  4.  The  verse  is  originally  addressed  to 
Agni. 


II  KAiVDA,    2   KAATDIKA,    20.  305 


12.  (The  Student)  accepts  it  with  (the  verse),  '  My 
staff  which  fell  down  to  the  ground  in  the  open  air, 
that  I  take  up  again  for  the  sake  of  long  life,  of 
holiness,  of  holy  lustre.' 

13.  According  to  some  (teachers  he  accepts  the 
staff)  in  the  way  prescribed  for  the  inauguration, 
because  it  is  said,  '  He  enters  upon  a  long  Sattra  (or 
sacrificial  period).' 

14.  (The  teacher)  then  with  his  joined  hands  fills 
(the  student's)  joined  hands  with  water  with  the 
three  (verses),  'Ye  waters  are'  (Vd^r.  Saw^h.  XI,  50 
seqq.). 

15.  He  then  makes  him  look  at  the  sun  with  (the 
verse),  'That  eye'  (Va/.  Samh.  XXXVI,  24). 

16.  He  then  touches  his  heart,  (reaching)  over  his 
right  shoulder,  with  (the  words),  '  Into  my  will  I  take 
thy  heart,  &c.' 

17.  He  then  seizes  (the  student's)  right  hand  and 
says,  '  What  is  thy  name  ?  ' 

18.  He  replies,  '  I  am  N.  N.,  sir  !' 

19.  He  then  says  to  him,  'Whose  pupil  (brahma- 
/'arin)  art  thou  ? ' 

20.  After  (the  student)  has  said,  '  Yours ! ' — (the 

13.  »S'alapatha  Brahmawa  XI,  3,  3,  2  :  'He  enters  upon  a  long 
Sattra,  who  enters  upon  BrahmaX'arya.'  The  student,  when  being 
initiated,  ought  to  behave,  consequently,  in  the  same  way  as  those 
who  receive  the  inauguration  (diksha)  for  a  long  Sattra.  This  is 
the  meaning  of  this  Sfitra.  The  rules  regarding  the  staff  handed 
over  by  the  Adhvaryu  to  the  Yai;'amana  at  the  diksha  ceremony 
are  given  by  Katyayana,  6Yauta-s(itra  VII,  4,  1-4. 

15.  See  above,  I,  8,  7. 

16.  See  above,  I,  8,  8. 

17  seqq.  Comp.  ^'atapatha  Brahma;/a  XI,  5,  4,  i  seqq. 

20.  The  words  '  I  am  thy  teacher '  are  omitted  in  one  of 
Professor  Stenzler's  I\ISS.  and  in  his  translation.  But  they  are 
given  in  the  parallel  passage  of  the  6'atapatha  Brahmawa.     The 

[29]  X 


306  PARASKARA-G/27HYA-SUTRA. 

teacher  replies,)  *  Indra's  pupil  art  thou  ;  Agni  is  thy 
teacher  ;  I  am  thy  teacher,  N.N.!' 

21.  He  then  gives  him  in  charge  to  living  beings 
with  (the  formulas),  *  To  Praj^apati  I  give  thee  in 
charge.  To  the  god  Savitr/  I  give  thee  in  charge. 
To  the  waters,  the  herbs  I  give  thee  in  charge.  To 
Heaven  and  Earth  I  give  thee  in  charge.  To  the 
Vi^ve  devas  I  give  thee  in  charge.  To  all  beings  I 
give  thee  in  charge  for  the  sake  of  freedom  from 
harm.' 

KAiVDIKA   3. 

1.  Having  walked  round  the  fire  with  his  right 
side  turned  towards  it,  he  sits  down. 

2.  Taking  hold  (of  the  student),  he  sacrifices  the 
Agydi  oblations,  and  after  having  partaken  (of  the 
remains  of  the  sacrificial  food)  he  instructs  him,  '  A 
student  art  thou.  Take  water.  Do  the  service.  Do 
not  sleep  in  the  day-time.  Keep  silence.  Put  fuel 
on  (the  fire).     Take  water.' 

3.  He  then  recites  the  Savltri  to  him,  who  is 
seated  to  the  north  of  the  fire,  with  his  face  to  the 
west,  sitting  near  the  teacher,  and  looks  (at  the 
teacher),  while  (the  teacher)  looks  at  him  ; 

4.  Some  say,  to  (the  student)  who  is  standing  or 
seated  to  the  south  (of  the  fire) ; 

5.  Pada  by  Pada,  (then)  hemistich  by  hemistich, 
and  the  third  time  the  whole  (verse),  reciting  it 
together  (with  the  student)  ; 

parallel  passage  in  .Safikhayana  (Gnliya  II,  3,  i)  also  runs  thus  : 
Agnir  aX'aryas  tava,  asav,  ahaw  X-obhau. 

3,  I  seqq.  Comp.  the  corresponding  section  of  the  /.Satapatha 
Brahmawa  XI,  5,  4,  6  seqq. 

4.  ^Satapatha  Brahma«a  1. 1.  §  14. 


II  KANDA,    4  KAJVDIKA,    3.  "         307 

6.  After  one  year,  or  after  six  months,  or  after 
twenty-four  days,  or  after  twelve  days,  or  after  six 
days,  or  after  three  days. 

7.  To  a  Brahma/-Ja,  however,  he  should  recite  a 
(Savitri)  verse  in  the  Gayatri  metre  immediately. 
For  it  is  said  in  the  ^'ruti,  'To  Agni  indeed  belongs 
the  Brahma;^a.' 

8.  A  Trish-^ubh  verse  to  a  Ra^anya, 

9.  A  6^agati  to  a  Vai^ya, 

10.  Or  a  Gayatri  to  (persons  of)  all  (castes). 

KAiVUIKA   4. 

1.  Now  the  putting  on  of  fuel. 

2.  He  wipes  with  his  hand  (the  ground)  round  the 
fire  with  (the  formula),  '  Agni,  glorious  one,  make 
me  glorious.  As  thou,  glorious  Agni,  art  glorious, 
thus,  O  glorious  one,  bring  me  to  glory.  As  thou, 
Agni,  art  the  preserver  of  the  treasure  of  sacrifice 
for  the  gods,  thus  may  I  become  the  preserver  of 
the  treasure  of  the  Veda  for  men.' 

3.  Having  sprinkled  (water)  round  the  fire  from 
left  to  right,  he  stands  up  and  puts  a  piece  of  wood 
on  (the  fire)  with  (the  texts), 

'  To  Agni  I  have  brought  a  piece  of  wood,  to  the 
great  6^atavedas.  As  thou,  Agni,  art  inflamed  by 
wood,  thus  I  am  inflamed  by  life,  insight,  vigour, 
offspring,  cattle,  holy  lustre. 

'  May  my  teacher  be  the  father  of  living  sons ; 
may  I  be  full  of  insight,  not  forgetful  (of  what  I  have 
learned)  ;  may  I  become  full  of  glory,  of  splendour, 
of  holy  lustre,  an  enjoyer  of  food.     Svaha  ! 

7.  iSatapatha  BrAhmawa  1.  1.  §  12. 

4.  2.  Comp.  Ajvalayana-Gr/liya  I,  22,  21. 

3.  As  to  anirakarish«u,  comp.  anirakarawa  below,  III,  16. 

X  2 


308  PARASKARA-G7?7HYA-SUTRA. 


4.  In  the  same  way  (he  puts  on)  a  second  (piece 
of  wood)  ;  and  thus  a  third. 

5.  Or  (each  piece)  with  (the  verse), '  Thine  is  this  ' 
(Va^^.  Sa;;2h.  II,  14). 

6.  Or  (he  uses)  both  (this  verse  and  the  formulas 
given  in  Sutra  3). 

7.  The  wiping  and  sprinkHng  (of  water)  round 
(the  fire  are  repeated)  as  above. 

8.  Having  warmed  his  two  hands,  he  wipes  his 
mouth  with  (the  formulas)  : 

'  Agni,  thou  art  the  protector  of  bodies.  Protect  my 
body.  Agni,  thou  art  the  giver  of  life.  Give  me  life. 
Agni,  thou  art  the  giver  of  vigour.     Give  me  vigour. 

'Agni,  what  is  deficient  in  my  body,  that  restore  to 
fulness. 

'  May  the  god  Savitr/  bestow  insight  on  me,  may 
the  goddess  Sarasvati,  may  the  two  divine  Ai-vins, 
wreathed  with  lotus,  (bestow)  insight  (on  me).' 

KAiVZ)IKA   5. 

1.  Here  (follows  the  student's)  going  the  rounds 
for  alms. 

2.  A  Brahma/^a  should  beg,  addressing  (the  woman 
from  whom  he  begs  alms)  with  the  word  '  Lady '  put 
at  the  beginning  (of  his  request), 

3.  A  Ra^anya,  with  the  word  '  Lady '  inserted  in 
the  middle, 

4.  A  Vaii-ya,  with  the  word  '  Lady '  put  at  the  end. 

5.  (He  should  beg)  from  three  women  who  will 
not  refuse  ; 


7.  See  above,  Sutras  2,  3. 

5,  2-4.  Comp.  Apastamba  I,  3,  28  seqq.  (S.  B.  E.,  II,  p.  12); 
Manu  II,  49,  &c.  The  Brahmawa  says,  '  Lady,  give  alms  ; '  the 
Kshatriya,  'Give,  lady,  alms;'  the  Vai^ya,  'Give  alms,  lady.' 

5.  Ajvalayana-Grzliya  I,  22,  7, 


II  KANDA,    5  KAA^DIKA,    1 8.  3O9 

6.  From  six,  twelve,  or  an  indefinite  number. 

7.  From  his  own  mother  first,  according  to  some 
(teachers). 

8.  Havine  announced  the  alms  received  to  his 
teacher,  he  should  stand,  keeping  silence,  through 
the  rest  of  the  day,  according  to  some. 

9.  Having  fetched  fire-wood  out  of  the  forest  with- 
out damaging  (trees),  he  should  put  them  on  that  fire 
as  above,  and  should  abandon  his  silence. 

10.  He  should  sleep  on  the  ground  and  eat  no 
pungent  or  saline  food. 

11.  Wearing  the  staff,  worshipping  the  fire,  being 
obedient  to  his  Guru,  going  the  rounds  for  alms — 
(these  are  the  standing  duties  of  students). 

12.  He  should  avoid  honey  or  flesh,  bathing 
(for  pleasure),  sitting  on  high  seats,  going  to 
women,  falsehood,  and  taking  what  is  not  given 
to  him. 

1 3.  Let  him  live  forty-eight  years  as  a  student  for 
the  (four)  Vedas, 

14.  Or  twelve  years  for  each  Veda, 

15.  Or  until  he  has  learnt  it. 

16.  The  garment  (of  a  student)  should  be  made  of 
hemp,  flax,  or  wool  (accordingly  as  he  is  a  Brah- 
ma;^a,  a  Kshatriya,  or  a  Vai^ya). 

1 7.  The  upper  garment  of  a  Brahma;^a  should  be 
an  antelope-skin, 

18.  That  of  a  Raifanya  the  skin  of  a  spotted  deer, 


8.  Ajvalayana  1.  1.  §§  10.  11. 

9.  The  meaning  is,  he  should  not  break  off  branches,  but  only 
gather  such  as  have  fallen  off.  The  words  '  as  above '  refer  to 
chap.  4. 

12.  Gautama  II,  13;  Apastamba  I,  2,  23.  ^28-30.  21.  26. 
13-15.  Comp.  Apastamba  I,  2,  12  seqq. ;  Ajvalayana  I,  22,  3. 


PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-S(JTRA. 


19.  That  of  a  Vai^ya  a  goat's  or  cow's  skin. 

20.  Or  if  (the  prescribed  sort  of  garment)  is  not  to 
be  had,  a  cow's  hide  (should  be  worn)  by  all,  because 
to  that  belongs  the  first  place  (among  all  kinds  of 
garments). 

21.  The  girdle  of  a  Brahma;^a  should  be  of 
Mu;^^a  grass, 

22.  That  of  a  Kshatriya  should  be  a  bowstring, 

23.  That  of  a  Vaii'ya,  made  of  Murva  (i.e.  Sanse- 
veria  Roxburghiana). 

24.  If  there  is  no  Muflo-a.  (or  the  other  articles 
prescribed  in  §^  22,  23,  the  girdles  should  be  made) 
of  Kui"a  grass,  of  the  plant  A^mantaka,  or  of  Balba^a 
grass  (respectively). 

25.  The  staff  of  a  Brahma;^a  is  of  Pala-S"a  wood, 

26.  That  of  a  Ra/anya  of  Bilva  wood, 

27.  That  of  a  Vaii-ya  of  Udumbara  wood. 

28.  Or  all  (sorts  of  staffs  may  be  used)  by  all. 

29.  If  the  teacher  calls  him,  he  shall  rise  and  then 
answer. 

30.  If  (the  teacher  calls  him)  while  he  is  lying 
down,  (he  should  answer)  sitting ;  if  sitting,  standing  ; 
if  standing,  walking  up  (to  the  teacher) ;  if  walking 
up,  running  up. 

31.  If  he  behaves  thus,  his  fame  when  he  has  be- 
come a  Snataka  (i.  e.  when  he  has  taken  the  bath  at 
the  end  of  his  studentship)  will  be  (such  that  people 
will  say  of  him),  '  To-day  he  stays  there ;  to-day  he 
stays  there.' 

32.  There  are  three  (kinds  of)  Snatakas  :  aVidya- 
snataka   (i.  e.   a    Snataka   by  knowledge),   a  Vrata- 

24.  Manu  II,  43. 

32-35.  Comp.  Apastamba  I,  30,  1-3;  Manu  IV,  31.  The 
term  of  the  vows  extends  through  forty-eight  (or  thirty-six,  &c.) 


II  KAA^DA,    5   KAATDIKA,    42.  3 II 


snataka  (i.  e.  a  Sndtaka  by  the  completion  of  his 
vows),  and  a  Vidya-vrata-snataka  (i.  e.  a  Sndtaka  both 
by  knowledge,  and  by  the  completion  of  his  vows). 

33.  He  who  performs  the  Samdvartana  ceremony, 
after  having  finished  the  study  of  the  Veda,  but  before 
the  time  of  his  vows  has  expired,  is  a  Vidya-snataka. 

34.  He  who  performs  the  Samavartana,  after  his 
vows  have  expired,  but  before  he  has  finished  the 
study  of  the  Veda,  is  a  Vrata-snataka. 

35.  He  who  performs  the  Samavartana,  after 
having  finished  both,  is  a  Vidya-vrata-snataka. 

36.  Until  the  sixteenth  year  the  time  (for  being 
initiated)  has  not  passed  for  a  Brahma?/a, 

'}i^.  Until  the  twenty-second  for  a  Rafanya, 
Z'^.   Until  the  twenty-fourth  for  a  Vaii-ya, 

39.  After  that  (time  has  passed),  they  become 
patitasavitrika  (or  persons  who  have  lost  the  right  of 
learning  the  Savitri). 

40.  No  one  should  initiate  such  men,  nor  teach 
them,  nor  perform  sacrifices  for  them,  nor  have  inter- 
course with  them. 

41.  After  the  time  has  passed,  (they  should  do)  as 
has  been  prescribed. 

42.  A  person  whose  ancestors  through  three 
generations  have  been  patitasavitrikas,  is  excluded 

years;  see  above,  Sutras  13  and  14,  and  below,  chap.  6,  2.  3.  The 
Samavartana  is  the  returning  home  of  the  student  at  the  end  of  his 
studentship. 

36-40.  Ajvalayana-Gr/Tiya  I,  19,  5  seqq.  &c. 

41.  The  general  rule  here  alluded  to  is,  according  to  the  com- 
mentators, that  given  by  Katyayana,  ^'rauta-siitra  XXV,  i,  12.  13. 
There  it  is  stated  which  expiatory  oblations  have  to  precede,  when 
a  rile  that  has  not  been  performed,  or  that  has  been  incorrectly 
performed,  is  to  be  performed  for  good. 

42.  Those  who  have  not  been  initiated  in  due  time,  may  act  as 


3  I  2  PARASKARA-G/e/HYA-SUTRA. 

from  the  sacrament  (of  initiation)   and  from  being 
taught  the  Veda. 

43.  Of  such  persons  those  who  desire  to  receive 
the  sacrament,  may  perform  the  sacrifice  of  Vratya- 
stoma  and  then  study  the  Veda,  if  they  Hke.  For 
(of  persons  who  have  done  that)  it  is  said,  '  Inter- 
course with  them  is  permitted.' 

KAiVDIKA    6. 

1.  When  he  has  finished  the  Veda,  he  should  take 
the  bath  (by  which  he  becomes  a  Snataka) ; 

2.  Or  when  (he  has  gone  through)  a  studentship 
of  forty-eight  years ; 

3.  Or  also  after  (a  studentship)  of  twelve  years, 
according  to  some  (teachers). 

4.  (Let  him  take  the  bath  only)  if  his  Guru  has 
given  his  permission. 

5.  Rules  (regarding  the  performance  of  sacrifices), 
(texts)  to  be  used  (at  the  sacrifices  according  to  those 
rules),  and  reasoning  (on  the  meaning  of  the  rites 
and  texts) :  that  is  the  Veda. 

6.  Some  say  (that  the  Veda  should  be  studied) 
with  its  six  Angas  ; 

stated  in  Sutra  41.  But  if  the  omission  has  been  perpetuated 
through  three  generations,  the  descendant  of  such  persons  is  subject 
to  the  rules  stated  in  Sutras  42  and  43. 

43.  Katyayana,  after  having  given  the  rules  on  the  Vratyastoma 
sacrifice  (see  Weber,  Indische  Literaturgeschichte,  2nd  edition, 
pp.  73  seq.),  says:  'Intercourse  with  them  (who  have  performed 
that  sacrifice)  is  permitted'  (5raut.  XXII,  4,  28). 

6,  2.  See  above,  chap.  5,  13. 

3.  See  chap.  5,  14. 

5.  The  expressions  of  the  text  for  the  three  categories  are, 
vidhi,  vidheya,  tarka. 

6.  I.  e.  with  the  supplementary  treatises  on  ritual,  grammar, 
astronomy,  etymology,  pronunciation  of  the  Mantras,  and  metrics. 


II  KAA^DA,    6  KANDIKA,     12.  3 1 


O^  3 


7.  Not  SO  that  he  only  knows  the  ceremonial. 

8.  But  optionally  by  one  who  knows  the  sacrifices 
(the  bath  may  be  taken). 

9.  (The  student)  after  having  embraced  (the  feet 
of)  his  teacher,  and  put  the  pieces  of  wood  on  the  fire, 
places  himself  northwards  of  an  enclosure,  on  east- 
ward-pointed Kusa.  grass,  to  the  east  of  eight  vessels 
with  water, 

10.  'The  fires  that  dwell  in  the  waters;  the  fire 
which  must  be  hidden,  the  fire  which  must  be 
covered,  the  ray  of  light,  the  fire  which  kills  the 
mind,  the  unwavering  one,  the  pain-causing  one,  the 
destroyer  of  the  body,  the  fire  which  kills  the  organs 
— those  I  leave  behind.  The  shining  one,  that  I 
seize  here ' — with  (this  formula)  he  draws  water  out 
of  one  (of  the  eight  vessels) ; 

11.  With  that  he  besprinkles  himself  with  (the 
words),  '  Therewith  I  besprinkle  myself  for  the  sake 
of  prosperity,  of  glory,  of  holiness,  of  holy  lustre.' 

12.  (A  second  time  he  draws  water  out  of  a  second 
of  the  eight  vessels  with  the  formula  given  in  Statra 
10,  putting  instead  of  the  words,  'The  shining  one, 
&:c.,'  the  verse) :  *  By  which  you  have  created  pros- 
perity, by  which  you  have  touched  sura,  with  which 
you  have  anointed  the  eyes,  which  is  your  glory,  O 
Arvins.' 

10.  As  to  the  names  of  the  eight  hostile  powers  of  Agni,  comp. 
»Sahkhayana-G/'z'hya  V,  2;  Atharva-veda  XIV,  i,  38;  XVI,  i; 
Mantrabiahmawa  I,  7,  i. 

12.  The  reading  of  the  IMantra  seems  to  be  corrupt.  Compare 
the  form  in  which  it  is  given  by  Bhavadcva,  quoted  in  Professor 
Stenzler's  note  on  this  Siilra.  Instead  of  jriyam  we  have  probably 
to  read,  as  Bhavadeva has,  striyam  ;  instead  of  akshyau,  akshan. 
Professor  Stenzler  very  pertinently  compares  Atharva-veda  XIV,  i, 
35.  36.     Comp.  also  Mantrabrahmawa  I,  7,  5. 


314  PARASKARA-Gi?7HYA-Sl)TRA. 

13.  (And  he  draws  water  out  of  three  other 
vessels)  with  (the  three  verses),  '  Ye  waters  are ' 
(Vaf.  Sawh.  XI,  50-52),  verse  by  verse. 

14.  With  (water  drawn  out  of)  the  three  other 
(vessels  he  besprinkles  himself)  silently. 

15.  Having  loosened  his  girdle  with  (the  verse), 
*The  highest  band'  (Va^.  Samh.  XII,  12),  having 
put  it  down,  having  put  on  another  garment,  he 
worships  the  sun — 

16.  With  (the  formulas), '  Rising,  bearing  a  shining 
spear,  Indra  stands  with  the  Maruts ;  he  stands  with 
the  gods  who  walk  in  the  morning.  Thou  art  a  ten- 
fold winner  ;  make  me  a  tenfold  winner.  Make  me 
attain  to  renown. 

'  Rising,  bearing  a  shining  spear,  Indra  stands  with 
the  Maruts ;  he  stands  with  the  gods  who  walk  in 
day-time.  Thou  art  a  hundredfold  winner ;  make  me 
a  hundredfold  winner.     Make  me  attain  to  renown. 

'  Rising,  bearing  a  shining  spear,  Indra  stands  with 
the  Maruts ;  he  stands  with  the  gods  who  walk  in 
the  evening.  Thou  art  a  thousandfold  winner ; 
make  me  a  thousandfold  winner.  Make  me  attain 
to  renown.' 

1 7.  Having  eaten  curds  or  sesamum  seeds,  and 
having  had  his  matted  hair,  the  hair  of  his  body, 
and  his  nails  cut,  he  should  cleanse  his  teeth  with  an 
Udumbara  branch  with  (the  verse),  '  Array  your- 
selves for  the  enjoyment  of  food.  Here  has  come 
king  Soma  :  he  will  purify  my  mouth  with  glory  and 
fortune.' 

16.  In  the  JMantra  the  Paraskara  MSS.  give  hhra.ga.hhrishnu/1 
and  bhra^abhrzsh/i/;,  and  the  Gobhila  MSS.  {Gnhya  III,  4)  bhi%a- 
bh;7sh/ibhi/^.  Possibly  the  instrumental  case  is  right.  Bohtlingk 
and  Roth  propose  to  read  bhra^adr?'sh/i>^. 


II  KANDA,    6  KAArZ)IKA,   23.  315 


1 8.  Having  anointed  himself  and  badied  ag^in,  he 
takes  up  the  salve  for  nose  and  mouth  with  (the 
words),  '  Satiate  my  up-breathing  and  down-breath- 
ing ;  satiate  my  eye  ;  satiate  my  ear  ! ' 

19.  Having  poured  out  to  the  south  the  water 
with  which  he  has  washed  his  hands,  with  (the 
words),  '  Ye  fathers,  become  pure,'  he  should  salve 
himself  and  murmur,  '  May  I  become  well-looking 
with  my  eyes,  well-shining  with  my  face,  well-hearing 
with  my  ears.' 

20.  He  then  should  put  on  a  garment  which  has 
not  yet  been  washed,  or  not  been  soaked  in  lie,  with 
(the  formula),  '  For  the  sake  of  putting  on,  of  bring- 
ing fame,  of  long  life  I  shall  reach  old  age,  I  live  a 
hundred  long-  autumns.  For  the  sake  of  the  increase 
of  wealth  I  will  clothe  myself.' 

21.  Then  the  upper  garment  with  (the  verse), 
'  With  glory  (come)  to  me.  Heaven  and  Earth. 
With  glory,  Indra  and  Br/haspati !  May  glory  and 
fortune  come  to  me  !   may  glory  be  my  lot ! ' 

22.  If  (he  has  only)  one  (garment),  he  should 
cover  himself  (with  a  part  of  that  garment  as  if  it 
were  an  upper  garment)  with  the  second  part  of  the 
former  (Mantra  ;  Sutra  20). 

23.  He  takes  flowers  with   (the  formula),  '  (The 

20.  Comp.  Katyayana,  iSrauta-sfltra  VII,  2,  18,  to  which  Sutra 
Professor  Stenzler  refers. 

22.  I  give  this  translation  merely  as  tentative.  Professor 
Stenzler  translates:  Wenn  er  nur  Ein  Gewand  hat,  so  bedecke  er 
sich  (noch  einmal)  mil  dem  oberen  Thcile  des  zuerst  angelegten. 
Gayarama  (MS.  Chambers  373)  says  :  ekaw  X-et  tatrapi  paridhana- 
mantraw  paMitva  vastrardham  paridhaya  dvir  aX-amya  uttarardhe 
gr/liitva  uttariyaw  [sic]  mantra;//  pa/Z/itvottartya?//  kr/tva  punar  dvir 
d/^-amed  ity  artha//. 

23.  IIira;/y.-Gr/hya  I,  3.  11,  4. 


3  I  6  PARASKARA-Gi^/HVA-SUTRA. 

flowers)  which  (S^amadagni  has  brought  for  the  sake 
of  faith  (has  brought  to  ^raddha?),  of  love,  of  the 
senses,  them  I  take  with  glory  and  with  fortune.' 

24.  He  then  ties  them  (to  his  head)  with  (the 
verse),  'The  high,  wide  glory,  which  Indra  has 
created  for  the  Apsarases,  the  flowers  bound  up 
with  that,  I  tie  on  to  me,  to  bring  me  glory!' 

25.  He  binds  a  turban  to  his  head  with  (the 
verse),  'A  youth,  well  attired.' 

26.  (He  puts  on)  the  two  ear-rings  with  (the 
words),  '  An  ornament  art  thou ;  may  more  orna- 
ments be  mine.' 

27.  He  salves  his  two  eyes  with  (the  formula), 
'  Vmra's'  (Va^.  Sawh.  IV,  3  b). 

28.  With  (the  words), '  Brilliant  art  thou,'  he  looks 
at  his  image  in  a  mirror. 

29.  He  takes  a  parasol  with  (the  words),  '  Thou 
art  Br/haspati's  covering.  Shelter  me  from  evil. 
Do  not  shelter  me  from  splendour  and  glory.' 

30.  With  (the  words),  '  You  are  supports  ;  protect 
me  from  all  sides,'  he  puts  on  the  two  shoes. 

3 1 .  With  (the  words), '  From  all  powers  of  destruc- 
tion protect  me  on  all  sides,'  he  takes  a  bamboo  staff. 

32.  (For)  the  tooth-cleaner,  &c.  (the  Mantras 
stated  above  are  to  be  used)  in  every  case ;  (for) 
the  garment,  the  parasol,  and  the  shoes,  the  Mantra 
(should  only  be  recited)  if  they  have  not  been  used 
before. 

Kaa^dika  7. 

1.  We  shall  state  the  rules  of  conduct  for  a 
Snataka. 

2.  Another  (may  observe  those  rules)  optionally. 

25.  See  above,  chap.  2,  9. 


II  KAA^-DA,    y  KANDIKA,    12.  317 

3.  Dancing,  singing,  and  playing  musical  instru- 
ments, let  him  neither  perform  himself  nor  go  (to 
see  or  hear  it). 

4.  Sing,  however,  he  may  at  his  pleasure,  for 
there  is  another  saying,  '  He  sings  either  or  he 
rejoices  in  (other  people's)  singing.' 

5.  If  everything  goes  well,  he  shall  not  go  by 
night  to  another  village,  and  shall  not  run. 

6.  He  shall  avoid  looking  into  a  well,  climbing  up 
a  tree,  gathering  fruits,  crawling  through  narrow 
openings,  bathing  naked,  jumping  over  uneven 
ground,  using  harsh  language,  looking  at  the  sun 
while  it  is  rising  or  setting,  and  begging.  For  there 
is  a  .Sruti :  '  After  he  has  bathed,  he  should  not 
beg.  For  he  who  bathes,  drives  away  from  himself 
begging.' 

7.  If  it  rains,  he  shall  go  without  an  upper  garment, 
and  shall  say,  'May  this,  my  thunderbolt,  drive  away 
evil.' 

8.  He  shall  not  look  at  himself  in  water. 

9.  Ai^atalomni;;^  vipumsim  shand/iam  /'a  nopa- 
haset. 

10.  Let  him  call  a  pregnant  woman  *vic^anya' 
(one  who  will  give  birth  to  a  child) ; 

1 1.  An  ichneumon  (nakula),  sakula  ; 

12.  A  skull  (kapala),  bhagala  ; 

7,  3.  Comp.  the  similar  rule  given  in  the  Buddhist  Vinaya,  IMaha- 
vagga  I,  56. 

4.  5atapatha  Brahma;/a  VI,  r,  i,  15. 

5.  If  no  accident  happens  that  makes  his  going  to  another 
village  necessary. 

6.  The  passage  of  the  6'ruti  quoted  is  found  in  the  ..Satapatha 
Brahma«a  XI,  3,  3,  7.  Comp.  Vasish///a  XII,  2,  10,  25;  Gautama 
IX,  32,  61,  &c. 

12.  Gautama  IX,  21. 


o 


1 8  PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-StjTRA. 


13.  A  rainbow  (Indra-dhanu,  Indra's  bow),  ma.m- 
dhanu  (the  jewelled  bow). 

14.  A  cow  that  suckles  (her  calf)  he  should  not 
point  out  to  another  (person). 

15.  Let  him  not  void  urine  or  excrements  on  a 
ploughed  field,  on  uncovered  ground,  or  while  rising 
up  or  standing. 

16.  He  shall  wipe  himself  with  wood  that  has 
fallen  off  by  itself. 

17.  He  should  not  wear  a  dyed  garment. 

18.  He  should  be  fixed  in  his  intentions,  protect 
everybody's  life,  and  be  everybody's  friend,  as  it 
were. 

KAiVDIKA    8. 

1.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  (after  the 
Samavartana)  he  should  keep  (the  following)  ob- 
servances. 

2.  He  shall  eat  no  flesh  and  not  drink  out  of  an 
earthen  vessel. 

3.  He  shall  avoid  seeing  women,  ^Sudras,  dead 
bodies,  black  birds,  and  dogs,  and  shall  not  talk  to 
(such  beings). 

4.  He   shall   not  eat  funeral  food,  or  food  of  a 

A 

13.  Gautama  IX,  22;  Vasish///a  XII, 32.  33;  Apastamba  I,  31, 18. 

14.  Gautama  IX,  23;  Apastamba  I,  31,  10. 

15.  Gautama  IX,  38  ;  Vasish//^a  XII,  13  ;  Apastamba  I,  30,  15. 
18,  Before  easing  himself,  he  shall  first  cover  the  ground  with 
grass  or  the  like. 

17.  Gautama  IX,  4;  Apastamba  I,  30,  10. 
8,  I.  The   words   of  this   Siatra   are   repeated   from  *Satapatha 
Brahmawa  XIV,  i,  1,28  (only  for  -^arati  it  is  said  here  kavet). 

2.  -Satapatha  Brahmawa  1.  1.  §  30. 

3.  6'atapatha  Brahmawa  1.  1.  §  31.  Black  birds,  according  to  the 
commentators,  mean  crows. 

4.  Funeral  food  is  such  food  as  described  below.  III,  10,  26. 


II  KANDA,    9  KAA^DIKA,   3.  319 

^'udra,  or  of  a  woman  lying-in  (during  the  period  of 
her  impurity). 

5.  He  shall  not  void  urine  or  excrements,  or  spit 
out  in  the  sun-shine,  and  shall  not  cover  himself 
against  the  sun. 

6.  He  shall  take  warm  water  for  (the  rites)  in 
which  water  is  wanted. 

7.  At  night  he  shall  eat  by  the  light  (of  a  lamp  or 
a  fire-brand). 

8.  Or  only  speaking  the  truth  (suffices  instead  of 
the  other  observances). 

9.  Also  a  person  who  has  received  the  diksha  (or 
inauguration  for  a  Soma  sacrifice),  should  observe 
these  rules  beginning  from  (that  which  regards)  the 
sun-shine  (Sutra  5),  if  he  performs  the  Pravargya 
ceremony. 

KAiVDIKA    9. 

1.  Now  (follow)  the  five  great  sacrifices. 

2.  Of  the  Vai^vadeva  food  he  should,  after 
having  sprinkled  (water)  round  (the  sacred  fire), 
make  oblations,  with  the  word  Svaha  (each  time 
repeated),  to  Brahman,  to  Pra^apati,  to  the  (deities) 
of  the  house,  to  Ka^yapa,  and  to  Anumati. 

3.  To    the    domestic    deities    (he    offers)    three 

9.  The  Pravargya  ceremony,  one  of  the  preparatory  ceremonies 
of  the  Soma  sacrifice  (Indische  Studien,  X,  363).  was  not  performed 
at  every  Soma  sacrifice,  but  there  were  certain  restrictions  regarding 
its  performance;  see  Indische  Studien,  IX,  219  seq. 

9,  I.  The  five  jMahaya^Ttas  are,  the  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  the 
sacrifice  to  living  Beings,  the  sacrifice  to  the  Fathers,  the  sacrifice  to 
the  Brahman,  the  sacrifice  to  men.  As  to  ihe  meaning  of  the  five 
categories,  see  Ajvalayana-Gr/Tiya  III,  i. 

2.  Compare  above,  I,  12,  3. 

3.  Compare  above,  I,  12,  2. 


320  PARASKARA-GiJZHYA-SUTRA. 

(Balis)  in  the  water-pot :  to  Par^anya,  to  the  waters, 
to  the  Earth ; 

4.  To  Dhatr/  and  Vidhatr/  at  the  two  door- 
posts ; 

5.  To  the  different  quarters  (of  the  horizon),  to 
Vayu  and  (to  the  presiding  deities)  of  the  quarters  ; 

6.  In  the  middle  three  (Balis)  to  Brahman,  to  the 
Air,  to  the  Sun. 

7.  To  the  north  of  those  (he  offers  Balis)  to  the 
Vii've  devas  and  to  all  the  beings ; 

8.  Further  on  to  Ushas  and  to  the  Lord  of 
beings  ; 

9.  To  the  south  (to  the-  Fathers)  with  (the  words), 
'  To  the  Fathers,  Svadha  !  Adoration ! ' 

10.  Having  rinsed  out  the  vessel,  he  should  pour 
it  out  towards  the  north-west  with  (the  words),  'Con- 
sumption !  this  to  thee  ! ' 

1 1 .  Taking  the  Brahma/^a's  portion  (of  the  food 
which  he  is  going  to  distribute),  he  should  give  it  to 
a  Brahma;^a,  after  he  has  made  him  wash  himself, 
with  (the  words),  '  Well !  (this)  to  thee  ! ' 

12.  To  (religious)  mendicants  and  to  guests  they 
should  apportion  (food)  as  due  to  them. 

13.  The  persons  belonging  to  the  house,  the 
young  and  the  old,  should  eat  what  is  due  to  them ; 

14.  Afterwards  the  householder  and  his  wife. 

15.  Or  the  householder  (should  eat)  first,  because 

II.  What  I  have  translated  '  the  Brahma?7a's  portion'  is  agra. 
See  on  this  word  the  remark  of  Nilaka;////a  quoted  by  Bohtlingk- 
Roth  s.v.  agrahara  :  agra?«  brahma;mbho^ana7;^,  tadartha?;z  hriyante 
ra^adhanat  przthakkriyante  te^grahara/^  kshetradaya^.  According 
to  different  commentators  and  lexicographers  one  Agra  is  equal  to 
four  or  to  sixteen  mouthfuls  of  food. 

15.  I  cannot  indicate  any  more  than  Professor  Stenzler  could, 
where  the  passage  here  quoted  occurs  in  a  Brahma^za. 


II    KAA^DA,     lO    KAA'DIKA,    I O.  •:2I 


O' 


the  ^S'riiti  says,  '  Therefore  the  householder  should 
eat  the  sweetest  food  before  his  oruests.' 

1 6.  Every  day  he  should  sacrifice  with  the  word 
svaha.  If  he  has  no  food  (to  offer,  he  should  make 
his  offering)  with  something  else,  be  it  even  a  piece 
of  wood  (onl)),  to  the  gods,  or  be  it  (onl))  a  water- 
pot,  to  the  Fathers  and  to  men. 

Kaa^dika  10. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  Adhyayopakarman  (or  open- 
ing ceremony  at  the  beginning  of  the  annual  course 
of  study). 

2.  When  the  herbs  appear,  (when  the  moon  stands 
in  conjunction)  with  .Srava^^a,  on  the  full-moon  day 
of  the  6'rava;^a  month,  or  on  the  fifth  (Tithi)  of 
the  Sr3.v3.7i3.  month  under  (the  Nakshatra)  Hasta ; 

3.  Having  sacrificed  the  two  A^ya  portions,  he 
offers  two  A^ya  oblations,  (namely,) 

4.  To  the  Earth  and  to  Agni,  if  (he  studies)  the 
A*/g-veda, 

5.  To  the  Air  and  to  Vayu,  if  the  Ya^'ur-veda, 

6.  To  the  Heaven  and  to  the  Sun,  if  the  Sama- 
veda, 

7.  To  the  quarters  (of  the  horizon)  and  to  the 
Moon,  if  the  Atharva-veda; 

8.  (Besides)  to  the  Brahman,  to  the  metres  in 
every  case, 

9.  And  to  Pra^apati,  to  the  gods,  to  the  T^/shis, 
to  Faith,  to  Insight,  to  Sadasaspati,  to  Anumati. 

10.  The    same    (oblations    are    made)    when    the 

16.  Comp.  .Sankhayana-Gr/hya  II,  17,  2;  ^^'atapatha  Brahmawa 
XI,  5,6,  2. 

10,  2.  Comp.  Ajvalayana-G/'i'hya  III,  5,  2.  3  and  my  note. 

lo.  On  the  different  vratas  (observances)  connected  with  the 

[29]  V 


.32  2  PARASKARA-G/2/HYA-sOtRA. 


O 


observances  are  imposed  (on  a  student)  or  given  up 
(by  him,  after  having  been  kept  through  the  pre- 
scribed period  of  time). 

11.  With  (the  verse),  '  Sadasaspati '  (Va^.  Samh. 
XXXII,  13)  (the  teacher)  three  times  (sacrifices) 
fried  grains. 

12.  All  should  repeat  (that  verse  after  him). 

13.  After  each  oblation  they  should  each  time  put 
on  the  fire  three  pieces  of  Udumbara  wood,  fresh 
branches  with  leaves,  anointed  with  ghee,  reciting 
the  Savitrt. 

14.  And  the  students  (should  put  wood  on  the 
fire)  in  the  manner  stated  above. 

15.  With  (the  verse),  '  Luck  may  bring  us  '  (Vaf. 
Samh.  IX,  16)  they  should  eat  the  fried  grains  with- 
out chewing  them. 

16.  With  the  verse,  'Of  Dadhikravan '  (Va^. 
Samh.  XXIII,  32)  they  should  eat  curds. 

17.  As  many  pupils  as  he  wishes  to  obtain,  so 
many  sesamum  grains  should  he  sacrifice  with  a 
dice-board,  with  the  Savitri  or  with  the  Anuvaka, 
*  Bright-resplending '  (Va^.  Sa:';/h.  XVII,  80  seqq.). 

18.  After  they  have  eaten  (the  remainder  of  the 
sacrificial  food,  the  teacher)  should  pronounce  the 
word  Om  and  then  repeat  the  Savitri  three  times, 
and  the  beginnings  of  the  Adhyayas  to  (the  students) 
who  are  seated  facing  the  west ; 

study  of  the  Veda,  such  as  the  6'ukriya-vrata,  the  6'akvara-vrata,  &c., 
comp.  especially  -5'afikhayana-Gr/hya  II,  11.  12  and  the  notes  there. 
14.  See  above,  chap.  4. 

17.  Akarshaphalakena.  Ramakrzshwa  states  that  this  is  a 
board  of  Udumbara  wood,  of  the  length  of  an  arm,  and  of  the 
shape  of  a  serpent.  (See  Professor  Stenzler's  note.) 

18.  The  following  Siitras  clearly  show  that  this  rule  is  intended 
for  students  of  the  Ya^ur-veda  only. 


II   KAiVDA,    I  I    KAiVDIKA,     3.  323 

19.  The  beginnings  of  the  sections  belonging  to 
the  (different)  J^/shis,  if  they  are  Bahvrz'/'as  (i.  e.  if 
they  study  the  Tv/g-veda), 

20.  The  Parvans,  if  they  are  A'/^andogas  (i.  e.  if 
they  study  the  Sama-veda), 

2 1 .  The  Suktas,  if  they  are  Atharvans. 

22.  All  murmur:  'May  it  be  ours  in  common; 
may  it  bless  us  in  common  ;  may  this  Brahman  be 
powerful  with  us  together.  Indra  knows  that  through 
which,  and  in  which  way,  no  hatred  may  spring  up 
amonorst  us.' 

O 

23.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  they  should 
not  study  (the  Veda). 

24.  And  they  should  not  cut  the  hair  of  their 
bodies  and  their  nails. 

25.  Some  say  (that  this  should  not  be  done)  till 
the  Utsarga  (i.e.  the  concluding  ceremony  of  the 
annual  course  of  study). 

KAiVDIKA    11. 

1.  If  (a  strong)  wind  is  blowing,  and  on  the  new- 
moon  da)'  there  is  an  entire  interruption  of  study. 

2.  If  one  has  partaken  of  a  6raddha  dinner,  if  a 
meteor  falls,  or  distant  thundering  is  heard,  or  if  the 
earth  quakes,  or  if  fiery  apparitions  are  seen,  and 
when  a  new  season  begins,  (the  study  shall  be 
interrupted)  until  the  same  time  next  day. 

3.  If  the  Utsarga  ceremony  has  been  performed, 

20.  On  the  division  of  the  Sama-veda  into  Parvans,  comp.  Weber, 
Indische  Litcraturgeschichte,  2nd  edition,  p.  72. 

11,  I.  'Entire  interruption'  means,  according  to  the  commen- 
tators, that  not  only  the  study  of  the  Veda  itself,  but  also  that  of  the 
Vedahgas,  or  even  all  sorts  of  worldly  instruction  are  forbidden. 

3.  I  have  left  the  words  sarvarflpe  ia.  untranslated.     Evidently 

Y  2 


324  PARASKARA-Gi2/HYA-SL)TRA. 

if  clouds  appear,  .  .  .  .  ,  (it  shall  be  interrupted) 
through  a  period  of  three  nights  or  till  twilight  has 
thrice  passed. 

4.  After  he  has  eaten,  until  he  has  (washed  and) 
dried  his  hands ;  while  being  in  water ;  at  night- 
time ;  at  the  time  of  the  mornincr  and  evenine 
twilight ;  while  a  dead  body  or  a  A^'a^^i/ala  is  in  the 
village. 

5.  While  running,  while  seeing  a  person  of  bad 
fame  or  who  has  lost  his  caste,  if  a  miraculous  or 
happy  event  happens,  as  long  as  (that  which  occa- 
sions the  interruption  of  study)  endures. 

6.  If  hoar-frost  (lies  on  the  ground),  if  a  musical 
instrument  is  heard,  or  the  cry  of  a  person  in  pain, 
at  the  border  of  the  village,  in  a  burial  ground,  or  if 
a  dog,  an  ass,  an  owl,  a  jackal,  or  a  Saman  song  is 
heard,  or  if  a  learned  person  approaches,  as  long  as 
(that  occasion)  endures. 

7.  If  his  Guru  has  died,  let  him  go  down  into 
water  (for  offering  water-oblations)  and  interrupt 
(the  study)  for  ten  nights. 

8.  If  one  who  has  performed  with  him  the  Tanu- 
naptra  ceremony,  or  a  fellow-pupil  (has  died),  for 
three  nights. 

9.  If  one  who  is  not  his  fellow-pupil,  (has  died,) 
for  one  night. 


sarvarupa  is  identical  with  the  doubtful  word  j-avariipa  which  twice 
occurs  in  the  ^'ankhayana-Gr/hya.  See  the  discussion  on  that 
word  in  the  note  on  ^Sahkhayana  II,  12,  10. 

4.  On  antardivakirtye,  comp.  Manu  V,  85.  Gautama XVI,  19. 

8.  The  Tandnaptra  is  an  invocation  directed  to  Tanunaptr;' 
(i.e.  the  wind)  by  which  the  officiating  priests  and  the  Ya^amana  at 
a  Soma  sacrifice  pledge  their  faith  to  do  no  harm  to  each  other. 
See  Indische  Studien,  X,  362. 


II  KANDA,     T2   KAiVDIKA,  4.  325 

10.  After  having  studied  five  months  and  a  half, 
they  should  celebrate  the  Utsarga, 

1 1.  Or  six  months  and  a  half. 

12.  They  then  mutter  this  Jit'k :  'Ye  two  young 
sages !  The  relation  which  has  expired  among  us, 
the  friendship  we  dissolve,  (turning  away)  from  the 
condition  of  friendship.' 

13.  After  having  remained  together  through  a 
period  of  three  nights,  they  separate. 

KAiVDIKA    12. 

1.  In  (the  month)  Pausha,  under  (the  Nakshatra) 
Rohiwi,  or  at  the  middle  Ash/aka  let  them  celebrate 
the  conclusion  of  the  study  (of  the  Veda). 

2.  Let  them  go  to  the  brink  of  water  and  make 
water  oblations  to  the  gods,  the  metres,  the  Vedas, 
the  J^ish'is,  the  ancient  teachers,  the  Gandharvas, 
the  other  teachers,  the  year  with  its  divisions,  and 
to  their  own  ancestors  and  teachers. 

3.  After  having  four  times  quickly  recited  the 
Savitri,  they  should  say,  'We  have  finished.' 

4.  Interruption  (of  the  study)  and  (continuation  of 
the)  teaching  as  stated  above. 


12.  The  reading  of  the  Mantra  is  doubtful.  I  think  it  should 
stand  as  Professor  Stenzler  has  printed  it,  except  that  I  should 
propose  to  correct  y  u  v  a  into  y  u  v  a  n  a  (comp.  Aj valayana-^rauta  VI, 
12,  12).  It  is  probable  that  the  gods  addressed  are  the  two 
A.r\'ins,  who  are  called  kavi  and  yuvana  in  several  passages  of 
the  Vedas. 

12,  I.  See  Ajvalayana-G/v'hya  III,  5,  20;  ^ahkhayana-Gr/Tiya 
IV,  6.     On  the  three  Ash/akas,  see  below.  III,  3,  i. 

4.  .Sahkhayana-Gr/liya  IV.  5,  17.  where  the  same  expression 
ksliapa«a  for  interruptions  of  the  study  is  used.  The  words  '  as 
above'  refer  to  chap.  10,  23.  24. 


326  PARASKARA-Gi?7HYA-SUTRA. 


O 


Kajvdika  13, 

1.  On  an  auspicious  clay  the  harnessing  to  the 
plough.  Or  under  (the  Nakshatra)  6^yesh///a, 
(because  that  rite  is)  sacred  to  Indra. 

2.  To  Indra,  Par^anya,  the  two  A^vins,  the 
Maruts,  Udalaka-yyapa,  Svatikari,  Sita,  and  Anumati, 
he  offers  curds,  rice  grains,  perfumes,  and  fried 
grains,  and  then  makes  the  bullocks  eat  honey  and 


ghee. 


3.  He  should  put  them  to  the  plough  with  (the 
verse),  '  They  harness  to  the  ploughs '  (Va^.  Sawh. 
XII,  67). 

4.  With  (the  verse), '  For  luck  may  us  the  plough- 
shares '  (Va^.  Sa7;2h.  XII,  69)  let  him  plough  or 
touch  the  plough -share. 

5.  Or  (he  may)  not  (do  so),  because  (that  verse) 
has  been  prescribed  for  (the  erection  of)  the  Agni 
(-altar),  and  the  act  of  sowing  stands  in  connection 
(with  it). 

6.  After  the  front-bullock  has  been  sprinkled 
(with  water),  they  then  should  plough  unploughed 
ground. 


13, 1.  Indra  is  the  presiding  deity  over  the  constellation  Gyesh//ia.; 
see  -S'ahkhayana-Gr/hya  I,  26,  16,  &c. 

2.  The  names  of  the  genius  Udalakajyapa  and  of  the  female 
genius  Svatikari  occur,  as  far  as  I  know,  only  here.  Bohtlingk- 
Roth  propose  to  read  Sphati;;/kari  ('  the  goddess  who  gives 
abundance '). 

5.  At  the  Agni-Z'ayana  ceremony  furrows  are  drawn  with  the 
plough  on  the  Agni-kshetra  with  the  verses  V%.  Sa7;/h.  XII,  69-72. 
Afterwards  grains  of  different  kinds  are  sown.  See  Katyayana 
XVII,  2,  12  ;  3,  8;  Indische  Studien,  XIII,  244  seq.  Thus  in  the 
^rauta  ritual  the  verse  Va^.  Sawh.  XII,  69  stands  in  a  connection 
which  does  not  conform  to  the  occasion  for  which  it  would  be  used 
here. 


II  KAiVDA,     14  KAiVZ)IKA,    7.  327 

7.  He  should  make  oblations  of  cooked  sacrificial 
food  to  the  same  deities  as  above,  when  sowing  both 
rice  and  barley,  and  at  the  sacrifice  to  Sita. 

8.  Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma/^as. 


Kajvdika  14. 

1 .  Now  (follows)  the  KS'rava^^a  ceremony, 

2.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  the  .5'rava;^a  month. 

3.  He  cooks  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  fried  grains, 
and  a  cake  in  one  dish,  pounds  the  greater  part  of 
the  grains,  sacrifices  the  two  A^'a  portions,  and  two 
(other)  A^a  oblations  (with  the  following  verses) : 

4.  '  Beat  away,  O  white  one,  with  thy  foot,  with 
the  fore-foot  and  with  the  hind-foot,  these  seven 
[children]  of  Varu;^a  and  all  (daughters)  of  the  king's 
tribe.     Svaha  ! 

5.  '  Within  the  dominion  of  the  white  one,  the 
Serpent  has  seen  nobody.  To  the  white  one,  the 
son  of  Vidarva,  adoration  !    Svaha  ! ' 

6.  He  makes  oblations  of  the  mess  of  cooked 
sacrificial  food  to  Vish/ai,  to  6'rava;^a,  to  the  full 
moon  of  Srd.v3.7ia.,  and  to  the  rainy  season, 

7.  (And  oblations)  of  the  grains  with  (the  verse), 
'Accompanied  with  grains'  (Va<,''.  Sawh.  XX,  29). 

7.  *  As  above'  refers  to  Sfilra  2.  On  the  Sita-ya^?7a,  see  below, 
chap.  17. 

14,  I  seqq.  Comp.  6ahkhayana  IV,  5;  Ajvalayana  II,  i; 
Gobhila  III,  7. 

4.  Ajvalayana  II,  3,  3;  ^ahkhayana I V,  18,  i.  For  Varuwai^ 
and  ra^abandhavai/i  I  read  Varuwi/^  ra^^abandhavi//.  Pra^i^'a// 
is  an  interpolation. 

5.  Ajvalayana,  loc.  cit.  One  is  rather  tempted  to  correct  ahir 
dadawja  kari/^ana,  but  Rama^andra's  Paddhati  on  6ahkhayana 
gives  the  reading  dadarja,  as  the  Paraskara  jNISS.  do. 


328  PARASKARA-Gi?7HYA-StjTRA. 

8.  He  sacrifices  flour,  over  which  ghee  has  been 
poured,  to  the  serpents  (with  the  following  Mantras) : 

9.  '  To  the  lord  of  the  serpents  belonging  to  Agni, 
of  the  yellowish,  terrestrial  ones,  svaha  ! 

'  To  the  lord  of  the  white  serpents  belonging  to 
Vayu,  of  the  aerial  ones,  svaha  ! 

'  To  the  lord  of  the  overpowering  serpents  belong- 
ing to  Siirya,  of  the  celestial  ones,  svaha ! 

10.  The  (cake)  in  one  dish  he  offers  entirely 
(without  leaving  a  remainder  for  the  sacrificer)  with 
(the  formula),  '  To  the  firm  one,  the  son  of  the 
Earth,  svaha  ! ' 

11.  After  he  has  eaten  (of  the  sacrificial  food),  he 
throws  a  portion  of  the  flour  into  a  basket,  goes  out, 
besmears  an  elevated  spot  outside  the  hall  (with 
cowdung),  says,  while  a  fire-brand  is  held  (before 
him),  '  Do  not  step  between  (myself  and  the  fire),' 
and  without  speaking  (anything  except  the  Mantras), 
he  causes  the  serpents  to  wash  themselves,  (pouring 
out  water  for  them,  with  the  formulas  :) 

1 2.  '  Lord  of  the  serpents  belonging  to  Agni,  of 
the  yellowish,  terrestrial  ones,  wash  thyself ! 

*  Lord  of  the  white  serpents  belonging  to  Vayu,  of 
the  aerial  ones,  wash  thyself ! 

*  Lord  of  the  overpowering  serpents  belonging  to 
Surya,  of  the  celestial  ones,  wash  thyself!' 

13.  Each  time  after  the  washing  has  been  done, 
he  offers  to  the  serpents  a  Bali  of  flour,  picking  out 

1 1 .  The  ceremony  with  the  fire-brand  seems  to  stand  in  connec- 
tion with  the  rule  given  by  Ajvalayana,  II,  i,  13,  that  before  the 
sacrificer  has  '  given  himself  in  charge '  to  the  serpents,  nobody  is 
allowed  to  step  between  him  and  the  Bali  destined  for  the  serpents. 
Comp.  also  below,  Sutra  23. 

13.  I  have  translated  upaghatam  by  'picking  out.'     On  the  full 


II  KAiVDA,    14  KAiVZ)IKA,    1 8.  329 


(portions  of  it)  with  (the  spoon  called)  Darvi  (with 
the  formulas)  : 

14.  'Lord  of  the  serpents  belonging  to  Agni,  of 
the  yellowish,  terrestrial  ones,  this  is  thy  Bali ! 

'  Lord  of  the  white  serpents  belonging  to  Vayu,  of 
the  aerial  ones,  this  is  thy  Bali ! 

'  Lord  of  the  overpowering  serpents  belonging  to 
Surya,  of  the  celestial  ones,  this  is  thy  Bali ! ' 

15.  After  he  has  made  them  wash  themselves 
as  above,  he  combs  them  with  combs  (with  the 
formulas)  : 

16.  '  Lord  of  the  serpents  belonging  to  Agni,  of 
the  yellowish,  terrestrial  ones,  comb  thyself ! 

'  Lord  of  the  white  serpents  belonging  to  Vayu,  of 
the  aerial  ones,  comb  thyself ! 

'  Lord  of  the  overpowering  serpents  belonging  to 
Siirya,  of  the  celestial  ones,  comb  thyself ! ' 

i^.  (He  offers)  collyrium,  ointment,  and  garlands 
with  (the  same  formulas),  putting  at  their  end,  re- 
spectively, the  words,  '  Salve  thy  eyes  ! '  '  Anoint 
thyself ! '     *  Put  on  garlands  ! ' 

1 8.  The  remainder  of  the  flour  he  pours  out  on 
the  elevated  spot  (mentioned  in  Sutra  ii),  pours 
water  on   it  out  of  a  water-pot,  and  worships   the 


technical  meaning  of  the  term,  which  implies  the  omission  of  the 
upastarawa  and  abhighara/za,  see  Bloomfield's  note  on  G/vliya-saz/z- 
graha  I,  1 1 1  (Zeitschrift  der  deutschen  INIorgenlandischen  Gesell- 
schaft,  XXXV,  568). 

15.  The  words  'as  above'  refer  to  Sfitra  11.  Pralikhati,  which 
I  have  translated  'he  combs  them,'  is  the  same  act  for  which 
iahkhayana  (IV,  1 5,  7)  says.  pha;/ena  /tesh/ayati.  I  think  Professor 
Stenzler  is  wrong  in  translating  :  Er  scharrt  (das  INIehl)  mil  Kiimmen 
zusammen.  Gayarama  says :  pralekhanaw  X-a  kramewa  pratiman- 
tram  balikanrtTiyanaw  kahkatai/^.  tani  kx  vaikahkatiyani  pradeja- 
matrawy  ekatodantani  kash///ani  bhavanti. 


;30  PARASKARA-G22ZHYA-Sl)TRA. 


serpents  with  the  three  (verses),  '  Adoration  be  to 
the  serpents'  (Va^.  Sa?;/h.  XIII,  6  seqq.). 

19.  At  that  distance  in  which  he  wishes  the  ser- 
pents not  to  approach  (the  house),  he  should  three 
times  walk  round  the  house,  sprinkling  an  uninter- 
rupted stream  of  water  round  it,  with  the  two  (verses), 
'  Beat  away,  O  white  one,  with  thy  foot '  (Satras  4 

and  5). 

20.  He  gives  away  the  (spoon  called)  Darvi  (Sutra 
13)  and  the  basket  (Sutra  11),  having  washed  and 
warmed  them, 

21.  Near  the  door  (of  the  house)  they  clean  them- 
selves with  the  three  (verses),  '  O  waters,  ye  are ' 
(Va^.  Sajnh.  XI,  50  seqq.). 

22.  Having  put  away  that  remainder  of  flour  in  a 
hidden  place,  he  should  from  that  time  daily  till  the 
Agrahaya;n,  after  sunset,  when  he  has  performed 
the  service  to  the  fire,  offer  to  the  serpents  a  Bali  of 
flour,  picking  out  (portions  of  it)  with  the  Darvi 
(spoon). 

23.  When  he  is  offering  (the  Bali),  let  no  one  step 
between  (the  sacrificer  and  the  Bali). 

24.  With  the  Darvi  (spoon)  he  rinses  his  mouth. 
Having  washed  it,  he  puts  it  away. 


20.  According  to  the  commentators  he  gives  these  things  to  the 
man  who  holds  the  fire-brand  (Sutra  11). 

22.  The  Agrahaya??!  is  the  full-moon  day  of  Marganrsha,  on 
which  the  Pratyavaroha;za  ceremony  is  celebrated.  See  below,  III,  2  ; 
Weber,  die  vedischen  Nachrichten  von  den  Naxatra,  II,  332.  The 
expression  darvyopaghata?;i  is  the  same  that  has  occurred  above 
in  Sutra  13. 

23.  Comp.  Ajvalayana-G/vhya  II,  1,  13,  and  see  above, 
SAtra  II. 

24.  Prakshalya  seems  to  me  to  refer  to  the  Darvi ;  seeStea  20. 


II  KANDA,    15   KANDIKA,  4.  33  I 

25.  They  eat  the  (rice)  grains  which  must  not 
form  one  coherent  mass. 

26.  Then  (follows)  the  feeding  of  the  P)rahma;/as. 

Kaa^dika  15. 

1.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  PraushZ/^apada  the 
sacrifice  to  Indra. 

2.  Having  cooked  milk-rice  for  Indra  and  cakes, 
and  having  put  cakes  round  (the  fire),  he  sacrifices 
the  two  A^a  portions  and  A^ya  oblations  to  Indra, 
to  Indra;^i,  to  A^a  Ekapad,  to  Ahi  Budhnya,  and  to 
the  Prosh///apadas. 

3.  After  he  has  eaten  (his  portion  of  the  sacri- 
ficial food),  he  offers  a  Bali  to  the  INIaruts.  For  the 
Sruti  says, '  The  Maruts  eat  what  is  not-sacrificed.' 

4.  (This  Bali  he  offers)  in  A^-vattha  leaves,  be- 
cause it  is  said,  '  The  Maruts  stood  in  the  Aj"vattha 
tree.' 


25.  Asawsyuta/;.     Comp.  Bcihtlingk-Roth  s.v.  sa/«-siv. 

15,  2.  After  these  A^ya  oblations  follows  the  chief  oblation  of  the 
whole  sacrifice,  the  oblation  of  milk-rice  to  Indra.  In  one  of 
Professor  Stenzler's  MSS.  there  is  a  special  SUtra  inserted  after 
Siitra  2,  'Of  the  cooked  food  he  makes  an  oblation  with  (the 
formula),  "  To  Indra  svaha." '  I  do  not,  however,  think  it  right  to 
receive  this  Sulra  into  the  text,  as  the  other  IMSS.  do  not  support 
it,  and  the  commentators  did  not  find  it  in  the  text  which  they  read. 

3.  Professor  Stenzler's  translation,  '  Die  INIaruts  essen  kein  Opfer,' 
seems  to  me  not  quite  exact.  '  I  should  prefer  to  say,  '  Die  Maruts 
essen  Nicht-Opfer.'  This  passage,  taken  from  ^atapatha  Brahmawa 
IV,  5,  2,  16,  is  quoted  as  supporting  the  rule  that  a  Bali  oflering 
should  be  made  to  the  Maruts  ;  for  in  the  technical  language  the 
term  ahuta  is  applied  to  Bali  offerings  (.S'ankhayana-Gr/liya  I, 
10,  7,  hutO:«gnihotrahomena,  ahuto  balikarma//a). 

4.  When  Indra  called  them  to  his  help  against  Vr/tra.  .S'atapatha 
Brahmawa  IV,  3,  3,  6. 


332  PARASKARA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 


5.  (He  offers  it)  with  (the  texts),  '  BrilHantly  re- 
splendent' (Vd;-  S:imh.  XVII,  80-85),  Mantra  by 
Mantra, 

6.  And  with  the  (Mantra  called)  Vimukha. 

7.  (This  Mantra  he  repeats  only)  in  his  mind. 

8.  For  the  ^'ruti  says, '  These  are  their  names.' 

9.  He  murmurs,  'To  Indra  the  divine'  (Va^. 
Sa?;^h.  XVII,  86). 

10.  Then  (follows)  the  feeding  of  the  Brahma;/as. 

KAiVDIKA    16, 

1.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  A^vayu^a  the  (offer- 
ings of)  Pr/^hatakas  (are  made). 

2.  Havine  cooked  milk-rice  for  Indra  he  sacrifices 
it,  mixed  with  curds,  honey,  and  ghee,  to  Indra,  In- 
dra?^i,  the  two  A^vins,  the  full  moon  of  A^-vayu^a, 
and  to  the  autumn. 

3.  After  he  has  eaten  (his  portion  of  the  sacrificial 
food),  he  sacrifices  with  his  joined  hands  a  Pr/sha- 
taka  prepared  with  curds,  with  the  words,  '  May 
what  is  deficient  be  made  full  to  me  ;  may  what  is 
full  not  decay  to  me.     Svaha  ! ' 

4.  The  inmates  of  the  house  look  at  the  mix- 
ture of  curds,  honey,  and  ghee,  with  the  Anuvaka, 


5.  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  the  last  words  of  Katy.  XVIII,  4,  23. 

6.  This  is  the  first  part  of  Va^.  Sawh.  XVII,  86. 

8.  6'atapatha  Brahma;/a  IX,  3,  i,  26.  There  it  is  said  that 
jukra^yotis  ('  brilliantly  resplendent ')  &c.  (the  words  used  in  Va^^ 
Sawh.  XVII,  80)  are  names  of  the  Maruts. 

9.  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  Katy.  XVIII,  4,  25. 

16,  I.  Pr/shataka  means  a  mixture  of  curds  and  butter.  Comp. 
.Sahkhayana  IV,  16,  3;  A>rvalayana  II,  2,  3;  Gnliya-sawgraha- 
pari^ish/a  II,  59. 

3.  Ajvalayana  II,  2,  3. 


II   KAiVDA,   17  KAiVDIKA,  6.  333 


'May   Indra   come    hither'    (Vai^.    Samh.    XX,    47 

seqq.). 

5.  They  let    the   calves  join  their   mothers   that 

night  and  the  Agrahaya;^i  night. 

6.  Then  (follows)  the  feeding  of  the  Brahma;<Jas. 

Ka;\^z)1Ka  17. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  sacrifice  to  Sita. 

2.  Wherever  he  sacrifices,  be  it  (on  a  field)  of  rice 
or  of  barley,  of  that  grain  he  should  prepare  a  mess 
of  cooked  food. 

3.  One  who  has  sacrificed  may,  if  he  likes,  pre- 
pare elsewhere  also  a  mess  of  cooked  food,  either  of 
rice  or  of  barley. 

4.  (There  should  be)  no  doubt  (as  to  whether  rice 
or  barley  is  to  be  taken),  as  a  rule  thereon  has  been 
stated  above. 

5.  If  it  is  impossible  (to  take  one  of  the  two 
species  of  corn),  (that)  is  excluded. 

6.  To  the  east  or  to  the  north  of  the  field,  on  a 

5.  .Sahkhayana  IV,  16,  4. 

17,  I.  The  goddess  Sita  is,  as  her  name  indicates,  the  rustic 
deity  of  the  furrow. 

3.  Perhaps  the  meaning  is  that  a  person  who  has  aheady  once 
performed  the  Sita-yaefta  on  the  field,  is  allowed,  when  repeating 
the  sacrifice  another  time,  to  celebrate  it  elsewhere,  and  to  choose 
at  his  will  between  rice  and  barley. 

4.  A  rule  has  been  given  in  the  .SYauta-sfitra  (Katy.  I,  9,  i : 
*  Rice  or  barley,  if  a  Havis  [is  prescribed]  ')  which  shows  that  it  is 
indiff"erent  whether  rice  or  barley  is  taken.  Thus  the  sacrificer  is 
free  to  elect  the  one  or  the  other.  At  least  this  is  the  traditional 
meaning  of  this  SiJtra.  But  possibly  we  had  better  understand  it 
otherwise.  The  sacrificer  should  offer,  according  to  Sutra  3,  rice 
or  barley.  Whether  he  has  to  take  the  one  or  the  other,  there  can 
be  no  doubt,  as  the  rule  given  above  (Sdtra  2)  shows  that  rice 
should  be  cooked,  if  the  ceremony  is  performed  for  a  rice-field, 
and  barley,  if  for  a  barley-field. 


334  PARASKARA-GiJ/HYA-S^TKA. 


clean  spot  that  has  been  ploughed,  so  that  the  crop 
be  not  damaged, 

7.  Or  in  the  village,  because  (there)  both  (rice  and 
barley)  are  united,  and  because  no  obstacle  is  there. 

8.  Where  he  intends  to  cook  (the  sacrificial  food), 
he  establishes  the  fire  on  a  place  that  has  been 
smeared  (with  cowdung),  which  is  elevated,  and 
which  has  been  sprinkled  (with  water),  strews  (round 
the  fire)  Darbha  grass  mixed  with  (stalks  of)  that 
(sort  of  corn  to  which  the  sacrifice  refers),  sacrifices 
the  two  A^^a  portions  and  A^ya  oblations  (with  the 
following  Mantras) : 

9.  '  For  whom  earth  and  heaven,  the  intermediate 
points  and  the  chief  points  (of  the  horizon)  are  veiled 
with  light,  that  Indra  I  invoke  here.  May  his 
weapons  be  friendly  towards  us.     Svaha  ! 

'  Whatsoever  it  be  that  I  wish  for  at  this  sacrifice, 

0  killer  of  Vmra,  may  all  that  be  fulfilled  to  me, 
and  may  I  live  a  hundred  autumns.     Svaha ! 

'  May  success,  prosperity,  earth,  rain,  eminence, 
excellence,  luck  here  protect  the  creatures.     Svaha ! 

'  In  whose  substance  dwells  the  prosperity  of  all 
Vedic  and  worldly  works,  Indra's  wife  Sita  I  invoke. 
May  she  not  abandon  me  in  whatever  work  I   do. 

Svaha  ! 

'  Her,  who  rich  in  horses,  rich  in  cows,  rich  in 
delight  indefatigably  supports  living  beings,  Urvar^ 
(i.  e.  the  field)  who  is  wreathed  with  threshing-floors, 

1  invoke  at  this  sacrifice,  the  firm  One.     May  she 
not  abandon  me.     Svaha  ! ' 

10.  He  makes  oblations  of  the  cooked  sacrificial 
food  to  Sita,  Ya^a  (the  goddess  of  sacrifice),  6ama 
(the  goddess  of  zealous  devotion),  Bhuti  (the  goddess 
of  welfare). 


II  KAiVDA,     ly   KANDIKA,     l6.  335 


1 1 .  Some  say  that  the  giving  (of  the  sacrificial 
food  to  the  deities)  accompanies  the  Mantras. 

12.  But  this  is  excluded,  as  the  ^ruti  says,  'The 
giving  (of  the  oblation  to  the  deity)  accompanies  the 
word  Svaha.' 

1 3.  On  the  Ku^a  grass  which  is  left  over  from  the 
strewing  (of  grass  round  the  fire),  he  offers  a  Bali  to 
the  protecting  demons  of  the  furrow  with  (the  Man- 
tra), '  They  who  are  sitting  towards  the  east  with 
strong  bows  and  quivers,  may  they  protect  thee 
from  the  east,  and  be  vigilant  and  not  abandon  thee. 
To  them  I  bring  adoration,  and  I  offer  this  Bali  to 

them.' 

1 4.  Then  to  the  south  with  (the  Mantra),  '  They 
who  are  sitting  towards  the  south,  not  winking  the 
eyes,  wearing  armour,  may  they  protect  thee  from 
the  south,  and  be  vigilant  and  not  abandon  thee. 
To  them  I  bring  adoration,  and  I  offer  this  Bali  to 

them.' 

15.  Then  to  the  west  with  (the  Mantra),  'The 
powerful  ones,  the  excellent  ones,  prosperity,  earth, 
Parsh;n,  ^'unawkuri,  may  they  protect  thee  from 
the  west,  and  be  vigilant  and  not  abandon  thee. 
To  them  I  bring  adoration,  and  I  offer  this  Bali  to 

them.' 

16.  Then  to  the  north  with  (the  Mantra),  'The 
fearful  ones,  like  to  Vayu  in  speed,  may  they  protect 

12.  The  quotation  has  not  been  as  yet  identified  in  the  6'ruti 
itself,  but  the  words  quoted  are  found  in  Katy.-5raui.  I,  2,  7. 

14.  Some  words  in  the  beginning  of  the  Mantra  are  lost.  We 
should  probably  write :  atha  dakshiwataA.  ye  dakshiz/ato^nimisha-^  . . . 
varmiwa  asate,  &c.  Of  course  it  is  impossible!  to  say  which  is  the 
word  that  is  wanting  before  (or  perhaps  after)  varmiwaA. 

15.  Parsh;//,  which  means  'heel,'  stands  here,  of  course,  as  the 
name  of  a  protecting  demon. 


336  PARASKARA-G/2/HYA-stjTRA. 


thee  from  the  north,  on  the  field,  on  the  threshing- 
floor,  in  the  house,  on  the  way,  and  be  vigilant  and 
not  abandon  thee.  To  them  I  bring  adoration,  and  I 
offer  this  Bali  to  them.' 

1 7.  Of  another  (sort  of  food)  as  the  chief  (food 
used  at  this  sacrifice),  and  with  the  remainder  of 
A^a,  he  distributes  Balis  as  above. 

18.  And  the  women  should  make  accompanying 
oblations,  because  such  is  the  custom. 

19.  When  the  ceremony  is  finished,  he  should 
feed  the  Brahma/^as.  He  should  feed  the  Brah- 
manas. 

End  of  the  Second  K^ndsi. 


17.  See  above,  chap.  13,  2. 


Ill  KAiVDA,     I    K^NDlKA,    4.  337 


KaA'DA    III,    Kaa'dika    1. 

1.  (Now  shall  be  explained)  the  partaking  of  the 
first-fruits  (of  the  harvest),  of  a  person  who  has  not 
set  up  the  (sacred  ^Srauta)  fires. 

2.  He  cooks  a  mess  of  fresh  sacrificial  food,  sacri- 
fices the  two  Ajrys.  portions,  and  two  A^-a  oblations, 
(with  the  formulas), 

*  To  the  hundredfold  armed,  hundredfold  valiant, 
hundredfold  blissful  one,  the  vanquisher  of  enemies 
— he  who  may  create  a  hundred  autumns  for  us, 
Indra, — may  he  lead  us  across  (the  gulf  of)  mis- 
fortune.    Svdha ! 

'  The  four  paths  that  go  between  heaven  and 
earth,  trodden  by  the  gods — of  these  (paths)  lead  us 
to  that  which  may  bring  us  freedom  from  decay  and 
decline,  O  all  ye  gods.     Svaha!' 

3.  Having  made  oblations  of  the  mess  of  cooked 
food  to  the  Agraya;^a  deities,  he  makes  another 
oblation  to  (Agni)  Svish/akm  with  (the  verse), 
'  Agni,  make  this  (sacrifice)  full,  that  it  may  be  well 
offered.  And  ma)-  the  god  destroy  all  hostile 
powers.  Come  hither,  showing  us  a  good  path. 
Bestow  on  us  long  life,  full  of  splendour  and  free 
from  decay.     Svaha!' 

4.  He    then    eats    (of   the    fresh    fruits  with    the 

1.  I.  The  corresponding  ceremony  of  the  ^rauta  ritual  is  treated 
of  in  Katy.  IV,  6. 

2.  A  fresh  Sthalipaka  means  probably  a  Sthalipaka  prepared  from 
the  fresh  grain  of  the  new  harvest. 

3.  The  deities  of  the  Agrayawa  ceremony,  which  occupies  in  the 
^rauta  ritual  the  place  corresponding  to  tlie  rite  described  here, 
are  Indra  and  Agni,  the  Yisve  devas,  Heaven  and  Earth. 

[29]  Z 


33^  PARASKARA-G7?7HYA-sCtRA. 

verses),  '  May  Agni  eat  first,  for  he  knows  how  the 
Havis  (is  fit  for  sacrifice) ;  may  he,  the  friend  of  all 
human  tribes,  make  the  herbs  blessed  to  us. 

'  From  the  good  you  have  led  us  to  the  better,  ye 
gods !  Through  thee,  the  nourishment,  may  we 
obtain  thee.  Thus  enter  into  us,  O  potion,  bringing 
refreshment,  for  the  good  of  our  children  and  of  our- 
selves, and  pleasant' 

5.  Or  with  the  (verse)  sacred  to  Annapati  (the 
Lord  of  food). 

6.  For  barley,  however,  (he  uses  the  Mantra), 
'  This  barley,  mixed  with  honey,  they  have  ploughed 
through  Sarasvati  under  Manu.  Indra  was  lord  of 
the  plough,  the  hundredfold  wise  one ;  ploughers 
were  the  Maruts,  the  exuberant  givers,' 

7.  Then  (follows)  the  feeding  of  the  Brahma;^as. 

KAiVjDIKA    2. 

1.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  Marga^-irsha  the 
Agrahaya;^i  ceremony  (is  performed). 

2.  He  cooks  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  sacrifices 

A 

two  A^}a  oblations  as  at  the  Sra.Ya7i3.  sacrifice,  and 
other  oblations  with  (the  following  verses) : 

'  The  niofht  whom  men  welcome  like  a  cow  that 
comes  to  them,  (the  night)  which  is  the  consort  of 
the  year,  may  that  (night)  be  auspicious  to  us. 
Svaha ! 

5.  The  Annapatiya  verse  is  Va^,  Sa7«h.  XI,  83, 

6.  Comp.  manav  adhi,  Rig-veda  VIII,  72,  2. 

2,  2.  The  two  oblations  belonging  to  the  ^rava«a  ceremony  are 
those  stated  above,  II,  14,  4.  5. 

2.  The  first  verses  in  which  the  Agrahayam  night  is  called  the 
consort  of  the  year,  or  the  image  of  the  year,  occur  elsewhere  with 
reference  to  the  Ekash/aka  night.    See  Atharva-veda  III,  10  ;  Taitt. 


Ill  KANDA,    2   KAiVKIKA,  6.  339 


'  The  night  which  is  the  image  of  the  >ear,  that 
we  worship.  May  1  reach  old  age,  imparting  strength 
to  my  offspring.     Svaha  ! 

'  To  the  Sa?;2vatsara,  to  the  Parivatsara,  to  the 
Idavatsara,  to  the  Idvatsara,  to  the  Vatsara  bring 
ye  great  adoration.  May  we,  undecayed,  unbeaten, 
long  enjoy  the  favour  of  these  (years)  which  are 
worthy  of  sacrifices.     Svaha  ! 

'  May  summer,  winter  and  spring,  the  rains  be 
friendly,  and  may  autumn  be  free  of  danger  to  us. 
In  the  safe  protection  of  these  seasons  may  we 
dwell,  (and)  may  (they)  last  (to  us)  through  a  hundred 
years.     Svaha!' 

3.  He  makes  oblations  of  the  cooked  food  to  Soma, 
to  (the  Nakshatra)  Mr/ga^iras,  to  the  full  moon  of 
Marga^irsha,  and  to  the  winter. 

4.  After  he  has  eaten  (of  the  sacrificial  food),  he 
throws  the  remainder  of  the  flour  into  a  basket,  (and 
then  follow  the  same  rites  that  have  been  stated 
above)  from  (the  sacrificer's)  going  out  down  to  their 
cleaning  themselves. 

5.  After  the  cleaning  he  says,  '  The  Bali  offering 
is  finished.' 

6.  After  they  have  spread  out  to  the  west  of 
the  fire  a  layer  (of  straw)  and  a  garment  that  has 


Saffihita  V,  7,  2,  i.  See  also  below,  Paraskara  III,  3,  5.  Sawvat- 
sara,  Parivatsara,  Idavatsara,  &c.  are  terms  designating  the  different 
years  of  the  quinquennial  period  of  the  Yuga.  See  Zimmer,  Altin- 
disches Leben,  369,  370. 

4.  See  above,  II,  14,  11-21  (not  19-21  as  indicated  by  Professor 
Stenzlcr). 

6.  '  Redescending '  means  that  they  do  not  sleep  any  longer  on 
high  bedsteads,  which  they  did  from  the  6'rava«i  day  till  the 
Agrahayawi,  on  account  of  the  danger  from  the  snakes,  but  on  the 
ground.     See  the  notes  on  6'ahkh.-Gr/liya  IV,  15,  22;   17,  i. 

Z  2 


340  PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-RUTRA. 

not  yet  been  washed,  they  'redescend,'  having  bathed, 
wearing  garments  which  have  not  yet  been  washed  : 
the  master  (of  the  house)  southward,  his  wife  to  the 
north  (of  her  husband,  and  then  the  other  persons 
belonging  to  the  house)  so  that  each  younger  one 
hes  more  to  the  north. 

7.  Having  caused  the  Brahman  to  sit  down  south- 
ward, and  having  placed  to  the  north  a  water-pot,  a 
.Sami  branch,  an  earth-clod  taken  out  of  a  furrow, 
and  a  stone,  he  murmurs,  looking  at  the  fire  :  '  This 
Agni  is  most  valiant,  he  is  most  blessed,  the  best 
giver  of  a  thousand  boons,  highly  powerful.  May 
he  establish  us  both  in  the  highest  place.' 

8.  To  the  west  of  the  fire  he  joins  his  hands  (and 
holds  them)  towards  the  east. 

9.  With  the  three  (verses),  '  The  divine  ship ' 
(Va^.  Sawh.  XXI,  6-8)  they  ascend  the  layer  (of 
straw). 

10.  He  addresses  the  Brahman:  'Brahman,  we 
will  redescend.' 

11.  The  Brahman  having  given  his  permission, 
they  redescend  with  (the  words),  '  Life,  fame,  glory, 
strength,  enjoyment  of  food,  offspring!' 

1 2.  Those  who  have  received  the  initiation  mur- 
mur, '  May  a  good  winter,  a  good  spring,  a  good 
summer  be  bestowed  on  us.  Blessed  may  be  to  us 
the  rains ;  may  the  autumns  be  blessed  to  us.' 

13.  With  (the  verse),  'Be  soft  to  us,  O  earth' 
(Va^.  Sa;;2h.  XXXV,  21),  they  lie  down  on  their 
rio-ht  sides,  their  heads  turned  towards  the  east. 


10,  II.  See  the  note  on  §  6. 

12.  On  up  eta,  which  means  a  person  for  whom  the  Upanayana 
has  been  performed,  see  my  note,  -Sahkhayana-Gr/hya  II,  i,  i. 


Ill  KAA^DA,    3  KAiVDIKA,  5.  34! 

14.  They  arise  with  (the  verse),  'Up!  with  hfe, 
with  blessed  hfe.  Up  !  with  Par^anya's  eye,  with 
the  seven  spaces  of  the  earth.' 

15.  This  (they  repeat)  two  other  times,  with  the 
Brahman's  permission. 

16.  Let  them  sleep  on  the  ground  four  months 
(after  the  Pratyavaroha;/a),  or  as  long  as  they  like. 

KAiVDIKA    3. 

1.  After  the  Agrahaya;n  (full  moon  follow)  the 
three  Ash/akas. 

2.  (The  Ash/aka  is)  sacred  to  Indra,  to  the  Vi^ve 
devas,  to  Pra^apati,  and  to  the  Fathers. 

3.  (The  oblations  are  made)  with  cakes,  flesh, 
and  vegetables,  according  to  the  order  (of  the  three 
Ash/akas). 

4.  The  first  Ash/aka  (is  celebrated)  on  the  eighth 
day  of  the  fortnight. 

■;.  Havinir  cooked  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food  and 
having  sacrificed  the  two  A^'a  portions,  he  sacrifices 

A 

A^ya  oblations  with  (the  texts) : 

(a)  '  Thirty   sisters   go    to   the   appointed    place, 


14.  The  verse  occurs,  with  a  few  differences,  in  the  Ka«va  .Sakha 
of  the  Va^.  Sawhita,  II,  7,  5. 

3,  I.  On  the  Ash/akas,  celebrated  on  the  eighth  days  of  the  three 
dark  fortnights  following  after  the  Agrahaya;;i  full  moon,  see 
6ahkhayana  III,  12  seqq. ;  Ajvalayana  II,  4;  Gobhila  III,  10. 

2.  As  there  are  four  deities  named,  I  think  it  probable  that  they 
are  referred  to  all  Ash/akas  indiscriminately ;  comp.  Ai'valayana  II, 
4,  12.  Thus  in  the  IMantras  prescribed  for  the  first  Ash/aka 
(Sutras  5  and  6),  Indra,  the  Vijve  devas,  and  Pra^^i^apati  are  named; 
to  the  Fathers  belongs  the  Anvash/akya  ceremony. 

3.  W'itli  regard  to  the  order  of  these  substances  the  Gr/Tiya  texts 
differ. 

5.  Comp.  Taitt.  Sawhita  IV,  3,  11 ;  Atharva-veda  III,  10. 

(a)  The  thirty  sisters  seem  to  be  the  days  of  the  month.     As  to 


342  paraskara-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

putting  on  the  same  badge.  They  spread  out  the 
seasons,  the  knowing  sages ;  having  the  metres  in 
their  midst  they  walk  around,  the  brilHant  ones. 
Svaha ! 

(b)  '  The  shining  one  clothes  herself  with  clouds, 
with  the  ways  of  the  sun,  the  divine  night :  mani- 
fold animals  which  are  born,  look  about  In  this 
mother's  lap.     Svaha ! 

(c)  '  The  Ekash/aka,  devoting  herself  to  austerities, 
has  given  birth  to  a  child,  to  the  majesty  of  Indra. 
Through  him  the  gods  have  conquered  the  hostile 
tribes ;  he  became  the  killer  of  the  Asuras  throusfh 
his  (divine)  powers.     Svaha  ! 

(d)  '  You  have  made  me  who  am  not  the  younger 
(sister),  the  younger ;  speaking  the  truth  I  desire 
this :  may  I  be  in  his  (i.  e.  the  sacrificer's  ?)  favour, 
as  you  are ;  may  none  of  you  supplant  the  other  in 
her  work. 

(e)  'In  my  favour  dwelt  the  omniscient  one  ;  he 
has  found  a  firm  standing  ;  he  has  got  a  footing. 
May  I  be  in  his  (i.  e.  the  sacrificer's  ?)  favour,  as  you 
are  ;  may  none  of  you  supplant  the  other  in  her 
work. 

(f )  '  On  the  five  dawns  follows  the  fivefold 
milking  ;  on  the  cow  with  the  five  names,  the  five 
seasons.     The  five  regions  (of  the  sky)  are  estab- 

madhye/(7/andas,  comp.  Taitt.  Szmh.  loc.  cit.  §  i  :  /^//andasvati 
ushasa  pepijane ;  §  2  :  /'atush/omo  abhavad  ya  turiya  yao-^asya 
pakshav  r/shayo  bhavanti,  gayatri/w  trish/ubha?;^  ^agatim  anush/u- 
bhana  br^liad  arkaw  ywuganRk  suvar  asbharann  idam. 

(d)  Probably  one  Ash/aka  addresses  the  others,  her  sisters,  as 
G^ayarama  explains  this  verse. 

(f )  The  explanation  by  which  the  '  fivefold  milking  "  is  referred 
to  what  is  called  in  Taitt.  Brahma7/a  II,  2,  9,  '  the  milkings  of 
Pra^apati/    seems  to  me  more  than  doubtful,  for  '  the  milkings 


Ill  KANDA,    3  KAiVDIKA,    6.  343 

lished  through  the  fifteenfold  (Stoma) ;  with  one 
common  face  (the}'  look  over)  the  one  world. 
Svaha ! 

(g)  '  She  who  shone  forth  as  the  first,  is  the  child 
of  truth.  One  (of  them)  bears  the  majesty  of  the 
waters  ;  one  wanders  in  the  courses  of  the  sun  ;  one 
(in  those)  of  the  heat ;  Savitr?  shall  govern  one. 
Svahi ! 

(h)  '  She  who  shone  forth  as  the  first  has  become 
a  cow  in  Yama's  realm.  Give  us  milk,  thou  who 
art  rich  in  milk,  year  by  year.     Svaha  ! 

(i)  '  She,  the  owner  of  bright  bulls,  has  come  to 
us  with  clouds  and  with  light,  she  who  has  all  shapes, 
the  motley  one,  whose  banner  is  fire.  Carrying  on 
the  common  work,  leading  us  to  old  age,  come  to  us 
thou  who  art  exempt  from  old  age,  Ushas !     Svaha  ! 

(k)  '  The  consort  of  the  seasons,  the  first  one  has 
come  to  us,  the  leader  of  days,  the  producer  of  off- 
spring. Being  one,  thou  shinest  manifold,  Ushas. 
Being  free  from  old  age,  thou  leadest  to  old  age 
everything  else.     Svaha ! ' 

6.  He  makes  offerings  of  the  mess  of  cooked  food 
with  (the  verses) : 

*  May  the  earth  be  peaceful,  the  air  friendly  to  us ; 

of  Pra^'apad'  are  only  four  :  viz.  the  dark  night,  the  moonlight, 
the  twilight,  and  the  day. 

(i)  6'ukra-rz'shabha  cannot  be  translated,  as  Professor  Stenzler 
does,  'die  schonste  unter  den  Lichtern' (Madhava :  jukreshu  nak- 
shatradishu  jresh/Z/a),  for  this  meaning  of  r/shabha  occurs  only  in 
later  texts.  The  word  is  a  Bahuvrihi  compound,  as  the  Petersburg 
Dictionary  explains  it. 

6.  In  the  first  verse  I  have  omitted  vya^navai,  which  impedes 
the  construction  and  violates  the  metre.  The  word  has  found  its 
way  into  the  text,  no  doubt,  in  consequence  of  the  phrase  dirgham 
ayur  vya^navai  occurring  in  chap.  2,  2.     In  the  second  verse 


344  PARASKARA-G/2/HYA-S^TRA. 

may  the  heavens  give  us  bliss  and  safety.  May  the 
points  (of  the  horizon),  the  intermediate  points, 
the  upper  points  give  us  bHss,  and  may  day  and 
nieht  create  long^  Hfe  for  us.     Svaha ! 

'  May  the  waters,  the  rays  protect  us  from  all 
sides ;  may  the  creator,  may  the  ocean  turn  away 
evil.  The  present  and  the  future,  may  all  be  safe 
for  me.  Protected  by  Brahman,  may  I  be  well 
guarded.     Svaha ! 

'  May  all  Adityas  and  the  divine  Vasus,  may  the 
Rudras  and  Maruts  be  our  protectors.  May  Pra^a- 
pati,  the  highest  lord,  bestow  on  us  vigour,  offspring, 
immortality,  long  life.     Svaha  ! ' 

7.  And  with  (the  formula),  '  To  the  Ash/aka 
Svalia ! ' 

8.  The  middle  Ash/aka  (is  celebrated)  with  (the 
sacrifice  of)  a  cow. 

9.  He  sacrifices  the  omentum  of  that  (cow)  with 
(the  verse),  '  Carry  the  omentum,  O  (^atavedas,  to 
the  fathers'  (Va,^.  Sa;;/h.  XXXV,  20). 

10.  On  the  day  following  each  (Ash/aka),  the 
Anvash/aka  day,  (he  brings  a  sacrifice)  with  the  left 
ribs  and  the  left  thigh,  in  an  enclosure,  according  to 
(the  ritual  of)  the  Fhida.pitJ'^iyagila. 

1 1 .  Also  to  the  female  (ancestors  he  makes  F'mda. 
offerings)  and  pours  (for  them)  strong  liquor  and  water 
oblations  into  pits,  and  (offers)  coUyrium,  salves,  and 
garlands. 

12.  (He  may  also  make  oblations),  if  he  likes,  to 
the  teacher  and  to  the  pupils  who  have  no  children. 


akrz'tad  is  corrupt.  I  have  translated  abhayam;  comp.  Ajvala- 
yana  II,  4,  14.  In  the  third  verse  I  have  left  out  mayi,  as 
Professor  Stenzler  has  done  in  his  translation. 


Ill  KAiVDA,    4  KAiVJDIKA,  4.  345 

13.  And  in  the  mitldle  of  the  rainy  season  (there 
is)  a  fourth  Ash/aka  on  which  vegetables  are  offered. 

KAiVDIKA    4. 

1.  Now  the  buildino-  of  the  house. 

2.  Let  him  have  his  house  built  on  an  auspicious 
day. 

3.  Into  the  pits  (in  which  the  posts  shall  be 
erected)  he  pours  an  oblation  with  (the  words),  '  To 
the  steady  one,  the  earth-demon,  svaha  ! ' 

4.  He  erects  the  post. 

*  This  navel  of  the  world  I  set  up,  a  stream  of 
wealth,  promoting  wealth.  Here  I  erect  a  firm 
house  ;  may  it  stand  in  peace,  dropping  ghee. 

'  Rich  in  horses  and  cows,  rich  in  delight  be  set 
up,  for  the  sake  of  great  happiness.  To  thee  may 
the  young  calf  cry,  to  thee  the  lowing  cows,  the  milk- 
cows. 

'  To  thee  (may)  the  young  child  (go),  to  thee  the 
calf  with  its  companions,  to  thee  the  cup  of  Parisrut, 
to  thee  (may  they  go)  with  pots  of  curds. 

13.  I  have  stated  in  the  note  on  ^Sahkhayana  III,  13,  i  my  reasons 
for  believing  that  the  true  reading  of  this  Sutra  is  not  madhya- 
varshe  (in  the  middle  of  the  rainy  season),  but  maghyavarshe 
(the  festival  celebrated  during  the  rainy  season  under  the  Nakshatra 
INIaghas).  There  are  no  express  rules  given  with  regard  to  the 
third  Ash/aka,  but  I  think  we  should  understand  this  Sutra  as 
involving  a  statement  on  that  Ash/aka :  (The  third  Ash/aka)  and 
the  fourth,  on  the  Maghyavarsha  day,  are  .Sakash/akas  (Ash/akas 
on  which  vegetables  are  oflered).  6ahkhayana  (Gr/hya  III,  13,  i) 
declares  that  the  ritual  of  the  fourth  Ash/aka  is  identical  with  that 
of  the  second. 

A 

4,  3.  A^valayana-Gr/liya  II,  8,  15. 

4.  On  ^agadai^  saha  (in  the  third  verse)  see  my  note  on 
5'ahkhayana-G//liya  III,  2,  9. 


34^  PARASKARA-Gi^HYA-StjTRA. 

'  The  consort  of  Peace,  the  great  one,  beautifully 
attired — bestow  on  us,  O  blessed  one,  wealth  and 
manly  power,  which  may  be  rich  in  horses  and  cows, 
full  of  sap  like  a  tree's  leaf.  May  our  wealth  in- 
crease here,  clothing  itself  with  prospering' — with 
(these  four  Mantras)  he  approaches  the  four  (posts). 

5.  Having  established  the  fire  inside  (the  house), 
havinof  made  the  Brahman  sit  down  towards  the 
south,  having  placed  a  water-pot  to  the  north, 
and  cooked  a  mess  of  sacrificial  food,  he  goes  out 
(of  the  house),  and  standing  near  the  door,  he 
addresses  the  Brahman,  '  Brahman,  I  enter  (the 
house) ! ' 

6.  When  the  Brahman  has  given  his  consent,  he 
enters  with  (the  formula),  '  To  right  I  advance,  to 
luck  I  advance ! ' 

A 

7.  Having  prepared  A^ya  and  sacrificed  two 
A^a  oblations  with  (the  two  parts  of  the  Mantra), 
*  Here  is  joy'  (Va^.  Sa7;/h.  VHI,  51  a),  he  sacrifices 
other  oblations  with  (the  verses) : 

(a)  '  Vastoshpati !  Receive  us  (into  thy  protec- 
tion) ;  give  us  good  entering  and  drive  away  from 
us  evil.  For  what  we  ask  thee,  with  that  favour  us: 
be  a  saviour  to  us,  to  men  and  animals.     Svaha ! 

(b)  '  Vastoshpati  !  Be  our  furtherer ;  make  our 
wealth  increase  in  cows  and  horses,  O  Indu  (i.e. 
Soma).  Free  from  decay  may  we  dwell  in  thy 
friendship  ;  give  us  thy  favour,  as  a  father  to  his 
sons.     Svaha ! 

(c)  'Vastoshpati!  Let  us  be  in  a  fellowship  with 
thee,  which  may  be  valiant,  joyful,  and  well  pro- 
ceedintr.       Protect   our  wishes  when  we    rest   and 

7.  Rig-veda  VII,  54;  55,  i. 


Ill  KANDA,    4  KAiVZJIKA,    9.  347 

when    we    do    our   work.       Protect   us    alwa)s,    ye 
(gods),  and  give  us  welfare.     Svaha ! 

(d)  '  Driving  away  calamity,  \''astoshpati,  assum- 
ing all  shapes,  be  a  kind  friend  to  us.     Svaha  ! ' 

8.  He  makes  offerincrs  of  the  mess  of  cooked 
food  (with  the  following  Mantras) : 

(a)  '  Agni,  Indra,  Br/haspati,  the  Vii-ve  devas  I 
invoke,  Sarasvati  and  Va^i.  Give  me  a  dwelling- 
place,  ye  vigorous  ones.     Svaha ! 

(b)  '  To  all  the  divine  hosts  of  serpents,  to  the 
Himavat,  the  Sudar^ana  (mountain),  and  the  Vasus, 
Rudras,  Adityas,  tskna.  with  his  companions,  to  all 
these  I  apply.  Give  me  a  dwelling-place,  ye  vigorous 
ones.     Svaha ! 

(c)  'To  forenoon  and  afternoon  both  together  with 
noon,  to  evening  and  midnight,  to  the  goddess  of 
dawn  with  her  wide  path,  to  all  these  I  apply. 
Give  me  a  dwelling-place,  ye  vigorous  ones.     Svaha! 

(d)  '  To  the  Creator  and  the  Changer,  to  Vii'va- 
karman,  to  the  herbs  and  trees,  to  all  these  1  apply. 
Give  me  a  dwelling-place,  ye  vigorous  ones.    Svaha  ! 

(e)  '  To  Dhatri  and  Vidhatrz,  and  to  the  Lord  of 
treasures  together  with  them,  to  all  these  I  apply. 
Give  me  a  dwelling-place,  ye  vigorous  ones.    Svaha ! 

(f)  '  As  a  lucky,  a  happy  (place),  give  me  this 
dwelling-place,  Brahman  and  Pra^apati,  and  all 
deities.     Svaha ! ' 

9.  After  he  has  partaken  (of  the  sacrificial  food), 
let  him  put  into  a  brass  vessel  the  different  things 
which  he  has  brought  together,  Udumbara  leaves 
with    strong    liquor,    green    turf,    cowdung,    curds, 

8  a.  Va^i  is,  as  the  name  shows,  the  goddess  of  quick  vigour. 
Gayarama  explains  Va^i,  a  name  of  Sita,  as  a  personification  of  food, 
b.  Comp.  Ajvalayana  II,  1,14.     On^agada,  comp.  above,  §  4. 


348  PARASKARA-G2J7HYA-SUTRA. 

honey,  ghee,  Kui-a  grass,  and  barley,  and  let  him 
besprinkle  the  seats  and  shrines  (for  the  images  of 
the  gods). 

lo.  He  touches  (the  wall  and  the  posts)  at  their 
eastern  juncture  with  (the  words),  '  May  luck  and 
glory  protect  thee  at  thy  eastern  juncture.' 

Ti.  He  touches  (them)  at  their  southern  juncture 
with  (the  words),  '  May  sacrifice  and  sacrificial  fee 
protect  thee  at  thy  southern  juncture.' 

12.  He  touches  (them)  at  their  western  juncture 
with  (the  words),  'May  food  and  the  Brahma;2a  pro- 
tect thee  at  thy  western  juncture.' 

13.  He  touches  (them)  at  their  northern  juncture 
with  (the  words),  '  May  vigour  and  delight  protect 
thee  at  thy  northern  juncture.' 

14.  He  then  goes  out  (of  the  house)  and  worships 
the  quarters  (of  the  horizon,  the  east)  with  (the 
formulas),  'May  Keta  (i.e.  will?)  and  Suketa  (i.e. 
good-will  ?)  protect  me  from  the  east. 

'  Aorni  is  Keta  ;  the  Sun  is  Suketa  :  to  them  I 
apply  ;  to  them  be  adoration  ;  may  they  protect  me 
from  the  east.' 

15.  Then  to  the  south  :  '  May  that  which  protects 
and  that  which  guards,  protect  me  from  the  south. 

'  The  Day  is  that  which  protects  ;  the  Night  is 
that  which  guards  ;  to  them  I  apply ;  to  them  be 
adoration ;  may  they  protect  me  from  the  south.' 

1 6.  Then  to  the  west  :  '  May  the  shining  one 
and  the  waking  one  protect  me  from  the  west. 

'  Food  is  the  shining  one  ;  Breath  is  the  waking 
one  ;  to  them  I  apply ;  to  them  be  adoration ;  may 
they  protect  me  from  the  west.' 

1 7.  Then  to  the  north :  '  May  the  sleepless  one  and 
the  not-slumbering  one  protect  me  from  the  north. 


Ill  KAATDA,     5    KAiVDIKA,   3.  349 

'  The  Moon  is  the  sleepless  one  ;  the  Wind  is  the 
not-slumbering  one  ;  to  them  I  apply ;  to  them  be 
adoration ;  may  they  protect  me  from  the  north.' 

18.  When  (the  house)  is  finished,  he  enters  it 
with  (the  formulas), 

'  Law,  the  chief  post !  Fortune,  the  pinnacle ! 
Da)'  and  night,  the  two  door-boards ! 

'  Indra's  house  is  wealth}-,  protecting;  that  I  enter 
with  my  children,  with  my  cattle,  with  everything 
that  is  mine. 

'  Hither  is  called  the  whole  number  (of  relatives), 
the  friends  whose  coming  is  good.  Thus  (I  enter) 
thee,  O  house.  May  our  dwellings  be  full  of  in- 
violable heroes  from  all  sides  ! ' 

19.  Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma;^as. 

Kaatdika  5. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  putting  up  of  the  water- 
barrel. 

2.  To  the  north-east  he  digs  a  pit  like  (the  pit  for) 
a  sacrificial  post,  strews  into  it  Ku.<ra  grass,  fried 
grains,  fruits  of  the  soap-tree,  and  other  auspicious 
things,  and  therein  he  establishes  the  water-barrel 
with  (the  words),  '  The  sea  art  thou.' 

3.  He  pours  water  into  it  with  (the  verse),  '  Ye 

18.  Comp.  6'ankhayana-G/v'hya  III,  3,  7  seq.;  chap.  4,  10.  The 
comparison  of  ^Sahkhayana  shows  that  we  have  to  divide  saha 
prai.'^aya.  pa^ubhi/i,  saha  yan  me  ki?<X'id  asty,  upahCita//,  &c.  Sadhu- 
sa;/nr/ta//  (if  the  reading  is  correct)  seems  to  me  to  be  the  noni. 
plur.  of  sadhusa/«vm.  I  understand  this  to  be  a  Bahuvrihi  com- 
pound, in  which  sawvr/t  means  '  the  approaching.'  In  Atharva- 
veda  VII,  60,  4  we  have  sakhaya/i  svadusa/wmuda//.  After  jale 
a  verb  meaning  '  I  enter,'  or  something  like  that,  has  been  lost. 

5,  3.  Rig-veda  X,  30,  12. 


3  50  PARASKARA-G227HYA-SUTRA. 

waters,  rich  in  wealth,  ye  possess  goods.  Ye  bring 
us  good  insight  and  immortaUty.  Ye  are  the  rulers 
over  wealth  and  blessed  offspring.  May  Sarasvati 
give  strength  to  him  who  praises  her ! ' — 

4.  And  with  the  three  (verses),  'O  waters,  ye  are' 
(Va^.  Sa?;/hita  XI,  50  seqq.). 

5.  Then  (follows)  feeding  of  the  Brahma72as. 

Kaa^dika  6. 

1.  Now  the  cure  for  headache. 

2.  Having  moistened  his  hands,  he  passes  them 
over  his  eye-brows  with  (the  verse),  '  From  the  eyes, 
from  the  ears,  from  the  whiskers,  from  the  chin, 
from  the  forehead,  I  drive  away  this  disease  of  the 
head.' 

3.  If  (only)  one  side  (of  the  head  aches,  he  recites 
the  verse),  '  Cleaver !  Thou  with  the  disfigured 
eyes !  White-wing !  Renowned  one !  And  thou 
with  the  various-coloured  wing- !  Let  his  head  not 
ache.' 

4.  Then  it  will  get  better. 


KAiVDiKA  7; 

1.  (Now  will  be  declared)  the  making  water  round 
about  a  servant  who  is  disposed  to  run  away. 

2.  While  (the  servant)  is  sleeping,  he  should  dis- 
charge his  urine  into  the  horn  of  a  living  animal,  and 
should  three  times  walk  round  him,  turning  his  left 
side  towards  him,  and  sprinkle  (the  urine)  round  him, 

7,  I.  Utula-parimeha^.  It  is  probable  that  ut.u la,  as  meaning 
a  slave  who  habitually  runs  away,  is  connected  with  the  use  of  that 
word  as  the  name  of  a  tribe  in  the  north-west  of  India. 


Ill  KANDA,    8  KAiVZ)IKA,    3.  35 1 

with  (the  verse),  '  From  the  mountain  (on  which  thou 
art  born),  from  thy  mother,  from  thy  sister,  from  thy 
parents  and  thy  brothers,  from  thy  friends  I  sever 
thee. 

'  Run-away  servant,  I  have  made  water  round  thee. 
Having  been  watered  round,  where  wilt  thou  go  ? ' 

3.  Should  he  run  away  (nevertheless,  his  master) 
should  establish  a  fire  that  has  been  taken  from  a 
wood  that  is  on  fire,  and  should  sacrifice  (in  that 
fire)  Ku^a  plates  (used  for  protecting  the  hands 
when  holding  a  hot  sacrificial  pan)  that  have  been 
anointed  with  ghee,  with  (the  formula),  '  May  the 
stumbler  stumble  round  thee,  ....  may  he  tie  thee 
with  Indra's  fetter,  loosen  thee  for  me,  and  may  he 
lead  another  one  up  (to  me).' 

4.  Then  he  will  quietly  remain  (in  his  master's 
house). 

Katvdika  8. 

1.  The  spit-ox  (sacrificed  to  Rudra). 

2.  It  procures  (to  the  sacrificer)  heavenly  rewards, 
cattle,  sons,  wealth,  renown,  long  life. 

3.  Having  taken  the  sacred  domestic  fire  to  the 


3.  Ukha  yabhyam  gr/Tiyate  tav  'w(fv3.u.  Comm.  on  Katyayana, 
6"raut.  XVI,  4,  2. 

In  the  IMantra  I  propose  to  read,  pari  tva  hvalano,  &c.  Nivr/- 
ttendravirudha>^  seems  to  be  corrupt ;  it  seems  to  be  a  compound 
of  nivMta,  a  second  member  which  is  doubtful,  and  virudh  (the 
plant).  The  meaning  may  have  been  '  giving  it  up  to  consume  the 
plants.' 

4.  This  Sfitra  is  word  for  word  identical  with  chap.  6,  4. 
8,  I.  Ajvalayana-Gr/hya  IV,  8. 

2.  Ajvalayana,  loc.  cit.  §  35. 

3.  The  '  outspreading '  is  the  estabHshing  of  the  three  sacred 
»S"rauta  fires,  so  that  the  G/vliya  fire  is  considered  as  the  Garhapatya, 
and  the  Ahavaniya  and  Dakshi//agni  are  taken  from  it. 


352  PARASKARA-G/J/HYA-S^JTRA. 

forest,  and  having  performed  the  '  outspreadhig,'  he 
should  sacrifice  the  animal  to  Rudra. 

4.  One  that  is  not  gelded. 

5.  Or  (it  may  be)  a  cow,  on  account  of  the 
designation. 

6.  Having  cooked  the  omentum,  a  mess  of  sacri- 
ficial food,  and  the  portions  cut  off  (of  the  victim), 
he  sacrifices  the  omentum  to  Rudra,  the  fat  to  the 
Air,  and  the  cut-off  portions  together  with  the  mess 
of  cooked  food  to  Agni,  Rudra,  ^'arva,  Pa^-upati, 
Ugra,  Asani,  Bhava,  Mahadeva,  Isana. 

7.  (Then  follows  a  sacrifice  to)  Vanaspati. 

8.  (To  Agni)  Svish/akr/t  at  the  end. 

9.  Then  (follows)  the  sprinkling  round  to  the 
different  quarters  (of  the  horizon). 

10.  After  the  sprinkling  has  been  performed,  they 
sacrifice  the  Patni-sa?;/ya^a  offerings  to  Indra;/i, 
Rudra;n,  ^'arva;^!,  Bhavani,  and  Agni  Gr/hapati. 

11.  The  blood  he  offers  in  leaves,  on  (grass-) 
bunches,  as  a  Bali  to  Rudra  and  to  his  hosts,  with 
(the  Mantras), 

'  The  hosts,  Rudra,  which  thou  hast  to  the  east, 
to  them  this  Bali  (is  given).  To  them  and  to  thee 
be  adoration ! 

'  The  hosts,  Rudra,  which  thou  hast  to  the  south 
...  to  the  west  ...  to  the  north  .  .  .  upwards  .  .  . 


5.  On  account  of  the  designation  of  the  sacrifice  as  j'ula-gava. 

6.  Aj'valayana,  loc.  cit.  §  19. 

9.  G^ayarama :  dis^m  vyagharawawz  kartavyam  iti  sutrajesha>^. 
tzk  /^a  vasaya  bhavati  yathagnishomiye. 

10.  On  the  Patni-sawya^a  ofl'erings,  so  called  because  they  are 
chiefly  directed  to  the  wives  of  the  gods,  see  Hillebrandt,  Neu-  and 
Vollmondsopfer,  pp.  151  seqq. 

11.  Ajvalayana,  loc.  cit.  §  22. 


Ill  KANDA,    9  KAiVZ)IKA,  4.  353 

downwards,  to  them  this  Bah  (is  given).     To  them 
and  to  thee  be  adoration  ! ' 

12.  The  contents  of  the  stomach  and  of  the  en- 
trails, besmeared  with  blood,  he  throws  into  the  fire 
or  buries  them  in  the  earth. 

13.  Having  placed  the  animal  so  that  the  wind 
blows  from  himself  to  it,  he  approaches  it  with  the 
Rudra  hymns,  or  with  the  first  and  last  Anuvaka. 

14.  They  do  not  take  anything  of  that  animal  to 
the  village. 

15.  Thereby  (also)  the  cow-sacrifice  has  been 
declared. 

16.  (It  is  combined)  with  (the  offering  of)  milk- 
rice  ;  (the  rites)  not  corresponding  (to  that  special 
occasion)  are  omitted. 

1 7.  The  sacrificial  fee  at  that  (sacrifice)  is  a  cow 
of  the  same  age  (as  the  victim). 

KAiViDIKA    9. 

1.  Now  the  letting  loose  of  the  bull. 

2.  (The  ceremon))  has  been  declared  in  the  cow- 
sacrifice. 

3.  (It  is  performed)  on  the  full-moon  day  of 
Karttika,  or  on  the  (day  on  which  the  moon  stands 
in  conjunction  with)  Revati  in  the  Aj-vayu^a  month. 

4.  Having  set  a  fire  in  a  blaze  in  the  midst  of  the 

12.  As  to  uvadhya,  comp.  Ajvalayana,  §  28. 

13.  The  Rudra  hymns  form  the  sixteenth  Adhyaya  of  the  Va^a- 
saneyi  Sawhita.  Either  that  whole  Adhyaya  or  the  first  and  last 
Anuvaka  of  it  is  recited. 

15.  Gobhila  III,  6. 

9,  I  seqq.  Comp.  ..Vankhayana  III,  11. 

2.  See  above,  chap.  8,  15.  3.  .Sahkhayana,  loc.  cit.  §  2. 

4.  .S'ahkhayana.  §  3.  Of  course,  in  Professor  Stenzler's  translation, 
'  in  der  Mitte  der  Kiiche'  is  a  misprint  for  '  in  der  Mitte  dor  Kiihe.' 
[29]  A  a 


354  paraskara-g/?7hya-sOtra. 

A 

COWS,  and  having  prepared  A^a,  he  sacrifices  six 
(oblations)  widi  (die  Mantras),  'Here  is  deHght ' 
{V^o;  Sa;;2h.VIII,  51). 

5.  With  (the  verses),  '  May  Piishan  go  after  our 
cows ;  may  Pushan  watch  over  our  horses ;  may 
P^shan  give  us  strength  ' — he  sacrifices  of  (the  sacri- 
ficial food)  destined  for  Pushan. 

6.  After  murmuring  the  Rudra  hymns  they  adorn 
a  one-coloured  or  a  two-coloured  (bull)  who  protects 
the  herd  or  whom  the  herd  protects.  Or  it  should 
be  red,  deficient  in  no  limb,  the  calf  of  a  cow  that 
has  living  calves  and  is  a  milk-giver  ;  and  it  should 
be  the  finest  (bull)  in  the  herd.  And  besides  they 
should  adorn  the  best  four  young  cows  of  the  herd 
and  let  them  loose  with  this  (verse),  '  This  young 
(bull)  I  give  you  as  your  husband  ;  run  about  sport- 
ing with  him,  your  lover.  Do  not  bring  down  a 
curse  upon  us,  by  nature  blessed  ones.  May  we 
rejoice  in  increase  of  wealth  and  in  comfort.' 

7.  When  (the  bull)  stands  in  the  midst  of  the 
cows,  he  recites  over  it  (the  texts  beginning  with) 
'  Bringing  refreshment,'  down  to  the  end  of  the 
Anuvaka  (Va^.  Samh.  XVIII,  45-50). 

8.  With  the  milk  of  all  (the  cows)  he  should  cook 
milk-rice  and  give  it  to  the  Brahma7^as  to  eat. 

5.  Rig-veda  VI,  54,  5  ;  -S'ahkhayana,  §  5. 

6.  ASahkhayana,  §§  6-14.  On  the  Rudra  hymns,  see  above, 
chap.  8,  §  13.  Perhaps  the  words  mS.  na^  japta  are  corrupt; 
the  correct  reading  may  possibly  be,  ma^vasthata. 

7.  i5"ankhayana,  §  15.  There  is  no  IMantra  in  the  Va^asaneyi 
Sa;^/hita  beginning  with  the  word  mayobhu/;,  but  this  word  occurs 
in  the  middle  of  XVIII,  45  a;  the  texts  which  he  recites  begin  at 
that  word  and  extend  down  to  the  end  of  the  Anuvaka.  It  is  clear 
that  mayobhii/^  was  intended  in  the  original  text,  from  which  both 
^Sahkhayana  and  Paraskara  have  taken  this  Sfitra,  as  the  i?/k- 
Pratika,  Rig-veda  X,  169,  i. 


IIT  KANDA,  lO  KAiVDIKA,    I O.  355 


9.  Some  also  sacrifice  an  animal. 

10.  The  ritual  thereof  has  been  declared  by  the 
(ritual  for  the)  spit-ox. 

KAiVDIKA    10. 

1.  Now  the  water  libations  (which  are  performed 
for  deceased  persons). 

2.  When  (a  child)  that  has  not  reached  the  age  of 
two  years  dies,  his  father  and  mother  become  impure. 

3.  The  other  (relations)  remain  pure. 

4.  (The  impurity  lasts)  through  one  night  or  three 
niirhts. 

5.  They  bury  the  body  without  burning  it. 

6.  If  (a  child  dies)  during  the  impurity  of  his 
mother  (caused  by  the  child's  birth),  the  impurity 
lasts  till  the  (mother's)  getting  up  (from  child-bed), 
in  the  same  way  as  the  impurity  caused  by  a  child's 
birth. 

7.  In  this  case  (of  the  child  being  younger  than 
two  years)  no  water  libations  (are  performed). 

8.  If  a  child  of  more  than  two  years  dies,  all  his 
relations  should  follow  (the  corpse)  to  the  cemetery — 

9.  Singing  the  Yama  song  and  murmuring  the 
Yama  hymn,  according  to  some  (teachers). 

10.  If  (the  dead  person)  has  received  the  initiation, 

9,  According  to  the  commentators,  a  goat  is  sacrificed. 

10.  See  chap.  8. 

10,  2.  ManuV,  68;   Ya^;7avalkya  III,  i. 
7.  Manu  V,  68;  Ya^Tlavalkya  III,  i. 

9.  The  Yama  song  is  stated  to  be  the  second  verse  of  Taittiriya 
Ara«yaka  VI,  5,  3  ('He  who  day  by  day  leads  away  cows,  horses, 
men,  and  everything  that  moves,  Vivasvat's  son  Yama  is  insatiable 
of  the  five  human  tribes');  the  Yama  h}-mn  is  Rig-veda  X,  14. 
Com  p.  Ya^Tiavalkya  III,  2. 

10.  The  bhftmi^oshawa  (election  of  the  site  for  the  6'majana)  is 

A  a  2 


35^  PARASKARA-G/2/HVA-SUTRA. 

(the  rites)  from  the  election  of  the  site  (for  the 
^'mai'ana)  down  to  their  descending  into  water  (in 
order  to  bathe  themselves)  are  the  same  as  those 
prescribed  for  persons  who  have  set  up  the  (sacred 
^rauta)  fires. 

11.  They  burn  him  with  his  (sacred)  domestic 
fire,  if  he  has  kept  that ; 

12.  Silently,  with  a  common  fire,  other  persons. 

13.  They  should  ask  one  who  is  related  (to  the 
deceased  person)  by  blood  or  by  marriage,  for  (his 
permission  to  perform)  the  water-libation,  in  the 
words,  '  We  shall  perform  the  libation.' 

14.  (He  replies),  '  Do  so  now  and  never  again,'  if 
the  deceased  person  was  not  a  hundred  years  old. 

15.  (He  says)  only,  '  Do  so,'  if  he  was. 

16.  All  relations  (of  the  deceased),  to  the  seventh 
or  to  the  tenth  degree,  descend  into  water. 

17.  If  dwelling  in  the  same  village,  (all)  as  far  as 
they  can  trace  their  relationship. 

18.  They  wear  (only)  one  garment,  and  have  the 
sacred  cord  suspended  over  the  right  shoulder. 

19.  With  the  fourth  finger  of  the  left  hand  they 
spirt  away  (the  water)  with  (the  words),  '  May  he 
drive  evil  away  from  us  with  his  splendour '  (Va^. 
Sa?;2h.  XXXV,  6). 

20.  Facing  the  south,  they  plunge  (into  the  water). 

21.  They  pour  out  with  joined  hands  one  libation 
of  water  to  the  deceased  person  with  (the  words), 
*  N.  N. !     This  water  to  thee  ! ' 

22.  When  they  have  come  out  (of  the  water)  and 

treated  of  in  ^atapatha  Brahmawa  XIII,  8,  i,  6  seqq. ;  Katyayana 
»S'rauta-sutra  XXI,  3,  15  seqq.  On  the  bath  taken  after  the  cere- 
mony, see  ^S'atapatha  Brahmawa  XIII,  8,  4,  5  ;  Katyayana  XXI,  4,  24. 

16.  Y%?1avalkya  III,  3. 

22.  Ya^Ttavalkya  III,  7  :  apavadeyus  tan  itihasai//  puratanai/^ 


HI  KAA^DA,     lO  KAiVDiKA,   3 1.  357 

have  sat  down  on  a  pure  spot  that  Is  covered  with 
grass,  (those  who  are  versed  in  ancient  tales)  should 
entertain  them  (by  telling  such  tales). 

23.  They  return  to  the  village  without  looking 
back,  in  one  row,  the  youngest  walking  in  front. 

24.  In  the  doors  of  their  houses  they  chew  leaves 
of  the  Pi/C'umanda  (or  Nimba)  tree,  sip  water,  touch 
water,  fire,  cowdung,  white  mustard  seeds,  and  oil, 
tread  upon  a  stone,  and  then  they  enter. 

25.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  they  should 
remain  chaste,  sleep  on  the  ground,  do  no  work  and 
charge  nobody  (to  do  it  for  them). 

26.  Let  them  eat  food  which  they  have  bought  or 
received  (from  others) ;  (they  should  eat  it)  only  in 
the  day-time,  (and  should  eat)  no  meat. 

27.  Having  offered  to  the  deceased  person  the 
Pi?2^a,  naming  his  name  at  the  washing,  at  the  offer- 
ing (of  the  Fbida),  and  at  the  second  washing — 

28.  They  should  that  night  put  milk  and  water  in 
an  earthen  vessel  into  the  open  air  with  (the  words), 
'  Deceased  one,  bathe  here  ! ' 

29.  The  impurity  caused  by  death  lasts  through 
three  nights ; 

30.  Through  ten  nights,  according  to  some 
(teachers). 

31.  (During  that  period  they)  should  not  perform 
Svadhyaya  (or  study  the  Vedic  texts  for  themselves). 

23.  Yajg'itavalkya  III,  12. 

24.  Ya^fiavalkja  III,  12.  13. 

25.  26.  Ya^Titavalkya  III,  16;    Manu  V,  73;  Vasish///a  IV.  15. 

27.  See  on  the  washing  and  on  the  offering  of  the  Piwr/a, 
Katyayana-^rauta-sfltra  IV,  i,  10.  11.  Comp.  Weber,  Indische 
Studien,  X,  82. 

28.  Ya^^iiavalkya  III,  17. 

29.  30.  Y;\f^7;avalkya  III,  18;  Manu  V,  59. 


358  P  AR  ASK  ARA-  G/J/H  Y  A-StjTR  A. 

32.  They  should  intermit  the  standing  rites,  except 
those  performed  with  the  three  (^'rauta)  fires, 

2);^.  And  (with  the  exception  of  those  performed) 
with  the  (sacred)  domestic  fire,  according  to  some 
(teachers). 

34.  Others  should  perform  (those  rites  for  them). 

35.  Those  who  have  touched  the  dead  body  should 
not  enter  the  village  until  the  stars  appear. 

36.  If  (they  have  touched  it)  in  the  night-time, 
(they  should  not  enter)  till  sunrise. 

37.  The  entering  and  what  follows  after  it  is  the 
same  (for  these  persons)  as  for  the  others. 

38.  (Their)  impurity  lasts  through  one  or  two 
fortnights. 

39.  The  same  (rites  should  be  performed)  when 
the  teacher  (has  died), 

40.  Or  the  maternal  grandfather  or  grandmother, 

41.  Or  unmarried  females. 

42.  For  those  who  were  married,  the  others  should 
do  it, 

43.  And  they  for  the  (others). 

44.  If  one  dies  while  be'ing  absent  on  a  journey, 
(his  relations)  shall  sit  (on  the  ground,  as  prescribed 
for  impure  persons)  from  the  time  when  they  have 
heard  (of  his  death),  performing  the  water  libation 

37.  The  position  of  tliis  Sutra  after  35,  36  seems  to  me  to 
indicate  that  it  refers  to  those  who  have  touched  the  dead  body ; 
comp.  Ya^iiavalkya  III,  14  :  pravej'anadika?^  karma  pretasaw/spar- 
j-inam  api.  I  beUeve  that  the  same  persons  are  concerned  also  in 
Sutra  38.- 

42.  I.e.  the  husband  and  his  relatives.    Comp.  VasishZ/^a  IV,  19. 

43.  A  married  female  should  perform  the  rites  for  her  husband 
and  his  relatives.  See  Professor  Biihler's  note  on  Vasish///a  IV,  19  ; 
S.B.E.,  XIV,  28. 

44.  Yao-72avalkya  III,  21  ;  Manu  V,  75,  76.  Comp.  Gautama 
XIV,  37;  Vasish///a  IV,  14. 


Ill  KANDA,    lO  KAiVZJIKA,   55.  359 


(at  that  time),  until  the  period  (of  their  impurity)  has 
expired ; 

45.  If  (that  period  has  already)  elapsed,  through 
one  night  or  three  nights. 

46.  Optional  is  the  water  libation  for  an  officiating 
priest,  a  father-in-law,  a  friend,  for  (distant)  relations, 
for  a  maternal  uncle,  and  for  a  sister's  son; 

47.  And  for  married  females. 

48.  On  the  eleventh  day  he  should  give  to  an 
uneven  number  of  Brahma;^as  a  meal  at  which  meat 
is  served. 

49.  Some  also  kill  a  cow  in  honour  of  the  deceased 
person. 

50.  When  the  Findas  are  prepared,  the  deceased 
person,  if  he  has  sons,  shall  be  considered  as  the  first 
of  the  (three)  Fathers  (to  whom  Pi//rtfas  are  offered). 

5 1 .  The  fourth  one  should  be  left  out. 

52.  Some  (make  Vmda.  offerings  to  a  deceased 
person)  separately  through  one  year  (before  admit- 
ting him  to  a  share  in  the  common  Fiirz'yao-na.). 

53.  But  there  is  a  rule,  '  There  can  be  no  fourth 
Pi;^^a ' — for  this  is  stated  in  the  ^'ruti. 

54.  Every  day  he  shall  give  food  to  him  (i.e.  to 
the  deceased  person),  and  if  he  was  a  Brahma;-ja,  a 
vessel  with  water. 

55.  Some  offer  also  a  Viyida. 

47.  See  above,  §  42. 

51.  See  ^'ahkhayana-Gr/'hya  IV,  2,  8. 

52.  vSahkhayana-G/vliya  VIII,  2.  Comp.  the  description  of  the 
Sapiwrttkarawa,  ibid.,  chap.  3. 

53.  There  would  be  four  Piw^'as,  if  one  were  to  be  oftered  to  the 
recently  deceased  person,  and  three  others  to  those  Fathers  who 
had  received  Pi;/(/a  offerings  before  his  death.  Therefore  one  of 
these  three  Fathers  is  omitted ;  see  §  51. 

54.  Comp.  Apastamba  I.  13,  i;  Baudhayana  II,  11,  3. 


360  PARASKARA-GiJ/HYA-sOTRA. 


KAiVDIKA    11. 

1.  If  an  animal  (is  to  be  sacrificed),  let  him  wash 
it,  if  it  is  not  a  cow ;  let  him  walk  round  the  fires 
and  drive  in  front  (of  them)  a  Palai-a  branch  into  the 
ofround. 

2.  The  winding  (of  a  Ku^a  rope)  round  (that 
branch),  the  touching  (of  the  animal  with  the  grass- 
blade),  the  binding  (of  it  to  the  branch),  and  the 
sprinkling  (of  the  animal  with  water)  should  be  per- 
formed in  the  way  prescribed  (in  the  6Vauta-sutra), 
and  whatever  else  (is  to  be  done). 

3.  After  he  has  sacrificed  the  two  oblations  before 
and  after  the  killing  of  the  animal,  (he)  silently  (sacri- 
fices) five  other  (oblations,  directed  to  Pra^apati). 

4.  And  the  omentum  is  taken  out  (of  the  killed 
animal).  He  should  besprinkle  it  (with  water)  and 
name  the  deity  (to  whom  the  sacrifice  is  directed). 

5.  (He  should  name  that  deity  also)  at  the  touch- 
ing (of  the  animal  with  the  grass-blade),  at  (its)  being 
bound  (to  the  branch),  at  its  being  sprinkled  (with 
water),  and  at  (the  preparation  and  oblation)  of  the 
mess  of  cooked  food. 

6.  After  he  has  sacrificed  the  omentum,  he  cuts 
off  the  Avadana  portions, 


11,  I.  The  branch  replaces  the  sacrificial  post  (yupa)  of  the 
6'rauta  ritual.  As  to  agrewa,  comp.  Katy.-6'raut.  VI,  2,  11  and 
the  commentary. 

2.  See  Katy.-vSraut.VI,  3,  15  on  the  parivyayawa,  ibid.  §§  19,  26 
on  the  upakara7za,  §  27  on  the  niyo^ana,  §  33  on  the  proksha^a. 

3.  Katyayana  VI,  5,  22  :  He  sacrifices  (A^ya)  with  the  words, 
'  Svaha  to  the  gods.'  §  24  :  He  sacrifices  (A^ya)  with  the  words, 
'  To  the  gods  svaha.'  In  the  commentary  on  §  25  these  two 
oblations  are  called  paripa^avyahuti. 

4.  See  Katyayana  VI,  6,  13  ;  Ajvalayana-Gr/hya  I,  11,  10. 

5.  See  above,  Sutra  2. 


Ill  KANDA,     I  2   KANDIKA,  4.  36 1 

7.  All  of  them,  or  three,  or  five. 

8.  He  sacrifices  the  Avadana  portions  together 
with  the  mess  of  cooked  food. 

9.  A  limb  of  the  animal  is  the  sacrificial  fee. 

10.  At  (a  sacrifice)  directed  to  a  special  deity  he 
should  sacrifice  (an  animal)  belonging  to  that  deity, 
should  make  a  portion  for  that  (god),  and  should 
say  to  him  (i.e.  to  the  messenger  who  is  to  convey 
that  offering  to  a  place  sacred  to  that  deity) :  '  Take 
care  that  this  may  reach  that  (god).' 

11.  If  there  is  a  river  between  (the  sacrificer  and 
that  sacred  place),  he  may  have  a  boat  made,  or  he 
may  dispense  with  this. 

KAiVJDIKA   12. 

1.  Now  (follows)  the  penance  for  a  student  who 
has  broken  the  vow  of  chastity. 

2.  On  a  new-moon  day  he  shall  sacrifice  an  ass 
on  a  cross-road  (to  the  goddess  Nirrh'i). 

3.  (And)  he  shall  offer  a  mess  of  cooked  food  to 
Nirrzt'i. 

4.  The  Avadana  portions  are  sacrificed  into  water 
(and  not  into  fire). 

7.  The  complete  number  of  the  Avadanas  (i.e.  the  portions  of 
the  killed  animal  which  have  to  be  cut  off,  such  as  the  heart,  the 
tongue,  &c.)  is  eleven;  see  Katy.-6Yaut.  VI,  7,  6;  Ajvalayana- 
Gnhya  I,  11,  12. 

8.  Ajvalayana-Gr/Tiya,  loc.  cit.  §  13. 

10,11.  The  way  for  interpreting  these  Sutras  is  shown  by 
Aj-valayana-Gnliya  I,  12.  I  do  not  think  that  they  have  anything 
to  do,  as  Gayarama  states,  with  reference  to  Siltra  11,  with  the 
ofTering  due  to  a  relative  who  has  died  while  being  absent  on  a 
journey  (chap.  10,  44). 

12.  I.  See  the  parallel  passages  quoted  by  Professor  Biihler  in 
his  note  on  Apastamba  I,  26,  8  (S.  B.  H,  II,  85),  and  besides, 
Kalyayana  I,  i,  13  seqq. ;  Gautama  XXIII,  17  scqq.,  &c. 

4.  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  Katyayana  I,  i,  16. 


362  PARASKARA-G/27HYA-St}TRA. 

5.  The  Puro^a5-a  (or  sacrificial  cake),  which  belongs 
to  the  animal  sacrifice,  is  cooked  on  the  ground  (and 
not  in  the  Kapalas). 

6.  (The  guilty  person)  should  put  on  the  skin  (of 
the  ass), 

7.  With  the  tail  turned  upwards,  according  to 
some  (teachers). 

8.  He  should  through  one  year  go  about  for  alms, 
proclaiming  his  deed. 

9.  After  that  time  he  sacrifices  two  A^^a  oblations 
with  (the  formulas),  '  O  Lust,  I  have  broken  my  vow 
of  chastity.  I  have  broken  my  vow  of  chastity,  O 
Lust.  To  Lust  svaha ! ' — '  O  Lust,  I  have  done 
evil.     I  have  done  evil,  O  Lust.     To  Lust  svaha!' 

10.  He  then  approaches  (the  fire)  with  (the  verse), 
'  May  the  Maruts  besprinkle  me,  may  Indra,  may 
Br/haspati,  may  this  Agni  besprinkle  me  with  off- 
spring and  with  wealth,' 

11.  This  is  the  penance. 

Kajvdika  13. 

1.  Now  the  entering  of  a  court  of  justice. 

2.  He  approaches  the  court  with  (the  words), 
'  Court !  Thou  that  belongest  to  the  Aiigiras  ! 
Trouble  art  thou  by  name  ;  vehemence  art  thou  by 
name.     Thus  be  adoration  to  thee  ! ' 

3.  He  then  enters  (the  court)  with  (the  words), 
'  (May)  the  court  and  the  assembly,  the  two  unani- 

5,  This  Sutra  is  identical  with  Katyayana  I,  i,  15. 

9.  Baudhayana  II,  i.  34.  10.  Baudhayana  II,  i,  35. 

13,  2.  The  regular  Sandhi  would  be  sabha(for  sabhe)arigirasi, 
instead  of  which  the  text  has  sabhahgirasi. 

3.  In  Sanskrit  the  words  sabha  (court)  and  samiti  (assembly)  are 
of  feminine  gender.  I  have  translated  upa  ma  sa  tish//zet  in  the 
sense  indicated  by  Vajiini  I,  4,  87. 


Ill  KA.VKA,     14  KAiVZJIKA,   2.  36 


t 


mous  daughters  of  Pra^apati  (protect  me).  May  one 
who  does  not  know  me,  be  below  me.  May  (all) 
people  be  considerate  in  what  they  say.' 

4.  When  he  has  arrived  at  the  assembly,  he 
should  murmur,  '  Superior  (to  my  adversaries)  I  have 
come  hither,  brilliant,  not  to  be  contradicted.  The  lord 
of  this  assembly  is  a  man  insuperable  in  his  power.' 

5.  Should  he  think,  '  This  person  is  angry  with 
me,'  he  addresses  him  with  (the  verses), 'The  destroy- 
ing power  of  wrath  and  anger  that  dwells  here  on  thy 
forehead,  that  the  chaste,  wise  gods  may  take  away. 

'  Heaven  am  I  and  I  am  Earth  ;  we  both  take 
away  thy  anger  ;  the  she-mule  cannot  bring  forth 
offspring;   N.N.!' 

6.  But  if  he  should  think,  '  This  person  will  do 
evil  to  me,'  he  addresses  him  with  (the  words),  '  I 
take  away  the  speech  in  thy  mouth,  I  take  away 
(the  speech)  in  thy  heart.  Wheresoever  thy  speech 
dwells,  thence  I  take  it  away.  What  I  say,  is  true. 
Fall  down,  inferior  to  me.' 

7.  The  same  is  the  way  to  make  (a  person)  subject 
(to  one's  self). 

KAiVZJIKA   14. 

1.  Now  the  mounting  of  a  chariot  (is  declared). 

2.  After  he  has  given  the  order,  '  Put  the  horses 
to  it,'  and  it  has  been  announced,  '  They  are,'  he 
goes  to  (the  chariot,  saying),  '  This  is  the  Virai,','  and 
touches  the  two  wheels, 


5.  Perhaps  we  should  read  garbhewa^vatarya//  saha :  we  lake 
away  thy  anger  together  with  the  offspring  of  the  shc-niule  (that 
cannot  foal).     Comp.  A'uUavagga  VII,  2,  5  ;  S.  B.E.,  XX,  238. 

6.  It  is  impossible  to  give  a  sure  restoration  of  this  corrupt 
Mantra.  Perhaps  we  should  read  something  like  this :  a  te  vaX-am 
asya  a  te  hndaya  adade.     Comp.  Hira«y.-Gr/hya  I,  4,  15,  6. 


o 


64  PARASKARA-G727HYA-sCtRA. 


3.  The  right  (wheel)  with  (the  words),  '  The 
Rathantara  art  thou  ' — 

4.  The    left  with   (the  words),  '  The   Brthat  art 

thou ' — 

5.  The  pole  with  (the  words),  '  The  Vamadevya 

art  thou.' 

6.  He  touches  the  interior  of  the  chariot  with  his 
hand  (saying),  '  The  two  Aiikas,  the  two  Nyankas 
which  are  on  both  sides  of  the  chariot,  which  move 
forward  with  the  rushing  wind,  the  far-darting  one 
with  keen  senses,  the  winged  one,  may  these  fires, 
the  promoters,  promote  us.' 

7.  With  (the  words),  '  Adoration  to  M3.mka.ra.,'  he 
drives  on  the  beast  on  the  right  side. 

8.  (If  going  in  his  chariot)  toward  (images  of) 
gods,  let  him  descend  (from  the  chariot)  before  he 
has  reached  them  ;  if  toward  Brahma;^as,  just  before 
(reaching  them) ;  if  toward  cows,  when  amid  them  ; 
if  toward  fathers,  when  he  has  reached  them. 

9.  A  woman  or  a  Vedic  student  shall  not  be 
charioteers. 


14,  6.  The  meaning  of  ankau  and  nyahkau  cannot  be  deter- 
mined, as  far  as  I  can  see.  The  commentators  explain  the  words 
as  the  two  wheels  and  the  two  sides  of  the  chariot,  or  as  the  two 
rieht  wheels  and  the  two  left  wheels  of  a  four-wheeled  chariot. 
Professor  Zimmer  (Altindisches  Leben,pp.  251  seq.)  compares  ahka 
with  &vTvi,  and  says,  'IMit  ankau  (resp.  ahku)  ware  daher  die  obere 
Einfassung  des  Wagenkastens  (koja,  vandhura)  bezeichnet,  mit 
nyahkau  (resp.  nyahku)  ein  zu  grosserer  Befestigung  etwas  weiter 
unten  (ni)  herumlaufender  Stab.'  To  me  it  seems  that  ankau  and 
nyahkau  are  to  be  understood  both  as  designations  of  certain 
parts  of  the  chariot  and  as  names  of  different  forms  of  Agni  dwell- 
ing in  the  chariot.— Comp.  Taittiriya  Sa^^^hita  I,  7,  7,  2;  Pa«-^a- 

vimsa,  Brahma«a  I,  7'  5- 

7.  The  name  of  the  demon  Mawi-C-ara  occurs,  as  far  as  I  know, 

only  here. 


HI  KAiVDA,     15   KAA^£»IKA,  4.  365 

10.  Having  driven  a  moment  beyond  (the  point 
to  which  he  intends  to  go)  he  should  murmur,  *  Here 
is  rest,  rest  here'  (Vac^.  Sawh.  VHI,  51). 

1 1.  Some  add  (the  words), '  Here  shall  be  no  rest.' 

12.  If  the  chariot  is  weak,  he  should  murmur,  after 
he  has  mounted  it,  '  May  this  your  chariot,  O  Ai^vins, 
suffer  no  damage  on  bad  ways  or  by  being  over- 
thrown.' 

13.  If  the  horses  run  away  with  the  chariot,  he 
should  touch  the  post  (?)  or  the  earth  and  should 
murmur,  '  May  this  your  chariot,  O  Ai^vins,  suffer 
no  damage  on  bad  ways  or  by  being  overthrown.' 

14.  Thus  he  will  suffer  no  harm  and  no  damage. 

15.  When  he  has  finished  his  way,  and  has  un- 
yoked the  horses,  let  him  have  grass  and  water  given 
to  them.  '  For  thus  satisfaction  is  criven  to  the 
beast  that  draws  (the  cart) ' — says  the  ^'ruti. 

Kaa'dika  15. 

1.  Now  how  he  should  mount  an  elephant. 

2.  He  goes  to  the  elephant  and  touches  it  (saying), 
*  The  elephants'  glory  art  thou.  The  elephants' 
honour  art  thou.' 

3.  He  then  mounts  it  with  (the  words),  'With 
Indra's  thunder-bolt  I  bestride  thee.  Make  me 
arrive  safely.' 

4.  Thereby  it  has  also  been  declared  how  he 
should  mount  a  horse. 

II.  If  the  reading  of  the  text  is  correct,  the  meaning  would  seem 
to  be  :  We  will  rest  here  for  a  while,  but  then  we  will  go  further. 

13.  I  cannot  say  what  'the  post'  (stambha)  here  means;  it  may 
be  apart  of  the  chariot.  Gayarama  has  dhva^astambha,  i.e.  the 
staff  of  a  flag,  which  we  are  to  suppose  was  carried  on  the  chariot. 
This  may  be  the  right  explanation. 

15.  6'atapatha  Brahmaz/a  1,  8,  2,  9. 


366  PARASKARA-G/?7HYA-StjTRA. 


5.  When  he  is  going  to  mount  a  camel,  he  ad- 
dresses it :  '  Thou  art  the  son  of  Tvash/rz ;  Tvash/r? 
is  thy  deity.     Make  me  arrive  safely.' 

6.  When  he  is  going  to  mount  a  he-ass,  he  ad- 
dresses it:  'A  ^udra  art  thou,  a  ^'udra  by  birth.  To 
Agni  thou  belongest,  with  twofold  sperm.  Make 
me  arrive  safely.' 

7.  A  path  he  addresses  :  '  Adoration  to  Rudra 
who  dwells  on  the  paths.     Make  me  arrive  safely.' 

8.  A  cross-road  he  addresses:  'Adoration  to 
Rudra  who  dwells  at  the  cross-roads.  Make  me 
arrive  safely.' 

9.  When  he  intends  to  swim  across  a  river,  he 
addresses  it :  '  Adoration  to  Rudra  who  dwells  in 
the  waters.     Make  me  arrive  safely.' 

10.  When  going  on  board  a  ship,  he  addresses 
her :  '  The  good  ship'  (Vaf.  Sa^/zh.  XXI,  7). 

1 1.  When  going  to  cross  (the  river),  he  addresses 
(the  ship) :  *  The  well-protecting '  (Vaf .  Sa;;^h. 
XXI,  6). 

12.  A  forest  (through  which  he  is  wandering)  he 
addresses :  '  Adoration  to  Rudra  who  dwells  in  the 
forests.     Make  me  arrive  safely.' 

13.  A  mountain  (which  he  is  going  to  cross)  he 
addresses  :  '  Adoration  to  Rudra  who  dwells  on  the 
mountains.     Make  me  arrive  safely.' 

14.  A  burial-ground  he  addresses  :  '  Adoration  to 
Rudra  who  dwells  among  the  Fathers.  Make  me 
arrive  safely.' 

15.  A  cow-stable  he  addresses:  'Adoration  to 
Rudra  who  dwells  among  the  dung-heaps.  Make 
me  arrive  safely.' 

6.  The  he-ass  has  twofold  sperm,  because  he  begets  both  asses 
and  mules.     Taittiriya  Sa?7/hita  VII,  i,  i,  2. 


Ill  KANDA,     15  KANDIKA,  22.  367 

16.  And  wheresoever  else  it  be,  let  him  always 
say,  '  Adoration  to  Rudra.'  For  the  K^ruti  says, 
'  Rudra  is  this  universe.' 

17.  If  the  skirt  (of  his  garment)  is  blown  upon 
him  (by  the  wind),  he  addresses  (that  skirt):  'A 
skirt  art  thou.  Thou  art  not  a  thunder-bolt.  Adora- 
tion be  to  thee.     Do  no  harm  to  me  ! ' 

18.  The  thunder  he  addresses:  'May  the  rains 
be  friendly  to  us ;  may  (Indra's)  darts  be  friendly  to 
us — may  they  be  friendly  to  us  which  thou  throwest, 
O  killer  of  Vrztra.' 

19.  A  howling  jackal  he  addresses  :  '  Friendly  by 
name'  (Vaf.  SsLmh.  Ill,  63). 

20.  A  shriekinsf  bird  he  addresses :  '  Golden- 
winged  bird  who  goest  where  the  gods  send  thee ! 
Messenger  of  Yama,  adoration  be  to  thee !  What 
has  the  Karkari;^a  told  thee  ? ' 

21.  A  tree  that  serves  as  a  mark  (of  a  boundary, 
&c.),  he  addresses  :  '  May  neither  the  flash  of  light- 
ning (destroy  thee),  nor  axe  nor  wind  nor  punish- 
ment which  the  king  sends.  May  thy  shoots  grow 
up ;  may  rain  fall  on  thee,  in  safety  from  the  wind. 
May  fire  not  destroy  thy  root.  Blessing  on  thee,  O  lord 
of  the  forest !     Blessing  on  me,  O  lord  of  the  forest !' 

22.  If  he  receives  something  (given  to  him),  he 
accepts  it  with  (the  formula),  *  May  Heaven  give 
thee  ;  may  the  Earth  accept  thee.'  Thus  (the  thing 
given)  does  not  decrease  to  him  who  gives  it,  and 
what  he  receives  increases. 

19.  The  play  on  words  is  untranslatable;  'jackal'  is  jiva, 
'friendly,'  siva.k. 

20.  I  do  not  know  the  meaning  of  karkari;/a//.  Gayarama  takes 
it  for  a  genitive  standing  instead  of  an  accusative,  and  explains  it 
by  asmadbadhakam. 


;68  PARASKARA-G/27HYA-S^TRA. 


2^- 


If  boiled  rice  is  given  to  him,  he  accepts  it 
with  (the  formula),  '  May  Heaven,  &c./  and  he  par- 
takes thereof  twice  with  (the  formulas),  '  May  Brah- 
man eat  thee  ! ' — '  May  Brahman  partake  of  thee  ! ' 

24.  If  gruel  is  given  to  him,  (as  above)  ....  three 
times  with  (the  formulas),  '  May  Brahman  eat  thee  ! ' 
— '  May  Brahman  partake  of  thee!' — 'May  Brahman 
drink  thee ! ' 

Katvdika  16. 

I.  Now  each  time  after  a  lesson  (of  the  Veda)  is 
finished,  in  order  to  prevent  his  forgetting  (the  texts  he 
has  studied,  the  following  prayer  should  be  recited) : 

'  May  my  mouth  be  skilful ;  my  tongue  be  honey- 
sweet  speech.  With  my  ears  I  have  heard  much  ; 
do  not  take  away  that  which  I  have  heard,  which 
dwells  in  me. 

'  The  Brahman's  word  art  thou  ;  the  Brahman's 
stand  art  thou ;  the  Brahman's  store-house  art  thou. 
Fulfilment  art  thou  ;  peace  art  thou  ;  unforgetfulness 
art  thou  ;  enter  into  my  store-house  of  the  Brahman. 
With  the  voice  I  cover  thee !  With  the  voice  I  cover 
thee  !  May  I  be  able  to  form  the  vowels,  to  produce, 
to  hold  fast  and  to  utter  the  guttural,  pectoral,  dental, 
and  labial  sounds.  May  my  limbs  grow  strong,  my 
voice,  breath,  eye,  ear,  honour,  and  power.  What  I 
have  heard  and  studied,  may  that  be  fixed  in  my 
mind ;  may  that  be  fixed  in  my  mind.' 
End  of  the  Third  KA/ida. 


End  of  Paraskara's  Gr/hya-sutra. 

16,  I.    As  to  anirakarawa,  comp.  anirakarish7m  above,  II,  4,  3. 
Possibly  we  should  read,  ^ihva  me  madhumad  vaksi/i. 


KHADIRA-Gi^/HYA-SUTRA, 


[-9]  B  b 


INTRODUCTION 

TO    THE 

KHADIRA-Gi^/HYA-SUTRA. 

Among  the  Grantha  MSS.  collected  by  the  late  Dr. 
Burnell  and  now  belonging  to  the  India  Office  Library, 
there  are  some  MSS.  (numbers  CLXXII  and  following 
of  the  Catalogue)  of  a  Gr/hya-sutra  hitherto  unpublished, 
which  is  ascribed  to  Khadira^arya.  It  belongs  to  the 
Drahyaya;/a  school  of  the  Sama-veda,  which  prevails  in 
the  south  of  the  Indian  peninsula^,  and  it  is  based  on 
the  Gobhiliya-sutra,  from  which  it  has  taken  the  greater 
number  of  its  aphorisms,  just  as  the  Drahyaya;/a-vS"rauta- 
sutra,  as  far  as  we  can  judge  at  present,  is  nothing  but  a 
slightly  altered  redaction  of  Ld/yayana*.  Like  the  Gobhila- 
GrzTiya  it  very  seldom  gives  the  Mantras  in  their  full  ex- 
tent, but  quotes  them  only  with  their  Pratikas,  and  it  is 
easy  to  identify  these  quotations  in  the  Mantrabrihma;/a 
(published  at  Calcutta,  1873),  which  contains  the  texts 
prescribed  by  Gobhila  for  the  Grihya.  ceremonies. 

The  Khfidira-Gnhya  has  evidently  been  composed  with 
the  intention  of  abridging  Gobhila's  very  detailed  and 
somewhat  lengthy  treatise  on  the  domestic  rites.  Digres- 
sions, such  as,  for  instance,  that  introduced  by  the  words 
tatraihad  ahu//,  Gobhila  I,  2, 10-27,  ^^  such  as  Gobhila's 
explication  of  the  terms  paur«amasi  and  amavasya, 
I,  5,  7  seqq.,  or  most  of  the  regulations  concerning  the 
5akvaryas,  III,  3,  or  the  51okas,  IV,  7,  are  invariably  left 

^  See  Dr.  Burncll's  Catalogue,  p.  56. 

^  Weber,  Vorlesungen  viber  indische  Literaturgeschichte  (2nd  edition),  p.  87  : 
'  Almost  the  entire  difference  between  this  Sulra  and  that  of  La/yayana  lies  in 
the  arrangement  of  the  matter  treated  of,  which  is  in  itself  very  nearly  the  same 
in  both  texts,  and  is  expressed  in  the  same  words.'  Comp.  Anandajfeandra 
Vedantavigija's  Introduction  to  his  edition  of  La/yayana  (in  the  Bibliotheca 
Indica),  pj).  2,  3,  and  his  statements  on  Drahyayawa  in  the  notes  of  that  edition. 

E  b   2 


<> 


72  KHADIRA-G727HYA-SUTRA. 


out,  and  in  the  descriptions  of  the  single  ceremonies 
throughout  the  principal  points  only  are  given,  with  the 
omission  of  all  words  and  of  all  matter  that  it  seemed 
possible  to  dispense  with.  On  the  other  hand,  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  Sutras  has  undergone  frequent  changes,  in 
which  the  compiler  clearly  shows  his  intention  of  grouping 
together,  more  carefully  than  was  done  in  the  original  text, 
the  Sutras  which  naturally  belong  to  each  other.  Of  the 
Sutras  of  the  Khadira-Grzhya  which  cannot  be  identified  in 
Gobhila,  several  are  to  be  traced  back  to  La^^ayana,  or  we 
should  perhaps  rather  say,  to  Drahyayawa.  Thus  Khad. 
I,  I,  14  mantrantam  avyaktaw  parasyadigraha- 
nena  vidyat  evidently  corresponds  to  La/yayana  I,  i,  3, 
uttaradiZ;  purvantalaksha/zam,  and  Khad.  I,  i,  24 
avyavrittlm  ya^-iikhgair  avyavayaw  kek/iet  is 
identical  with  Laty.  I,  2,  15,  avyavayo-vyavrzttij-  ka 
yagnahgal/i. 

Upon  the  whole,  though  certainly  the  Kh^dira-Grzhya 
does  not  contain  much  matter  which  is  not  known  to  us 
from  other  sources,  it  notwithstanding  possesses  a  certain 
interest,  since  it  shows  by  a  very  clear  example  how  a 
Siitrakara  of  the  later  time  would  remodel  the  work  of  a 
more  ancient  author,  trying  to  surpass  him  by  a  more 
correct  arrangement,  and  especially  by  what  became  more 
and  more  appreciated  as  the  chief  accomplishment  of  Sutra 
composition,  the  greatest  possible  succinctness  and  econo- 
mising of  words.  To  an  interpreter  of  Gobhila  the  com- 
parison of  the  Khadira-Gnhya  no  doubt  will  s\iggest  in 
many  instances  a  more  correct  understanding  of  his  text 
than  he  would  have  been  likely  to  arrive  at  without  that 
aid,  and  perhaps  even  readings  of  Gobhila  which  seemed 
hitherto  subject  to  no  doubt,  will  have  to  give  way  to 
readings  supplied  by  the  Grantha  MSS.  of  the  Khadira- 
Gnliya.  Thus,  Gobhila  III,  8,  16,  I  do  not  hesitate  to 
correct  asawsvadam,  on  the  authority  of  Khad.  Ill,  3, 
13,  into  asawkhadam  or  asa;«khadan\ 

1  Comp.  Paraskara  II,  lo,  15,  and  the  quotations  given  by  Bohtlingk-Roth 
s.  V.  saw-khad.  Forms  derived  from  the  two  roots,  khad  and  svad,  are  fre- 
quently interchanged  in  the  MSS. ;  see  the  two  articles  in  the  Dictionary. 


INTRODUCTION.  373 


As  the  text  of  the  Khadira-Grzhya  is  very  short  and 
has  not  yet  been  pubhshed,  it  has  been  printed  at  the  foot 
of  the  page,  together  with  references  to  the  parallel  pas- 
sages of  Gobhila.  For  further  explanations  of  the  single 
Sutras,  I  refer  to  my  translation  of  Gobhila  which  will 
form  part  of  the  second  volume  of  the  Gr/hya-sutras,  where 
I  shall  also  hope  to  give  some  extracts  from  Rudraskanda's 
commentary  on  the  Khadira-G;'/"hya. 


KHADIRA-G7?/HYA-SUTRA. 


Pat^ala  I,  Khanda  1. 

1.  Now  henceforth  the  domestic  sacrifices  (will 
be  explained). 

2.  During  the  northern  course  of  the  sun,  at  the 
time  of  the  increasing  moon,  on  auspicious  days, 
before  noon :  this  is  the  time  at  which  the  con- 
stellations are  lucky,  unless  a  special  statement  is 
given, 

3.  At  the  end  (of  the  ceremonies)  he  should  give 
to  the  Brahma7^as  to  eat  according  to  his  ability. 

4.  The  sacrificial  cord  is  made  of  a  string  or  of 
Ku-fa  grass. 

5.  If  he  suspends  it  round  his  neck  and  raises 
the  right  arm  (so  as  to  wear  the  cord  on  his  left 
shoulder),  he  becomes  ya^y^opavitin. 

6.  (If  he  raises)  the  left  (arm  and  wears  the  cord 
on  his  right  shoulder,  he  becomes)  pra/6inavitin. 

7.  After  having  sipped  water  three  times,  let  him 
wipe  off  the  water  twice. 

I,  1,  I.  alhato  grzhyakarma^zy.  2.  udagayanapurvapakshapu- 
?iyaheshu  prag  avartanad  anubha/^  kalo^^nadeje.  3.  ^pavarge  ya- 
thotsaha/«  brahmawan  arayed.  4.  ya^wopavitaw  sautraw^  ka.\isa.m  va. 
5.  grivayaw  pratimu/C'ya  dakshi«a»z  bahum  uddhrztya  ya^;7opaviti 
bhavati.    6.  savya;;/  pra^'inaviti.    7.  trir  a/('amyapo  dvi/z  p^vimn'gita.. 


I,  1,  i  =  Gobhila  I,  i,  i.     2=1,  i,  3.     3  =  1,  i,  6.      4-6  =  1,  2, 
I  seqq.     7-10  =  1,  2,  5  seqq. 


I  PATALA,    I   KHAiVDA,    1 7.  375 

8.  Having  besprinkled  his  feet  (with  water),  let 
him  besprinkle  his  head. 

9.  Let  him  touch  the  organs  of  his  senses  (i.e.  his 
eyes,  his  nose,  and  his  ears)  with  water  (i.  e.  with 
a  wet  hand). 

10.  When  he  has  finally  touched  (water)  again, 
he  becomes  pure. 

11.  (If)  sitting,  standing,  or  lying  down  (is  pre- 
scribed), he  should  understand  (that  it  is  to  be  done) 
on  northward-pointed  Darbha  grass,  with  the  face 
turned  to  the  east,  to  the  west  of  the  fire  with  which 
the  sacrifice  is  performed. 

12.  If  the  word  Snana  (or  bathing)  is  used,  (this 
refers  to  the  whole  body)  with  the  head. 

1 3.  (The  different  ceremonies  are)  performed  with 
the  right  hand,  if  no  special  rule  is  given. 

14.  If  it  is  not  clear  where  a  Mantra  ends,  one 
should  discern  it  by  (adverting  to)  the  beginning  of 
the  next  Mantra. 

15.  The  Mantras  have  the  word  svaha  at  their 
end,  when  offerings  are  made. 

16.  The  term  Pakaya^;^a  is  used  of  every  sacri- 
fice that  is  performed  with  one  fire. 

1 7.  There  the  Brahman  is  (present  as)  officiating 
priest,  with  the  exception  of  the  morning  and 
evening  oblations. 

8.  padav  abhyukshya  .nro^bhyukshed.  9.  indriyany  adbhi/^ 
sawspr/jed.  10.  antata// pratyupaspr/jya  ju.^ir  bhavaty.  11.  asa- 
nasthanasawvejanany  udagagreshu  darbheshu  prahmukhasya  pra- 
tiyat  paj/tad  agner  yatra  homa  syat.  12.  saha^irasaz?;  snanajabde. 
13.  dakshiwena  pa«ina  krztyam  anade^e.  14.  mantrantam  avyak- 
tztn  parasyadigrahawena  vidyat.  15.  svahanta  mantra  homeshu. 
16.  pakaya^wa  ityakhya  ya.h  kaj  X-aikagnau.  17.  tatra  r/ivig 
brahma  sayampratarhomavar^a;«. 

11-14  desunt.     15  =  1,  9,  25.     16  deest.     17,  i8  =  I.  9,  8.  9. 


376  KHADIRA-G/?7HYA-SUTRA. 

1 8.  The  Hotri's  place  is  filled  by  (the  sacrificer) 
himself. 

19.  To  the  south  of  the  fire  the  Brahman  sits 
facing  the  north,  silently,  until  the  oblation  has  been 
performed,  on  eastward-pointed  (Darbha  grass). 

20.  But  if  he  likes,  he  may  speak  of  what  refers 
to  the  sacrifice. 

21.  Or  if  he  has  spoken  (words)  which  are  un- 
worthy of  the  sacrifice,  let  him  murmur  the  Maha- 
vyBhritis, 

22.  Or  (the  verse), '  Thus  has  Vish;^u  '  (Sv.  1,222). 

23.  If  he  does  himself  the  work  both  of  the 
Brahman  and  of  the  Hotri,  let  him  sit  down  on 
the  Brahman's  seat,  and  (leave  that  seat)  placing 
a  parasol  on  it,  or  an  outer  garment,  or  a  water-pot, 
and  then  let  him  perform  his  other  duties. 

24.  Let  him  take  care  not  to  turn  his  back  to, 
or  become  separated  (by  any  person  or  thing  inter- 
posed) from  what  belongs  to  the  sacrifice. 

Khanda  2. 

1.  In  the  eastern  part  of  his  dwelling  he  should 
besmear  (the   place   on  which   the  sacrifice  will  be 

18.  svayawzhautrawi.  19.  dakshiwato^gner  udanmukhas  tushmm 
aste  brahma  homat  pragagreshu.  20.  kamaw  tv  adhiya^?7a//i  vya- 
hared.  21.  zyagniyam  va  vyahn'tya  mahavyahr/tir  ^aped.  22. 
idaw  vishwur  ita  va.  23.  hautrabrahmatve  svayaw  kurvan  brahma- 
sanam  [sic]  upavi^-ya  /^^attram  uttarasanga»z  kama«c/aluw  va  tatra 
krztvathanyat   kuryad.  24.  a.vya.vrAtim   ya^iiahgair   avyavayaw 

kek/iet. 

2,  I.  purve  bhage  ve^mano  gomayenopalipya  tasya  madhyadeje 
laksha«az?/  kuryad. 

i9=:I,  6,  13  seqq.    20-22  =  1,  6,  17  seqq.    23  =  1,6,21.    24  deest. 
2,  I  seqq.  =  Gobhihx  I,  i,  9  seqq. 


I  PATALA,    2  KHAiVDA,   II.  377 


performed)  with  cowdung,  and  should  draw  in  the 
middle  of  it  the  lines. 

2.  To  the  south  he  should  draw  a  line  from  west 

to  east. 

3.  From  the  beginning  of  that  line  (he  should 
draw  a  line)  from  south  to  north ;  from  the  end  (of 
the  last-mentioned  line)  one  from  west  to  east; 
between  (the  first  and  the  third  line)  three  (lines) 
from  west  to  east. 

4.  He  besprinkles  that  (place)  with  water, 

5.  Establishes  the  fire  (thereon), 

6.  Wipes  along  around  (the  fire)  with  the  three 
verses,  'This  praise'  (MB.  II,  4,  2-4). 

7.  To  the  w^est  of  the  fire  he  touches  the  earth 
with  his  two  hands  turned  downwards,  with  (the 
verse),  '  We  partake  of  the  earth's'  (MB.  II,  4,  i). 

8.  In  night-time  (he  pronounces  that  Mantra  so 
that  it  ends  with  the  word)  '  goods '  (vasu). 

9.  Having  strewn  Darbha  grass  to  the  west  (of 
the  fire),  let  him  draw  (some  grass)  from  the  south- 
end  and  from  the  north-end  (of  what  he  has  strewn), 
in  an  eastern  direction. 

10.  Or  let  him  omit  this  drawing  (of  Darbha 
grass  to  the  east), 

11.  And  let  him  strew  (the  grass)  beginning  in 
the  east,  so  as  to  keep  his  right  side  turned  to  the 

2.  dakshiwata/^  pra/ti/w  rekham  ullikhya.  3.  tadarambhad  udWm 
tadavasanat  prd/C'iw  tisro  madhye  praX-is.  4.  tad  abhyukshya.  5. 
:.gnim  upasamadhaya.  6.  imum  stomam  iti  parisamuhya  trzX-ena. 
7.  par/tad  agner  bhQmau  nyaTi/'au  pa;n  krzlvedam  bhumer  iti.  8. 
vasvantaw  ratrau.  9.  pa^X'ad  darbhan  astirya  dakshi/zata//  praX'iw 
prakarshed  uttarataj /ta.  10.  .prakr/shya  va.  11.  purvopakra- 
maw  pradakshi//am  agniw  strmuyan  mukiny  agraij  Madayan  tii- 
vn'hvn  partXavr/taw  vo. 

6-8  =  IV,  5,  3  seqq.     9-1 1  =1,  7,  9  seqq. 


2,7^  khadira-g/?/hya-sOtra. 

fire,  covering  the  roots  (of  the  Darbha  blades)  with 
the  points,  in  three  layers  or  in  five  layers. 

12.  Sitting  down  he  cuts  off  two  span-long  Darbha 
points,  not  with  his  nail,  with  (the  words),  '  Purifiers 
are  ye,  sacred  to  Vish^^u.' 

13.  He  wipes  them  with  water,  with  (the  words), 
'  By  Vish;m's  mind  are  ye  purified.' 

14.  Holding  them  with  his  two  thumbs  and  fourth 
fingers  so  that  their  points  are  turned  to  the  north, 

A 

he  three  times  purifies  the  A^a  (with  them),  with 
(the  words),  '  May  the  god  Savitr/  purify  thee  with 
this  uninjured  purifier,  with  the  rays  of  the  good  sun.' 

15.  Having  sprinkled  them  (with  water)  he  should 
throw  them  into  the  fire. 

16.  Having  put  the  A^c^ya  on  the  fire  he  should 
take  it  (from  the  fire)  towards  the  north. 

17.  Bending  his  right  knee  he  should  pour  out  to 
the  south  of  the  fire  his  joined  hands  full  of  water 
with  (the  words),  'Aditi!  Give  thy  consent!' 

18.  To  the  west  with  (the  words), '  Anumati !  Give 
thy  consent!' 

19.  To  the  north  with  (the  words),  '  Sarasvati ! 
Give  thy  consent!' 


12.  ^^pavijya  darbhagre  praderamatre  pra/{7/inatti  na  nakhena 
pavitre  stho  vaishwavyav  ity.  13.  adbhir  unmngya,  Vish;/or 
manasa  pute  stha  ity.  14.  udagagre^tfigush/Z/abhyam  anamika- 

hhyam  ka.  sa/«gr?'hya  trir  %-yam  utpunati  devas  tva  Savitotpunatv 
a./<:/ndrem  pavitre^/a  vasos  suryasya  rairnibhir  ity.  15.  abhyu- 
kshyagnav  anuprahared.  16.  a^yam  adhimtyottarata>^  kuryad. 
17.  dakshi;/a^anvakto  dakshi;;enagnim  Adite^^numanyasvety  uda- 
\a.nga.\im  prasi?7,^ed.  18.  Anumate  ^  numanyasveti  pajMt.  19. 
Sarasvate  [sic,  comp.  Hirawyakeji-Gnliya  I,  i,  2,  9]  tnumanya- 
svety  uttarata/;. 

i2-i6  =  I,  7,  21-27.      17-21=1,  3,  I  seqq. 


I  PArALA,    3  KHAiVDA,   3.  379 

20.  With  (the  words),  'God  Savitrz!  Give  thy 
impulse!'  (MB.  I,  i,  i)  he  should  sprinkle  (water) 
round  the  fire  so  as  to  keep  his  right  side  turned 
towards  it,  encompassing  what  he  is  going  to  offer 
(with  the  water). 

2 1 .  (This  he  does)  once  or  thrice. 

22.  He  puts  a  piece  of  wood  on  (the  fire). 

23.  He  should  murmur  the  Prapada  formula 
(]\IB.  n,  4,  5),  hold  his  breath,  fix  his  thoughts  on 
something  good,  and  should  emit  his  breath  when 
beginning  the  Virtipaksha  formula  (MB.  H,  4,  6). 

24.  At  ceremonies  for  the  attainment  of  special 
wishes  (he  should  do  so)  for  each  of  the  objects 
(which  he  wishes  to  attain).  • 

25.  He  should  do  so  always  at  sacrifices. 

KlIAiVZJA   3. 

1.  A  student  after  he  has  studied  the  Veda  and 
has  offered  a  present  to  his  teacher,  should,  with 
permission  (of  his  parents),  take  a  wife. 

2.  And  (he  should  take)  the  bath  (which  signifies 
the  end  of  studentship). 

3.  Of  these  two  (acts  the  taking  of)  the  bath 
comes  first. 


20.  deva  Savita^  prasuveti  pradakshi;/am  agnira  paryukshed 
abhipariharan  havya;;/.  21.  sakrzl  trir  va.  22.  samidham  adhaya. 
23.  prapadawz  ^apitvopatamya  kalya«aw  dhyayan  vairfipaksham 
aiabhyoX'/'^vaset.  24.  pralikama;«  kamyeshu.  25.  sarvatraitad 
dhomcshu  kuryat. 

3, 1.  brahma-('ari  vedam  adhityopanyahrztya  gurave^nu^^wato  daran 
kurvita.      2.  ^^plavana;/  /'a.      3.  tayor  aplavanaw  pfirva;//. 


22  =  1,  8,  26.     23  =  1V,  5,  6  seqq.     24,  25  desunt. 
3,  i=Gobhila  III,  4,  i.     2  =  111,  4,  7.     3,  4  desunt. 


380  KHADIRA-G/27HYA-StjTKA. 

4.  As,  however,  in  the  (collection  of)  Mantras 
marriage  is  treated  of  (first),  it  is  explained  (here) 
before  (the  bath). 

5.  A  Brahma;^a  with  a  water-pot,  wrapped  in  his 
robe,  keeping  silence,  should  step  in  front  of  the 
fire  and  should  station  himself  (to  the  south  of  it) 
with  his  face  to  the  north. 

6.  After  (the  bride)  has  taken  a  bath,  (the  bride- 
groom) should  dress  her  in  a  garment  that  has  not 
yet  been  washed,  with  (the  verse), '  They  who  spun ' 
(MB.  I,  I,  5).  While  she  is  led  up  (to  him),  the 
bridegroom  should  murmur  (the  verse),  '  Soma  gave 
her '  (1.  1.  7). 

•  7.   To  the  south  of  the  bridegroom  he  (who  has 
led  her  to  him)  should  make  her  sit  down. 

8.  While  she  touches  him,  (the  bridegroom)  should 
make  oblations  of  A^ya  with  the  Sruva,  picking 
out  (portions  of  it  [comp.  Paraskara  II,  14,  13]), 
with  the  Mahavyahr/tis. 

9.  A  fourth  (oblation)  with  (the  three  Maha- 
vyahmis)  together. 

10.  The  same  at  the  ceremonies  of  the  tonsure 
(of  the  child's  head),  of  the  initiation  (of  the  Brah- 
ma/i'arin),  and  of  the  cutting  of  the  beard. 


4.  mantrabhivadat  tu  pawigrahawasya  (correct,  Tpznigrah^nzm  ?) 
purvaw   vyakhyataz?2.  5.  brahma«as   sahodakumbha/z   pravrzto 

vagyato  s  gre?^agni»^  gatvodahmukhas  tish/Z^et.  6.  snatam  ahatena- 
>^//adya  ya  aknhtann  ity  aniyamanaya//^  pa/zigraho^apet  Somo:«^  dadad 
iti.  7.  pa«igrahasya  dakshiwata  upavejayed.  8,  anvarabdhayaw 
sruve«opaghata/?z  mahavyahr/tibhir  agyzm  ^uhuyat.  9.  samasta- 
hhis  /iaturthim.       10.  evzm  X:aulopanayanagodaneshv. 


5  =  I1>  I,  13-     6  =  11,  I,  17-19.     7  seqq.  =  II,  i,  23  seqq. ;  I,  9, 
J  6  seqq. 


I  PATALA,    3  KHAA^DA,   20.  38  I 


1 1 .  And  at  the  marriage  (he  makes  oblations) 
with  the  six  verses,  'May  Agni  go  as  the  first'  (MB. 

I,  I,  9  seqq.)- 

12.  At  Afya  oblations,  unless  a  special  rule  is 
given,  the  two  A^'a  portions  and  the  Svish/akrzt 
oblation  (are)  not  (offered). 

13.  After  (the  chief  oblations  he  should)  always 
(make  oblations)  with  the  INTahavyahmis, 

14.  And  with  the  (verse)  sacred  to  Pra^apati. 

15.  He  should  make  an  expiatory  oblation. 

1 6.  After  the  sacrifice  they  both  arise. 

17.  (The  bridegroom)  should  pass  behind  (the 
bride's)  back,  station  himself  to  the  south,  and  seize 
the  bride's  hand. 

18.  Her  mother  who  has,  towards  the  east,  put 
fried  erain  mixed  with  Sami  leaves  into  a  basket, 

19.  Should  make  the  bride  tread  with  the  tip  of 
her  right  foot  on  an  upper  mill-stone,  to  the  west 
of  the  fire,  with  (the  verse  which  the  bridegroom 
repeats),  '  On  this  stone'  (MB.  I,  2,  i). 

20.  Her  brother,  filling   once    his  joined   hands 


II.  Agnir  etu  prathama  iti  shartH^hu^a  pa?ngraha«e.  12.  na^'a- 
bhagau  na  svish/akr/'d  %yahutishv  anadcje.  13.  sarvatroparish/an 
mahavyahrnibhi// '.  14.  pra^apatyaya  >^a.  15.  prayaj/t'ittaw/ ^u- 
huyad.  16.  dhutvopottish/^ato.  17.  ^nupr/shZ/^aOT  gatva  dakshi- 
wato^vasthaya  vadhvaw^ali/zz  grzli^nyat.  18.  pfirva  mata  jamipala- 
j-amijran  (var.  lect.  "mural)  la^^aw  lihdrpc  kntva.  19.  paj/tad  agner 
dr/shatputram  akramayed  vadhfa/w  dakshi^ena  prapadenemam  as- 
manam  ili.  20.  sakr/dgriliilam  a;7i,^aliw  la^ana;«  vadhva/T^alav 
avapt'd  bhrata.  

14,  15  desunt.     16-31  =  11,  2,  i  seqq. 


•  Tossibly  the  Sutras  12  and  13  should  be  divided  thus  :  12.  na^-abhagau  na 
svish/akr/d  %yahutishv.  13.  anadeJe  san-atr"  &c.  Comp.  Gobhila  I,  9,  26. 
27  ;  >S"aiikhayana  I,  12,  13;  y,  10. 


o 


82  khadira-g/j/hya-sOtra. 


with    fried   grain,  should    pour   it  into    the    bride's 
joined  hands. 

21.  Or  some  friend  (instead  of  the  brother). 

22.  That  she  should  sacrifice  over  the  fire  without 
opening  her  joined  hands  with  (the  verse  which  the 
bridegroom  repeats),  '  This  woman'  (MB.  I,  2,  2). 

23.  (The  verses),  '  Aryaman'  and  '  Pushan '  (1.1. 
3,  4)  (are  repeated)  at  the  two  following  (oblations 
of  fried  grain). 

24.  After  that  sacrifice  he  should  go  back  in  the 
same  way  (see  Sutra  1 7),  and  should  lead  her  round 
the  fire,  so  that  their  right  sides  are  turned  towards 
it  with  (the  formula),  '  The  maid  from  the  fathers ' 

(1-1.  5). 

25.  (These  rites),  beginning  from   his   stationing 

himself   (to    the    south,  Sutra  17),   (are   performed) 
thrice. 

26.  After  (she)  has  poured  the  remnants  (of  the 
fried  grain)  into  the  fire,  he  should  make  her  step 
forward  in  a  north-eastern  direction  with  (the  for- 
mula), '  For  sap  with  one  step '  (1.  1.  6,  7). 

27.  The  looking  at  the  lookers-on,  the  mounting 
of  the  chariot,  the  reciting  (of  Mantras)  at  places 
difficult  to  pass  (on  the  way  of  the  bridegroom  and 
the  bride,  is  performed)  with  (verses)  suited  (to 
those  different  occasions). 

21.  suhrz'd  va  ka^/^it.  22.  tara  sagnaii  ^huyad  avU'^idya/T^alim 
iyam  narity.  23.  Aryama7za7«  Pusha;/am  ity  uttarayor.  24.  hute 
tenaiva  gatva  pradakshiwam  ag•ni»^  pariwayet  kanyala  pitrz'bhya  ity. 
25.  avasthanaprabhr/ty  evaw  [vis.  26.  jurpe;/a  .yish/an  agnav  opya 
pragudi/^im  utkramayed  ekam  isha  iti.  27.  ^kshakaveksha/zara- 
tharoha;/adurganumantra;;any  abhirupabhir. 


(21  and  a  part  of  27  desunt.) 


I  PAT-ALA,    4  KHAA'jDA,   3.  T^St, 

28.  Walking  forward  behind  the  fire,  the  water- 
carrier  (see  Sutra  5)  should  besprinkle  the  bride- 
groom on  his  forehead. 

29.  So  also  the  bride. 

30.  When  he  has  thus  been  besprinkled,  (he  should 
repeat  the  verse),  '  May  (the  Vii-ve  devas)  anoint 
(or,  unite)  '  (MB.  I,  2,  9). 

31.  He  should  seize  her  right  hand,  together  with 
the  thumb,  with  the  six  (verses),  '  I  seize  thy  hand ' 
(MB.  I,  2,  10  seqq.). 

Khaa^da  4. 

1.  He  should  carry  her  away  in  a  north-eastern 
direction. 

2.  In  a  Brahma;^a's  house  he  should  establish  the 
(nuptial)  fire,  should  spread  out  to  the  west  of  the 
fire  a  red  bull's  hide  with  the  hair  outside  and  with 
the  neck  to  the  east,  and  should  make  her,  who  has 
to  keep  silence,  sit  down  (thereon). 

3.  When  (somebody)  has  said  that  a  star  has 
appeared,  he  should,  while   she  touches   him,  make 

A 

oblations  (of  A^ya)  with  the  Sruva,  picking  out 
(portions  of  it),  with  the  six  (verses)  commencing 
with  (the  verse),  '  In  the  lines'  (MB.  I,  3,  i  seqq.). 
The  remnants  he  should  pour  out  over  the  bride's 
head. 

28.  aparewagnim  auduko  gatva  pawigraha/;^  murdhany  avasiwXed. 
29.  vadhuOT  >('a.  30.  samaw^antv  ity  avasikto.  31.  dakshi«a;« 
pa.?i'im  sahgush//iam  gnTiwiyad  gr/bh;/ami  ta  ili  shadbhi/i. 

4.  I.  pragudU'im  udvahed.  2.  brahniaz/akule^gnim  upasam- 
adhaya  pajX-ad  agner  lohitaw  >^armana</uham  uttaraloma  piaggrivam 
astirya  vagyatam  upavejayet.  3.  prokte  nakshatreinvarabdhaya/« 
sruve«opaghata;«  ^uhuyat  sha^/bhir  k^khaprabhrnibhi-^  sampatan 
avanayan  murdhani  vadhva^. 


4,  i-ii=Gobhila  II,  3,  i  seqq. 


384  KHADIRA-G72/HYA-SUTRA. 


4-  Having  circumambulated  the  fire  so  that  their 
right  sides  are  turned  towards  it,  he  shows  her  the 
polar  star  (literally,  the  firm  one),  with  the  verse, 
'  Firm  is  the  sky '  (1.  1.  7). 

5.  She  should  break  her  silence  by  respectfully 
calling  her  Gurus  by  their  Gotra  names. 

6.  A  cow  constitutes  the  sacrificial  fee. 

7.  Here  the  Arghya  ceremony  should  be  per- 
formed. 

8.  (Or  rather  it  should  be  performed)  when  they 
have  come  (to  their  house),  according  to  some 
(teachers) :  [comp.  K^aiikh.  I,  12,  10.] 

9.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  they  should 
avoid  eating  saline  food  and  drinking  milk,  and 
should  sleep  together  without  having  conjugal 
intercourse. 

10.  Having  murmured  over  food  which  is  fit  for 
sacrifice,  the  (verses),  'With  the  tie  of  food'  (MB.  I, 
3,  8-10),  he  should  pronounce  the  wife's  name, 
'N.  N.!' 

11.  After  he  has  sacrificed  (or,  eaten  ?)  he  should 
give  the  rest  to  the  wife. 

12.  After  the  lapse  of  that  period  of  three  nights, 
he   should   make  oblations  of  A^ya  with  the  four 

4.  pradakshiwam  agnim  parikramya  dhruvaOT  dawayati  dhruva 
dyaur  ity.  5.  abhivadya  gurun  (guruw,  Gobhila)  gotre«a  visr(^ed 
\-Ua.m.  6.  gaur  dakshiwa.  7.  ^^trarghyam.  8.  agateshv  ity  eke. 
9.  triratra?/?  ksharalava«e  dugdham  iti  var^ayantau  (var^ayanau  the 
MSS.)  saha  sayiyatam  (jayyata/?/,  jaryyata»^  the  MSS.)  brahma- 
kaiinaM.  10.  havishyam  annam  pari^apyannapa^enety  asav  iti 
vadhva  nama  bruyad.  11.  hutvoM/nsh/a?«  (bhuktv°?)  vadhvai 
dadyad.  12.  urdhvaw  triratra/^  ^atasrelDhir  a^^yara  ^uhuyad  Agne 
prayajkittir  iti  samasya  pa«/'ami;«  sampatan  avanayann  udapatre. 


12-13=11,  5,  I  seqq. 


I  PA^ALA,    5   KUANDA,  5.  385 

verses, '  Agni,  thou  art  expiation '  (MB.  I,  4,  i  seqq.). 
A  fifth  (oblation)  combining  (the  names  of  the  four 
gods  invoked  in  those  verses).     The  remnants  (of 

A 

A^^a)  he  should  pour  into  a  water-pot. 

13.  With  that  (A^a)  he  should  wash  her,  in- 
cluding her  hair  and  nails. 

14.  Thenceforward  he  should  behave  as  required 
by  circumstances. 

15.  At  the  time  of  her  courses  he  should  touch 
with  his  right  hand  her  secret  parts  with  (the  verse), 
'  May  Vish^m  make  thy  womb  ready'  (MB.  I,  4,  6). 

16.  When  (that  verse)  is  finished,  he  should 
cohabit  with  her,  with  (the  verse),  '  Give  conception ' 

(1. 1. 7). 

Khanda  5. 

1.  The  fire  used  at  his  wedding  (is  kept  as)  his 
(sacred)  domestic  fire. 

2.  Or  that  on  which  he  (as  a  student)  puts  the 
last  piece  of  wood. 

3.  Or  (a  fire)  kindled  by  attrition :  that  is  pure, 
but  it  does  not  bring  prosperity. 

4.  Or  he  may  get  it  from  a  frying-pan. 

5.  Or  from  the  house  of  one  who  offers  many 
sacrifices,  with  the  exception  of  a  .Sildra. 

13.  tenainaw  sakejanakham  aplavayet.  14.  tato  yathartha?« 
syad.  15.  rrtukale  dakshi;zena  pawinopastham  alabhed  Vish;mr 
yonim   kalpayalv    iti.  16.    samaptaya/w    sambhaved    garbhan 

dhehiti. 

5,  I.  yasminn  agnau  panim  gr/liwiyat  sa  grihyo.  2.  yasmin 
vantyaw  samidham  adadhyan.  3.  nirmanthyo  va  puwyas  so^nar- 
dhuko.  4.  ^mbarishad  vanayed.  5.  bahuy^i^ino  vagara-(' /f>^udra- 
varg'a/w. 

14  =  11,4,11.     15,16  =  11,5,9,10. 
5,  i-9  =  Gobhila  I,  i,  20-28. 
[29]  C   C 


386  KHADIRA-Gi?7HYA-stjTRA. 


6.  The  service  (at  that  sacred  domestic  fire)  begins 
with  an  evening  oblation. 

7.  After  (the  fire)  has  been  set  in  a  blaze  before 
sunset  or  sunrise — 

8.  The  sacrifice  (is  performed)  after  sunset, 

9.  (And)  after  sunrise  or  before  sunrise. 

10.  He  should  with  his  hand  make  oblations  of 
food  which  is  fit  for  sacrifice,  having  washed  it,  if 
it  is  raw. 

11.  If  it  consists  in  curds  or  milk,  with  a  brazen 

bowl, 

12.  Or  with  the  pot  in  which  the  oblations  of 
cooked  rice  are  prepared. 

13.  (In  the  evening  the  first  oblation  with  the 
formula),  '  To  Agni  Svaha ! '  in  the  middle  (of  the 
sacred  fire) ; 

14.  The  second  (oblation)  silently  in  the  north- 
eastern part  (of  the  fire). 

15.  In  the  morning  the  first  (oblation  with  the 
formula),  '  To  Starya  (Svaha)  ! ' 

16.  The  wiping  round  the  fire  and  the  similar 
acts,  with  the  exception  of  the  sprinkling  (of  water) 
round  (the  fire),  are  omitted  here. 

17.  Some  (teachers  say)  that  his  wife  may  offer 
these  oblations,  for  the  wife  is  (as  it  were)  the  house, 
and  that  fire  is  the  domestic  fire. 


6.  sayamahutyupakramaw  pariX'araMa/?^.  7.  prag  astamayodaya- 
bhyaw  pradushkr/tya.  8.  ^.rstam  ite  homa.  9.  udite  X'anudite  va. 
lo.  havishyasyannasyakrz'taOT  /cet  prakshalya  ^huyat  pawina.  11. 
dadhi  X-et  payo  va  kawsena.  12.  ^arusthalya  va.  13.  ^gnaye 
svaheti  madhye.  14.  tushwi;;^  pragudiX'im  uttara;«.  15.  Siiryayeti 
prata-^  pfirvaz^z.  16.  natra  parisamfihanadini  paryukshawavar^a?;/. 
17.  patni^uhuyad  ity  eke  grzhzh  patni  grthyo^gniv  esha  iti. 


10-19  =  1,  3,  6-i8  (16  deest). 


I  PATALA,    5   KHANDA,    3O.  387 

18.  When  (the  meal)  is  ready,  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning,  (the  wife)  should  say,  *  It  is 
ready ! '  and  (the  husband)  with  loud  voice,  'Om  !' 

1 9.  Then  in  a  low  voice  :  '  May  it  not  fail !  Ado- 
ration to  thee ! ' 

20.  Of  food  which  is  fit  for  sacrifice  he  should 
make  oblations  to  Pra_^pati  and  to  (Agni)  Svish/a- 
krzt. 

21.  Then  he  should  make  the  Bali  offerings. 

22.  He  should  put  down  (a  Bali)  at  four  places, 
inside  or  outside  (the  Agnyagara) ; 

23.  (Another  Bali)  near  the  water-barrel ; 

24.  (Another)  at  the  middle  door  ; 

25.  (Another)  in  the  bed, 

26.  Or  in  the  privy  ; 

27.  Another  on  the  heap  of  sweepings. 

28.  He  should  sprinkle  each  (Bali  with  water) 
before  and  afterwards. 

29.  The  remnants  he  should  pour  out  together 
with  water  towards  the  south. 

30.  Of  chaff,  of  water,  and  of  the  scum  of  boiled 
rice  (he  should  offer  a  Bali)  when  a  donation  has 
been  made. 


18,  siddhe  sayampratar  bhfitam  ity  ukta  om  ity  U/^^air  bruyat. 
19.  m^  ksha  namas  ta  ity  upa7;/ju.  20.  havishyasyiinnasya  ^uhu- 
yat  prai;^apaiyaw  sauvish/akrz'taw  X'a.  21.  baliw  nayed.  22.  bahir 
antar  va  X-atur  nidhaya.  23.  ma;/ikadeje.  24.  madhye  dvari. 
25.  ^ayyam  anu.  26.  varX'aw/  [sic]  va.  27.  :itha  sastiapam.  28. 
ekaikam  ubhayata^  parishiwX'eX'.  29.  X/^esham  adbhis  sardhawz 
dakshiwa  ninayet.  30.  phalikarawanam  apam  aX'amasveti  (read, 
aXamasycti)  vijrawite. 


20-37  =  1,  4,  I  seqq. 
C  C  2 


388  KHADIRA-Gi?7HYA-SUTRA. 

31.  The  gods  to  whom  the  BaU  offerhigs  belong, 
are,  the  Earth,  Vayu,  Prac^apati,  the  Visve  devas, 
the  Waters,  the  Herbs  and  Trees,  the  Ether,  Kama 
or  Manyu,  the  hosts  of  Rakshas,  the  Fathers, 
Rudra. 

32.  He  should  do  so  silently. 

33.  He  should  do  so  (i.e.  offer  Balis)  of  all  food. 

34.  If  for  one  meal  the  food  gets  ready  at  different 
times,  he  should  do  so  only  once. 

35.  If  (food  is  prepared)  at  different  places,  (he 
should  take)  that  which  belongs  to  the  householder. 

36.  Of  all  food  he  should  offer  (something)  in  the 
fire,  and  give  the  due  portion  to  a  Brahma;2a ;  he 
should  do  so  himself 

3  7.  From  the  rice(-harvest)  till  the  barley  (-harvest), 
or  from  the  barley(-harvest)  till  the  rice(-harvest)  he 
should  offer  (the  Balis)  himself  He  should  offer 
(the  Balis)  himself 

End  of  the  First  Pa/ala. 


31.  Prz'thivi  Vayii^  Pra^apatir  Vi^-ve  deva  Apa  Oshadhivanaspa- 
taya  Aka^a/^  Kamo  Manyur  va  Rakshogawa^  Pitaro  Rudra  iti 
balidaivatani.  32.  tmhnim  tu  kuryat.  33.  sarvasya  tv  anna- 
syaitat  kuryad.  34.  asakn'k  X-ed  ekasmin  kale  siddhe  sakrz'd  eva 
kuryad.  35.  bahudha /(-ed  yad  gnhapate//.  36.  sarvasya  tv  anna- 
syagnau  kr/tvagra?«  brahmawaya  dadyat ;  svayaw  kuryad.  37.  vrihi- 
prabhrz'ty  a  yavebhyo  yavebhyo  va^vrihibhya  svaya/?/  haret  svayaw 
haret.         prathamapa/ala/^ 


II  TAT-ALA,     I   KIIATVZiA,  Q.  389 


PaT^ALA   II,   KllANDA  1. 

1.  Of  the  sacrifices  of  the  new  and  full  moon,  the 
full-moon  sacrifice  should  be  performed  first. 

2.  If  (the  term  for  the  sacrifice)  of  the  new  moon 
comes  first,  he  should  first  celebrate  the  full-moon 
sacrifice  and  then  perform  that. 

3.  Some  say  that  he  should  not  perform  it,  and 
wait  till  the  day  of  the  full  moon. 

4.  In  the  afternoon,  husband  and  wife,  after 
having  bathed,  should  eat  fast-day  food. 

5.  Manadantavya  has  said  :  'He  who  eats  fast- 
day  food,  obtains  offspring  better  than  himself;  he 
gains  favour  ;  hunger  will  not  attack  him.' 

6.  Therefore  one  should  eat  (fast-day  food)  which 
he  likes. 

7.  He  should  do  nothing  unholy  (such  as  cohabit- 
ing with  his  wife). 

8.  After  he  has  sacrificed  the  morning  oblation, 

9.  He  should  pour  out  the  sacrificial  food  with 
(the  formula),  '  Agreeable  to  such  and  such  (a  deity) 
I   pour  thee  out : '    (this   formula)   referring   to  the 


II,  1,  I.  paurwamasopakramau  darjapaurwamasau.  2.  dirsam 
/(•et  pOrvam  upapadyeta  paur«amasenesh/vatha tat  kuryad.  3.  akur- 
van  paurwamastm  akahkshed  ity  eke.  4.  ^^parahwe  snatvaupava- 
salhika/«  dampati  bhuw^iyatam.  5.  Manadantavya  uva>ta:  jreyasiw 
pr^i^a/n  vindate  kamyo  bhavaty  akshodhuko  ya  aupavasathika;;/ 
bhuhkte.  6.  tasmad  yat  kamayeta  tad  bhu/Tg'ita.  7.  navratyam 
a/'aret.  8.  pratarahutiw  hulva  9.  havir  nirvaped  amushmai  tva 
gushiam  nirvapamiti  devatajrayaw  sakr/d  ya^ur  va  dvis  tflsh«iw. 

II,  1,  1-3  desunt.  4  =  Gobhila  I,  5,  26.  5-8  =  1,  6,  1-13. 
9-16  (15  deest)=I,  7,  2-19. 


390  KHADIRA-Gi^mVA-SUTRA. 

deity,  or  a  Yac^us,   (is  repeated)   once ;    twice  (it  is 
done)  silently. 

10.  He  should  wash  (the  food)  thrice,  (if  it  is 
destined)  for  gods ; 

1 1.  Twice,  if  for  men  ; 

12.  Once,  if  for  the  Fathers. 

1 3.  Stirring  it  up  with  the  pot-ladle  from  the  left 
to  the  right  he  should  cook  it. 

14.  When  he  has  cooked  it,  he  should  sprinkle 
(A^ya)  on  it,  should  take  it  from  the  fire  towards  the 
north,  and  should  again  sprinkle  (Afya)  on  it. 

15.  Thus  all  kinds  of  Havis  (are  prepared). 

16.  Having  put  (the  Havis)  on  the  sacrificial 
grass, 

17.  He  should  sacrifice  the  two  A^ya  portions 
(in  the  following  way) :  Having  taken  four  portions 
of  A^ya — five  portions  are  taken  by  the  Bhr/gus 
(or  at  least  ?)  by  the  6^amadagnyas  [see  Indische 
Studien,  10,  95] — (he  should  make  two  oblations), 
to  the  north  with  (the  formula),  '  To  Agni  Svaha ! ' 
to  the  south  with  (the  formula),  'To  Soma  Svaha!' 

18.  Others  (do  it)  conversely. 

A 

19.  Having  'spread  under'  A^ya,  he  should  cut 
oflf  with  the  pot-ladle  (portions)  of  the  Havis  from 
the  middle  and  from  the  eastern  side ; 

10.  trir  devebhya^  prakshalayed.  11.  dvir  manushyebhya/z. 
12.  sakr/t  pitrz'bhyo.  13.  meksha«ena  pradakshi;/am  udayuvaw 
jrapaye/^.  14.  k/mXam  abhigharyodag  udvasya  pratyabhigharayet. 
15.  sa.v\-a.ny  eva.m  havimshi.  16.  barhishy  asadya.  17.  ^^^yabhagau 
^-^uhuya-^  X-aturgrzliitam  ^gyam  grzTiilva  pa;7/('avattaw  Bhriguftam 
Gamadagnyanam  Agnaye  svahety  uttarata^  Somayeti  dakshiwato. 
18.  viparitam  itara.  19.  a^yam  upastirya  havisho^vadyen  me- 
ksha;/ena  madhyat  purastad  iti. 


17-27  (18,  23  desunt)=I,  8,  3-29. 


II  PATALA,     I   KHAA'DA,    26.  39 1 

20.  One  who  takes  five  cut-off  portions  (see  Sutra 
17),  also  from  the  western  side. 

A 

21.  After  he  has  sprinkled  (A^'a)  on  (the  cut-off 
portions),  he  anoints  the  places  from  which  he  has 

A 

cut  them  off,  (with  A^ya). 

22.  (This  anointing)  is  omitted  at  the  Svish/akr/t 
oblation. 

23.  He  should  sacrifice  with  (the  formula),  '  To 
N.  N.  Svaha ! ' — according  to  the  god  to  whom  the 
oblation  belongs. 

24.  At  the  Svish/akm  oblation  he  *  spreads  under' 
once — twice  if  he  is  a  Bhr/gu — ,  (cuts  oft")  once  (a 
portion)  of  the  Havis,  sprinkles  (Ac^a)  on  it  twice, 
and  sacrifices  it  in  a  north-eastern  direction  with  (the 
formula),  '  To  Agni  Svish/akm  Svah^  ! ' 

25.  Having  put  a  piece  of  wood  (on  the  fire), 

26.  He  should  dip  Darbha-blades  (of  the  sacrificial 
grass  strewn  round  the  fire)  three  times,  the  points, 
the  middle,  and  the  roots,  into  the  Af}'a  or  into  the 
Havis  with  (the  words),  'May  the  birds  come,  lick- 
ing what  has  been  anointed.'  Then,  after  having 
sprinkled  (those  Darbha-blades  with  water),  he  should 
throw  them  into  the  fire,  with  (the  verse),  '  Thou 
who  art  the  lord  of  cattle,  Rudra,  who  walkest  with 
the  lines  (of  cattle),  the  manly  one :  do  no  harm  to 
our  cattle  ;  let  this  be  offered  to  thee.    Sviha  ! ' 

20.  \)2iskM  ^'a  paw/^'avatty.  21.  abhigharya  pratyanakty  ava- 
danasthanani.  22.  na  svish/ak/v'to.  23.  ..mushmai  svaheti^uhuyad 
yaddevatyaw    syat.  24.    svish/akrzta//    sakr/d    upastJrya    dvir 

Bhrig^na.m  sakr/d  dhavisho  [sic]  dvir  abhigharyagnaye  svish/akr/te 
svaheti  pragudi-('ya;«  ^^uhuyat.  25.  samidliam  adhaya.  26.  dar- 
bhan  a^ye  havishi  va  trir  avadhayagramadhyamfilany  aktawz  riha;;a 
viyantu  vaya  ity  abhyukshyagnav  anupraharcd  ya/i  jiajunam  adhi- 
pati  Rudras  tantiX'aro  vr/sha  pajun  asma/('a/«  ma  hi///sir  etad  asiu 
hutan  tava  svaheti. 


392  KHADIRA-G/?7HYA-StjTRA. 

27.  This  (ceremony  is  called)  Ya^;^avastii. 

28.  He  should  perform  it  at  all  (sacrifices). 

29.  The  remnants  of  the  Havis  he  should  take 
away  in  a  northern  direction,  and  should  give  them 
to  the  Brahman. 

30.  A  full  vessel  constitutes  the  fee  for  the  sacri- 
fice ; 

31.  Or  as  much  as  he  can  afford. 

KHAiVDA    2, 

1.  By  one  who  has  not  set  up  the  sacred  fires, 
a  mess  of  cooked  food,  sacred  to  Agni,  is  offered  at 
the  festivals  of  the  full  and  new  moon  ; 

2.  By  one  who  has  set  them  up,  one  sacred  to 
Agni  and  Soma  at  the  full  moon ; 

3.  One  sacred  to  Indra,  or  to  Mahendra,  or  to 
Indra  and  Agni,  at  the  new  moon ; 

4.  Or  as  (the  sacrifice  is  performed)  by  one  who 
has  not  set  up  the  sacred  fires. 

5.  The  time  at  which  the  morning  oblation  may 
be  offered,  is  the  whole  day  ; 

6.  For  the  evening  oblation  the  night ; 

7.  For  the  sacrifice  of  the  full  moon  the  whole 
second  fortnight  (of  the  month)  ; 

27.  tad  ya^«avastu.  28.  sarvatra  kuryad.  29.  dhavir  uX'>^//ish- 
/am  udag  udvasya  brahmawe  dadyat.  30.  pumapatrawz  dakshi;za. 
31.  yathotsahaw  va. 

2, 1.  Agneya  sthalipako^nahitagner  darjapun/amasayor.  2.  agni- 
shomtya//  paurwamasyam  ahitagner.  3.  aindro  mahendro  vaindragno 
vamavasyaya7«.  4.  yatha  vanahltagnes.  5.  sarvam  aha//  pratara- 
hute  sthana?;^.  6.  ratris  sayamahutes.  7.  sarvo^paiapaksha/z 
paurwamasasya. 

28  deest.     29-31  =  1,  9,  I.  6.  11. 

2,  i-4  =  Gobhila  I,  8,  22-25.     5-14  =  1,  9,  14  seqq. 


II  PATALA,    2   KHAiVDA,    1 9.  393 

8.  For  the  sacrifice  of  the  new  moon  the  first 
fortnight. 

9.  Some  say  that  he  should  keep  his  vow  (until 
the  sacrifice  is  performed)  by  abstaining  from  food. 

10.  If  (the  proper)  sacrificial  food  is  wanting,  let 
him  offer  fruits  of  sacrificially  pure  (plants  or  trees); 

1 1.  Or  leaves  (of  such  plants  or  trees) ; 

12.  Or  water. 

1 3.  For  (even  if  he  offers  water)  the  sacrifice  has 
been  performed. 

14.  A  penance  (is  prescribed)  for  one  who  does 
not  perform  the  sacrifice. 

15.  If  no  Havis  is  indicated,  one  should  offer 
A^ya. 

16.  The  deity  (only  should  be  named),  if  no 
Mantra  is  indicated. 

17.  In  the  third  month  of  the  first  pregnancy  (of 
the  sacrificer's  wife  he  should  perform)  the  Vum- 
savana  (i.  e.  the  ceremony  to  secure  the  birth  of 
a  son). 

18.  After  she  has  bathed,  her  husband  should 
put  on  her  a  (new)  garment  that  has  not  yet  been 
washed,  and  after  having  sacrificed  he  should  stand 
behind  her. 

19.  Grasping  down   over  her  right  shoulder  he 

8.  pflrvapaksho  darjasya.  9.  ^^bhoj^^anena  santanuyad  ity  eke. 
10.  :»vidyamane  havyeya^«iyanaw  phalani^'uhuyal.  11.  palaj-ani 
va.  12.  ipova.  13.  huta;«  hi.  14.  prayajX'ittam  ahutasya.  15. 
^gyau  ^uhuyad  dhavisho^nadej-e.  16.  devata  [corr.  devata;//?] 
mantranadeje.  17.  prathamagarbhe  tr/tiye  masi  puwsavanaw. 
18,  snatam  ahatenaX7/adya  hutva  pati//  pr/'sh/Z/atas  tish//;ed.  19. 
dakshi;;am  awsani  anvabhim;7>yanantarhita/«  {%ha.m,  "^hitan,  the 
MSS.)  nabhidejam  abhimr/jet  jiumawsav  ity. 


15,  16  desunl.      17-23  =  11,  6. 


394  KHADIRA-G2?7HYA-S^TRA. 


O 


should  touch  the  uncovered  place  of  her  navel  with 
(the  verse),  *  The  two  men'  (MB.  I,  4,  8). 

20.  Then  another  (ceremony).  Having  bought 
for  three  times  seven  barley  corns  or  beans,  a 
Nyagrodha-shoot  which  has  fruits  on  both  sides, 
which  is  not  dry,  and  not  touched  by  worms,  he 
should  set  that  up  with  (the  formula),  'Ye  herbs 
everywhere,  being  well-minded,  bestow  strength  on 
this  (shoot) ;  for  it  will  do  its  work.' 

21.  He  then  should  take  it  and  place  it  in  the 
open  air. 

22.  A  girl,  or  a  (wife)  addicted  (to  her  husband). 
or  a  student,  or  a  Brahma;^i  should  pound  (that 
Nyagrodha-shoot)  without  moving  backward  (the 
stone  with  which  she  pounds  it). 

23.  (The  husband)  should  make  (the  wife)  who 
has  bathed,  lie  down,  and  should  insert  (that  pounded 
substance)  into  her  right  nostril  with  (the  verse), 
'A  man  is  Agni '  (MB.  1,4,  9). 

24.  Then  in  the  fourth  or  sixth  month  (of  her 
pregnancy)  the  Simantonnayana  (or  parting  of  the 
hair  is  performed)  for  her. 

25.  After  she  has  bathed,  her  husband  should 
put  on  her  a  garment  that  has  not  yet  been  washed, 

20.  athaparaw^  nyagrodhajuhgam  ubhayata/^phalam  asramam 
akrHniparisr/ptcV/i  trissaptair  y3.va.U1  parikriyotthapayen  mashair  va 
sarvatraushadhayas  sumanaso  bhutva  (hutva,  hutva?«  the  IMSS.) 
^sy3i7?i  \'irya.m  samadhatteya?«  karma  karishyatity.  21.  ahrztya 
vaihayasiOT  kuryat.  22.  kumari  vratavati  brahmaMri  brahmawi  va 
peshayed  apratyaharanti.  23.  snata;;^  S3.mvesya.  dakshi;/e  nasika- 
srotasy  asiw^'et  puman  Agnir  ity.  24.  athasya^-  X-aturthe  masi 
shash/Zie  va  simantonnayana?;/.  25.  snatam  ahatenaX7/adya  hutva 
pati^  przsh/Zzatas  tish//zann  anupurvaya  phalavrzlvsharakhaya  sakr/t 
simantam  unnayet  trii'vetaya  .yalalyayam  urg-avato  vn'ksha  iti. 


24-27  =  11,  7,  I  seqq. 


II  PATALA,    2  KUANDA,  34.  395 

and  after  having  sacrificed,  he  should  stand  behind 
her  and  should  part  her  hair  once  with  a  well-pro- 
portioned (?)  branch  of  a  tree,  on  which  there  are 
fruits,  (and)  with  a  porcupine's  quill  that  has  three 
white  spots,  with  (the  verse),  '  Rich  in  sap  is  this 
tree'  (MB.  I,  5,  i). 

26.  While  she  looks  at  a  mess  of  boiled  rice  with 
sesamum  seeds,  covered  with  ghee,  he  should  ask 
her,  'What  dost  thou  see  ? ' 

27.  He  should  make  her  reply,  'Offspring  !' 

28.  When  the  child  is  appearing,  the  sacrifice  for 
the  woman  in  labour  (is  to  be  performed) — 

29.  With  the  two  verses,  *  She  who  athwart ' 
(MB.  I,  5,  6  seq.). 

30.  He  should  give  a  name  to  the  child,  *  N.  N. ! ' 

31.  That  (is  his)  secret  (name). 

32.  Before  the  navel-string  is  cut  off  and  the 
breast  is  given  (to  the  child,  the  father)  should  have 
rice  and  barley  grains  pounded  in  the  way  prescribed 
for  the  Nyagrodha-shoot  (see  Stitra  22). 

33.  He  should  take  thereof  with  his  (right)  thumb 
and  fourth  finger  and  give  it  to  the  child  to  eat, 
with  (the  formula),  '  This  order'  (MB.  I,  5,  8). 

34.  And  butter  with  (the  verse),  'May  intelligence 
to  thee'  (MB.  I,  5,  9). 

26.  krzsarasthalipakam  uttaraghr/tam  aveksha[n]tim  pr/H7/et 
kiw  pajyasiti.  27.  pra^am  iti  vaX-ayet.  28.  pratish/>^ite  vastau 
soshyantihoma^.  29.  ya  tirajX'iti  dvabhyam.  30.  asav  iti  nama 
dadhyat.  31.  tad  guhya/w.  32.  prah  nabhikr/ntanat  slanadana/r 
X'a  vrihiyavau  peshayeX-  X7/iihgavrna.  33.  ^hgush/Z/enanamikaya 
X'adaya  kumara/w  prajayed  iyam  a^weti.  34.  saipi^  X'a  medhan 
ta  iti. 


28-34  =  11,  7.  13  seqq. 


396  KHADIRA-Gi?7HYA-SUTRA. 


KHAiVZ>A    3, 

1.  On  the  third  (Tithi)  of  the  third  bright  fort- 
night after  his  birth,  the  father  should  have  the  child 
bathed  in  the  morning,  and  after  sunset  he  should, 
holding  up  his  joined  hands,  towards  the  auspicious 
directions  (of  the  horizon),  worship  the  moon. 

2.  The  mother,  having  dressed  (the  son)  in  a 
clean  (garment),  should  hand  him,  with  his  face 
turned  to  the  north,  to  the  father. 

3.  She  then  should  pass  behind  (her  husband's) 
back,  and  should  station  herself  towards  the  north. 

4.  After  he  has  performed  worship  (to  the  moon) 
with  the  three  (verses),  '  Thy  heart,  O  thou  with 
the  well-parted  hair'  (MB.  I,  5,  10  seqq.),  and  has 
handed  over  the  son,  turning  him  towards  the  north, 
to  his  mother,  he  should  pour  water  out  of  his  joined 
hands  with  (the  verse),  'What  in  the  moon'  (1. 1.  13). 

5.  (He  should  do  the  same)  twice  silently. 

6.  After  a  period  of  ten  nights,  or  of  a  hundred 
nights,  or  of  one  year  after  (the  child's  birth)  he 
should  give  him  a  name. 

7.  He  who  is  going  to  perform  (that  ceremony — 
the  father  or  a  representative  of  the  father),  after  he 


3,  I .  ^anana^  ^yautsne  tn'tiye  tn'tiyaya?^  prata  snapya  kumaram 
astam  ite  rantasu  dikshu  pita  /(•andramasam  upatish//?et  pra%ali/^. 
2.  ju/^inaX'/^adya  mata  praya/V/ed  udak^irasam.  3.  anupr/sh//zaw 
gatvottaratas  tish//zed.  4.  yat  te  susima  iti  tisr/bhir  upastha- 
yodawX-awz  matre  pradaya  yad  ada  ity  apam  a%-alim  avasiw^ed. 
5.  dvis  tushnwi.  6.  ^^ananad  <irdhva.m  da^aratra/'  /J'/^ataratrat  sawz- 
vatsarad  va  nama  kuryat.  7.  snapya  kumaraw  karishyata  upa- 
vish/asya  juX-ina/'/^adya  mata  praya-('/^ed  udak^irasam. 


3,  i-5  =  Gobhila  II,  8,  1-7.     6-i2  =  II,  8,  8-17. 


II  PArALA,    3  KHAA'DA,    IJ.  397 

has  had  the  boy  bathed,  should  sit  down,  and  the 
mother,  having-  dressed  him  in  a  clean  (garment), 
should  hand  him,  with  his  face  turned  to  the  north, 
to  the  performer  (of  the  ceremony). 

8.  She  then  should  walk  around  behind  (his)  back 
and  should  sit  down  towards  the  north. 

9.  He  should  sacrifice  and  should  touch  the  sense- 
organs  at  (the  boy's)  head  with  the  (Mantra),  *  Who 
art  thou?'  (MB.  I,  5,  14,  15.) 

10.  '  N.  N. !' — (at  the  place  thus  indicated  in  the 
Mantra)  he  should  give  him  a  name. 

11.  The  same  (he  should  pronounce)  at  the  end 
of  the  Mantra. 

12.  He  should  tell  it  to  the  mother  first. 

13.  (The  father)  when  returning  from  a  journey, 
should  grasp  (with  his  two  hands)  his  son  round  the 
head,  with  (the  verses),  '  F'rom  limb  b}-  limb'  (MB. 
I,  5.  16-18). 

14.  With  (the  formula),  'With  the  cattle's'  (1.1. 
19),  he  should  kiss  him. 

15.  Silently  (he  should  do  the  same)  with  a 
daughter. 

16.  In  the  third  year  the  tonsure  (of  the  child's 
head  is  performed). 

1 7.  There  the  barber,  warm  water,  a  mirror,  or  a 

8.  anupr/sh///aw  gatvottarata  upavi^ed.  9.  dhuiva  ko^siti  tasya 
mukhyan  prawan  abhimr?.red.  10.  asav  iti  nama  kuryat.  11.  tad 
eva  mantrante.  12.  matre  prathamam  akhyaya.  13.  vipro- 
shyahgad  ahgad  iti  putrasya  munihanaw  parigr/Tiwiyat.  14.  pajfl- 
naw  tvety  abhi^ighret.  15.  tush«i;;/  striyas.  16.  tr/tiye  varshe 
^aulan.  17.  talra  napita  ushwodakam  adar^a//  kshuro  vaudum- 
bara/i  pi%Wya  iti  dakshiwata. 


13-15  =  11,  8,  21-25.     i6-;,3  =  ll,  9. 


398  KHADIRA-Gi27HYA-SUTRA. 

razor  of  Udumbara-wood,  and  (Darbha)-blades  (are 
placed)  towards  die  south. 

18.  A  bull's  dung-  and  a  mess  of  boiled  rice  with 
sesamum  seeds  which  may  be  more  or  less  cooked, 
to  the  north  ; 

19.  And  the  mother  with  the  son  in  her  lap. 

20.  (The  performer  of  the  ceremony),  after  having 
sacrificed,  should  look,  with  (the  Mantra),  *  Hither 
has  come'  (MB.  I,  6,  i),  at  the  barber,  fixing  his 
thoughts  on  (the  god)  Savitrz. 

21.  With  (the  Mantra), '  With  warm  water'  (1. 1.  2), 
he  should  look  at  the  warm  water,  fixing  his  thoughts 
on  Vayu. 

22.  With  (the  Mantra),  '  May  the  waters  '  (1. 1.  3), 
he  moistens  (the  boy's  hair). 

23.  With  (the  Mantra),  'Vish;ai's'  (1.1.  4),  he 
should  look  at  the  mirror  or  at  the  razor  of  Udum- 
bara-wood. 

24.  With  (the  Mantra),  'Herb!'  (1.1.  5)  he  puts 
seven  Darbha-blades,  with  their  points  upwards 
(i.  e.  towards  the  boy's  head  ?),  into  (his  hair). 

25.  With  (the  formula),  'Axe !'  (1. 1.  6)  (he  presses 
them  down)  with  the  mirror  or  with  the  razor  of 
U  dumbara-wood. 

26.  With  (the  Mantra),  'With  which  Pushan ' 
(1. 1.  7),  he   should  move  forward   (the  razor)   three 


18.  ana</uho  gomaya>^  knsarasthalipako  vr/thapakva  ityuttarato. 
19.  mata  /J-a  kumaram  adaya.  20.  hutvayam  agad  iti  napitaw 
prekshet  Savitarara  dhyayann.  2 1 .  ush«enety  ush;/odaka?«  prekshed 
Vayuw  dhyayann.  22.  apa  ity  untte  (ante,  wnde,  uhwte,  uhte 
the  MSS.).  23.  VishKor  ity  adarJa»^  prekshetaudumbara7;^  vau. 
24.  ^shadha  iti  darbhapi;7§ailis  saptordhvagra  abhinidhaya.  25.  sva- 
dhita  ity  adar>rena  kshure«audumbare«a  va.  26.  yena  Pusheti  da- 
kshiwatas  tri^  Tprmka.m  prohet. 


II  PArALA,    4  KUANDA,  3.  399 

times  towards  the   east   on  the  right    side  (of  the 
boy's  hair). 

27.  Cutting  (the  hair)  once  with  a  razor  of  metal 
he  should  throw  the  hair  on  the  bull's  dunof. 

28.  The  same  rites,  beginning  from  the  moisten- 
ing (of  the  hair,  are  repeated)  on  the  left  side  and 
on  the  back  side  (of  the  child's  head). 

29.  Grasping  (with  his  two  hands)  the  boy  round 
his  head  he  should  murmur  (the  verse),  '  The  three- 
fold age '  (1. 1.  8). 

30.  Walking  away  (from  the  fire)  in  a  northern 
direction  he  should  have  the  arrangement  of  (the 
boy's)  hair  made  according  to  the  custom  of  his 
Gotra  and  of  his  family. 

31.  Let  them  bury  the  hair  in  the  forest. 

32.  Some  throw  them  on  a  bunch  (of  grass  or 
the  like). 

33.  A  cow  constitutes  the  sacrificial  fee. 

KHAiVDA    4. 

1.  Let  him  initiate  a  Brahma;^a  in  his  eighth  year. 

2.  For  him  the  time  (for  being  initiated)  has 
not  passed  until  his  sixteenth  (year). 

3.  In  the  eleventh  a  Kshatriya. 


27.  sakn'd  ayasena  praX-y^idyanaa^uhe  gomaye  ke^an  kuryad.  28. 
undanaprabhrzty  evaw  paj'X-ad  uttaralaj  X'a.  29.  tryayusham  iti 
putrasya  miirdhanaw  parigr/hya  ^:^aped.  30.  udahh  utsrzpya  kuja- 
likarayed  yathagotrakulakalpam,  31.  arawye  kejan  nikhaneyu/i. 
32.  stambe  nidadhaty  eke,       33.  gaur  dakshiwa. 

4,  I.  ash/ame  varshe  brahmawam  upanayet.  2.  tasya  shofl'ajad 
anatfta,^  kala,     3.  ekadaje  kshatriya;//. 


1,  I  =Gobhila  II,  10. 


400  KHADIRA-G/J/HYA-SUTRA. 

4.  For  him  (the  time  has  not  passed)  until  the 
twenty-second. 

5.  In  the  twelfth  a  Vai>fya. 

6.  For  him  (the  time  has  not  passed)  until  the 
twenty-fourth. 

7.  After  (the  student's)  hair  has  been  arranged, 
and  he  has  been  adorned,  and  dressed  in  a  gar- 
ment which  has  not  yet  been  washed,  (the  teacher) 
should  sacrifice  with  (the  Mantras  which  the  stu- 
dent   recites),    '  Agni !     Lord   of  the   vow!'    (MB. 

I,  6,  9-13.) 

8.  He  should  cause  (the  student)  to  stand  north- 
wards of  the  fire,  facing  the  west,  and  to  join  his 
hands. 

9.  And  he  should  himself  join  his  hands  above 
(the  student's  hands). 

10.  A  Brahma72a  versed  in  the  Mantras  who 
stands  towards  the  south,  should  fill  the  teacher's 
joined  hands  with  water. 

11.  While  (the  student  ?)  looks  at  him,  (the  teacher) 
should  murmur  (the  Mantra), 'With  him  who  comes 
to  us'  (MB.  I,  6,  14). 

12.  (The  student)  to  whom  (the  teacher)  has  said, 
'What  is  thy  name?'  should  pronounce  a  name 
which  he  is  to  use  at  respectful  salutations,  derived 
from  (the  name  of)  a  deity  or  a-  Nakshatra,  '  I  am 
N.N.!' (1.1.  17.) 


4.  tasya  dvavi7;/jad.      5.  dvadaje  vaij-ya?«.     6.  tasya  katUTvimsa.t. 

7.  kujalikr/tam  alawzkrz'tam  ahatenaX'/^adya  hutvagne  vratapata  ity. 

8.  uttarato  X  gne^  pratyahmukham  avasthapyaǤ-aliw  karayet.  9. 
svayawi  X'opari  kuryad.  10.  dakshi«atas  tish//^an  mantravan  brah- 
ma«a  aMryayodaka%-alim  purayed.       11.  agantreti  ^apet  preksha- 

,  ma«e  [sic].       12.  ko  namasity  ukto  devatajraya??^  nakshatrajrayaw 
vabhivadaniyaw  nama  brfiyad  asav  asmity. 


II  PATALA,  4  KUANDA,   I  9.  40  I 

13.  Having  let  the  water  run  (out  of  his  joined 
hands  over  the  student's  hands)  the  teacher  should 
seize  with  his  two  hands,  holding  the  right  upper- 
most, (the  student's)  joined  hands,  with  (the  formula), 
'  By  the  impulse  of  the  god  Savitrz'  (1.1.  i8). 

14.  With  (the  formula),  'Move  in  the  sun's  course' 
(1. 1.  1 9)  he  should  make  him  turn  round  from  left  to 
right. 

15.  Grasping  down  over  his  right  shoulder  he 
should  touch  his  uncovered  navel  with  (the  formula), 
'  (Thou  art  the  knot)  of  all  breath  '  (1. 1.  20). 

16.  He  then  should  give  him  in  charge  (to  the 
gods)  with  the  Antaka  and  the  other  formulas 
(1. 1.  20  seqq.). 

17.  (He  touches)  his  right  shoulder  with  (the  for- 
mula), 'To  Pra^apati  (I  give)  thee  (in  charge)'  (1.1.  23), 

18.  His  left  shoulder  with  his  left  (hand)  with 
(the  formula),  '  To  the  god  Savitrz  (I  give)  thee  (in 
charge) '  (1. 1.  24). 

19.  Having  directed  him  (to  observe  the  duties 
of  Brahma>('arya,  by  the  formula),  '  A  student  art 
thou'  (1.  1.  25,  26),  (the  teacher)  sitting  down  should 
from  left  to  right  tie  round  the  student,  who  bends 
his  right  knee  and  clasps  his  hands,  the  girdle  made 
of  Muilo^a.  grass,  and  should  cause  him  to  repeat  (the 
verse),  '  Protecting  us  from  evil  word'  (1. 1.  27). 


13.  utsn^yapo  devasya  ta  iti  dakshi«ottarabhyaw  hastabhyam 
aiig2i\m  grzliwiyad  aX-aryas.  1 4.  Suryasycti  pradakshiwam  avartayed. 
15.  dakshiz/am  a«/sam  anvavamr/jyanantarhitaw  nabhim  alabhet 
pra?zanam  ity.  16.  athainaw  paridadyad  antakaprabhr/tibhir,  17. 
dakshi;/am  awsaw  Pra^apataye  tveti.  18.  savyena  savyaw  devaya 
tveti.  19.  brahmaX-ary  asiti  sa/wpreshyopavi^ya  (sawprekshy", 
sawprokshy°  the  INISS.)  dakshiwa^anvaktam  a?l§^alikr/ta//i  prada- 
kshiwaw  muTi^amekhalam  abadhnan  vaX'ayed  iyaw  dumktad  ily. 

[29]  D  d 


402  KHADIRA-Gi2/HYA-SUTRA. 

20.  With  (the  words),  '  Recite,  sir ! '  (the  student) 
should  respectfully  sit  down  near  (the  teacher). 

21.  He  then  recites  the  Savitri  (1,1.  29)  to  him, 
Pada  by  Pada,  hemistich  by  hemistich,  (and  finally) 
the  whole — thus  he  should  teach  him  the  Savitri, 

22.  And  the  Mahavyahrztis,  one  by  one, 

23.  And  the  word  Om. 

24.  He  hands  over  to  him  the  staff,  which  should 
be  made  of  (the  wood  of)  a  tree — 

25.  With  (the  formula  which  the  student  has  to 
recite),  'O  glorious  one,  make  me  glorious'  (1.1.  31). 

26.  Let  him  put  a  piece  of  wood  (on  the  fire)  with 
(the  verse),  '  To  Agni  a  piece  of  wood'  (1. 1.  32). 

27.  Let  him  go  to  beg  food  ; 

28.  First  of  his  mother, 

29.  Then  of  other  women  friends. 

30.  He  should  announce  the  alms  (received)  to 
his  teacher. 

31.  He  should  stand  silently  till  sunset. 

32.  Through  a  period  of  three  nights  he  should 
avoid  eating  saline  food  and  drinking  milk. 

KHAiVDA    5. 

I.  At  the  Godana  (or  cutting  of  the  beard)  the 

20.  adhihi  bho  ity  upasidet.  21.  tasma  anvaha  savitm«  paX'/^>^o 
i rclhar/('a>ras  sarvam  iti  savitriw  va^ayed.  22.  mahavyah;7tu  -^'ai- 
kaika^a.  23.  owkaraw  X-a.  24.  prayaX'/zaty  asmai  varksha7;i 
da«</a;;/.  25.  sujravas  sujravasaw/  meti.  26.  samidham  adadhyad 
Agnaye  samidham  iti.  27.  bhaiksha?;/  X'aren.  28.  mataram  agre. 
29.  :sthanyas  suhr/da.  30.  aX-aryaya  bhaikshan  nivedayet.  31. 
tish//^ed  astamayat  tfishwiw.  32.  triratraw  ksliaralava;/e  dugdham 
iti  var^ayet. 

5,  I.  atha  godane  Xaulavat  kalpa/i. 


5,  i-2i  =  Gobhila  III,  i. 


II  PArALA,    5  KIIAA'DA,     1 4.  403 

rite  is  identical  with  the  A'aula  (cutting  of  the  hair  ; 
see  above,  chap.  3,  i6  seqq.). 

2.  He  should  have  (his  beard)  and  the  hair  of 
his  body  shaven. 

3.  The  sacrificial  fee  consists  of  an  ox  and  a  cow, 
or  of  a  pair  of  horses,  or  of  sheep,  for  the  (three) 
castes  respectively, 

4.  Or  of  a  cow  for  all  (castes). 

5.  A  goat  (is  given)  to  the  person  who  catches  up 
the  hair. 

6.  The  initiation  (connected  with  the  Godanakar- 
man,  &c.)  has  been  declared. 

7.  (One  should)  not  initiate  one  who  does  not 
intend  to  keep  the  vow  through  one  year. 

8.  (The  use  of)  a  garment,  however,  which  has 
not  yet  been  washed  (see  chap.  4,7),  is  not  prescribed 
(here), 

9.  Nor  the  adornment  (chap.  4,  7). 

10.  (The  observances  prescribed  for  the  Godana- 
vrata  are  the  following  :) 

He  should  sleep  on  the  ground. 

1 1.  He  should  avoid  eating  honey  and  flesh. 

12.  He  should  avoid  sexual  intercourse,  shaving, 
(luxurious)  bathing,  combing  his  head,  and  cleansing 
his  teeth  and  his  feet  (in  a  luxurious  way). 

1 3.  nasya  kame  reta  skandet. 

14.  Let  him  not  mount  a  chariot  yoked  with 
cows, 


2.  saloma/«  vapayed.  3.  go^jvavimithunani  dakshi;/;!;^  pr/thag 
var77anaw.  4.  sarvesha///  va  gaur.  5.  a,^a-^  kejapratigrahayo. 
6.  Aktam  upanayanaw.  7.  na/(arishyantaw  sawvatsaram.  8.  ani- 
jTiktan  tv  ahatam.  9.  athalawzkaro.  10.  ^dhassawvexy.  ii.ama- 
dhumawsaji  syan.  12.  maithunakshurakr/tyasnanavalekhanadanta- 
dhavanapadadhavanani  var^ayen.  13.  nasya  kame  reta  skanden. 
14.  na  goyuktam  arohen. 

D  d  2 


404  khadira-g/^/hya-sOtra, 


15.  Nor  (wear)  shoes  in  the  village. 

16.  Wearing  the  girdle,  going  the  rounds  for 
alms,  (carrying)  a  staff,  putting  fuel  (on  the  fire), 
touching  water,  reverentially  saluting  (the  teacher) 
in  the  morning  :  (these  are  the)  standing  (duties). 

17.  The  Godana-vrata,  the  Vratika-vrata,  the 
Aditya-vrata,  the  Upanishad-vrata,  and  the  6^yesh- 
///asama-vrata  (last)  one  year  (each). 

18.  The  Aditya-vrata  some  (do)  not  (undergo). 

1 9.  They  who  undergo  it,  wear  one  garment. 

20.  They  allow  nothing  to  be  between  (themselves 
and)  the  sun. 

21.  And  they  do  not  descend  Into  water. 

22.  For  the  ^'akvari  verses,  twelve,  nine,  six,  or 
three  (years  through  which  the  Vrata  is  to  be  kept) 
make  up  the  various  possibilities. 

23.  He  (who  keeps  the  ^'akvara-vrata)  wears 
dark  clothes. 

24.  He  eats  dark  food. 

25.  He  is  entirely  addicted  to  his  teacher. 

26.  He  should  stand  in  day-time. 

27.  He  should  sit  at  night. 

28.  According  to  some  (teachers,  the  Vrata  may 
last  only)  one  year,  if  the  ancestors  (of  the  student) 
have  learnt  (the  6'akvari  verses). 

15.  na  grama  upanahau.  16.  mekhaladhara«abhaiksha^'ara«a- 
da«(/asamidadhanopasparjanapratarabhivada  nityaw.  17.  godana- 
vratikadityavratopanisha^^yeshMasamikas  sawvatsara.  18.  naditya- 
vratam  ekesha///.  19.  ye  X-aranty  ekavasaso  bhavanty.  20.  adit- 
yaw  /(•a  nantardadhate.  21.  na  /'apo^bhyupayanti.  22.  sakvannkm 
dvada^a  nava  sha/ traya  iti  vikalpa^.  23.  k;-/sh?2avastra/^.  24. 
kr/sh«abhaksha.  25.  a/^aryadhinas.  26.  tish//^ed  diva.  27.  ^sita 
naktaw.     28.  saravatsaram  ekesham  pfirvaii-  svutas  X'ed. 

22-34  =  111,  2. 


II  PA^ALA,    5  KMAiVDA,    35.  405 

29.  (The  teacher)  should  sing  (those  verses)  to 
(the  student)  who  has  fasted  and  veiled  his  eyes 
(thinking),  '  May  (the  teacher)  not  burn  me  (with 
the  ^'akvari  verses),' 

30.  In  the  morning  they  make  (the  student)  look 
at  such  things  as  they  expect  will  not  burn  him, 
viz.  water,  fire,  a  calf,  the  sun. 

31.  At  water  (he  should  look)  with  (the  words), 
'Water  have  I  beheld!'  At  fire  with  (the  words), 
'  Light  have  I  beheld !'  At  the  calf  with  (the  words), 
'Cattle  have  I  beheld!'  At  the  sun  with  (the 
words),  'The  sky  have  I  beheld!' — thus  he  should 
break  his  silence. 

32.  A  cow  is  the  fee  (for  the  teacher), 

33.  A  brazen  vessel,  a  garment,  and  a  golden 
ornament. 

A 

34.  At  the  Anuprava/t'aniya  ceremonies  (see  Ai-va- 

A 

layana-Gr/hya  I,  22,  12)  he  should  sacrifice  A^ya 
with  (the  two  verses),  'To  the  Rik,  to  the  Saman 
we  sacrifice'  (S^ma-veda  I,  369),  and,  'The  lord  of 
the  seat'  (Sv.  I,  171). 

35.  If  he  has  touched  a  fire-altar  or  a  sacrificial 
post,  if  he  has  humming  in  his  ears,  or  if  his  eye 

29.  uposhitaya  pariwaddhakshayanugapayed  yatha  ma  na  pra- 
dhakshyatiti.  30.  ta?;/  pratar  abhivikshayanti  yany  apradhakshy- 
anti  manyantctpoigniw  vatsam  adityam.  31.  apo  ^  bhivyakhyam 
ity  apo  ^otir  abhivyakhyam  ity  agniw  pa.ffin  abhivyakhyam  iti 
vatsaw  sur  [sic]  abhivyakhyam  ity  adityaw  visr/^ed  viUa;;;.  32. 
gaur  dakshi;/a.  33.  ka/wso  vaso  rukmaj  X'a.  34.  =tnupravaX'ani- 
yeshv  rikz.m  sama  Sadasaspatim  iti  kigyzjii  ^huyaX".  35.  /'itya- 
yiipopasparj-anakarwakrojakshivepaneshu  sfiryabhyuditas  suryabhi- 
nimrukta  indriyaij  /('a  papasparjai//  punar  mam  ity  etabhyam  ahutfr 
(correct,  ahuti?)  ^uhuyad. 

35-37  =  ^ii,  3-  34-36. 


%    • 


4o6  khadira-gr/hya-sOtra. 


palpitates,  or  if  the  sun  rises  or  sets  while  he  is 
sleeping,  or  if  his  organs  of  sense  have  been  defiled 
by  something  bad,  he  should  sacrifice  two  oblations 
of  A^a  with  the  two  (verses),  '  May  (my  strength) 
return  to  me  ; ' 

A 

36.  Or  two  pieces  of  wood  anointed  with  A^ya. 

37.  Or  he  may  murmur  (those  verses)  at  light 
(offences).  Or  he  may  murmur  (those  verses)  at 
light  (offences). 

End  of  the  Second  Pa^ala. 


36.  a^yalipte  va  samidhau.       37.  ^aped  va  laghushu,  ^aped  va 
laghushu.         dvitiyapa/ala/i. 


Ill    TATALA,     I     KHAA^DA,     1 3.  407 


PaTALA    III,   KUANDA    1. 

1.  When  (the  student)  is  going  to  take  the  bath 
(at  the  end  of  his  studentship),  he  seats  himself  in 
an  enclosure  to  the  east  of  his  teacher's  house. 

2.  The  teacher  (sits)  facing  the  north, 

3.  On  eastward-pointed  (Darbha-grass). 

4.  Thus  one  (should  act)  who  is  desirous  of  holy 
lustre. 

5.  (The  student  should  sit)  in  a  cow-stable,  if  he 
is  desirous  of  cattle, 

6.  In  an  assembly-hall,  if  desirous  of  renown. 

7.  Let  him  boil  water  with  all  kinds  of  herbs, 

8.  And  with  scents. 

9.  With  that  water,  which  must  be  lukewarm,  the 
teacher  should  besprinkle  (the  student). 

I  o.  Or  (the  student  should  do  so)  himself,  because 
that  is  signified  by  the  Mantra. 

1 1.  Some  say  that  both  (should  do  so). 

12.  The  teacher  should  say  (in  the  Mantra), 
'Therewith  (I  besprinkle)  him,'  (instead  of.  'There- 
with I  besprinkle  myself). 

13.  With  (the  verses),  'Which  in  the  waters' 
(MB.  I,  7,  r)  (the  student)  should  pour  out  his  joined 
hands  full  of  water  ; 


III,  1,  I.  aplavane  purastad  aX-aryakulasya  parivnta  asta.  2. 
udahmukha  aX'arya/i.  3.  pragagreshv.  4.  evaw  brahmavar/('asa- 
kamo.  5.  goshMe  pajukamas.  6.  sabhaya/w  yajaskama//.  7. 
sarvaushadhenapa//  phawayet.  8.  surabhibhij  X'a.  9.  tabhij  jitosh- 
«abhir  aX-aryo^bhishwX-et.  10.  svayaw  va  niantrabhivadad.  11. 
ubhav  ity  eke.  12.  tenemam  ity  aXaryo  brfiyad.  13.  ye  apsv  ity 
apam  aw^alim  avasi?/X'ed. 


Ill,  1,  i-32  =  Gobhila  III,  4,  7  seqq.  (4-6,  1 1,  12.  15,  2odesunt). 


4o8  KHADIRA-G227HYA-s0tRA. 

14.  And  with  (the  formula),  'What  (is  dreadful) 
in  the  waters  '  (1. 1.  2) ; 

15.  And  silently. 

16.  With  (the  formula),  'The  shining  one'  (1. 1.  3), 
he  should  draw  (some  water)  and  should  besprinkle 
himself  (therewith) ; 

1 7.  And  with  (the  verse),  '  By  which  the  wife ' 

(1.1-5); 

18.  And  silently. 

19.  With  (the  formulas),  'Rising'  (1.1.  6-8),  he 
should  worship  the  sun. 

20.  He  may  repeat  (the  sections  of  that  Mantra) 
continuously. 

21.  If  he  repeats  them  separately,  he  should  add 
at  the   end   (of  each   section),  '  The   eye  art  thou ' 

(1.1.  9). 

22.  With  (the  verse),  'Loosen  the  highest '  (1. 1.  10), 
he  should  take  off  the  girdle. 

23.  After  he  has  eaten  something,  he  should  have 
his  hair,  his  beard,  the  hair  of  his  body,  and  his  nails 
cut,  so  as  to  leave  the  lock  of  hair  (as  required  by 
the  custom  of  his  family). 

24.  Having  adorned  himself  and  put  on  clothes 
which  have  not  yet  been  washed,  he  should  put 
a  garland  (on  his  head)  with  (the  formula),  '  Luck ' 
(1.1.  11). 

25.  The  two  shoes  (he  puts  on)  with  (the  formula), 
'  Leaders  are  you  '  (1. 1,  1 2). 

14.  yad  apam  iti  X'a.  15.  tushfiin  X'a.  16.  yo  ro/'ana  iti 
gnhyatmanam  abhishi;7X-ed.  17,  yena  slriyam  iti /('a.  18,  tush- 
mn  ko.  19.  :idyann  ity  adityam  upatish//^et.  20.  samasyed  va. 
21,  viharann  anusaw^hare/l'  X'akshur  asity.  22.  ud  uttamam  iti  me- 
khalam  avamu;7/('et.  23.  prai'ya  vapayeX'  X'/nkavar^a?;/  ke^ajma- 
jrulomanakhany.  24.  ala^^k/v'to^^hatavasasa  ^rir  iti  sra^aw  prati- 
rnnnken.       25.  netryau  stha  ity  upanahau. 


Ill  PATALA,     I   KHANDA,    T^S.  4O9 

26.  With  (the  formula),  'The  Gandharva  art  thou' 
(1. 1.  13),  he  takes  a  bamboo  staff. 

27.  He  should  approach  the  teacher  and  look  at 
the  assembly  (of  pupils,  &c.)  with  (the  formula), 
'  Like  an  eye-ball '  (1.1.  14). 

28.  Sitting  down,  he  should  touch  the  sense- 
organs  at  his  head  with  (the  Mantra), '  Covered  by 
the  lips'  (1.1.  15). 

29.  Let  him  touch  a  chariot  yoked  with  oxen, 
with  (the  verse),  'O  tree'  (1. 1.  16). 

30.  With  (the  words),  'He  who  stands  on  thee' 
(1. 1.  16),  he  should  mount  it. 

31.  Having  driven  (some  distance)  in  an  eastern 
or  northern  direction,  he  should  turn  round  from 
left  to  right. 

32.  Some  say  that  when  he  has  come  back,  (his 
teacher  should  offer  to  him)  the  Argha  reception. 

33.  From  that  time  he  shall  assume  a  dignified 
demeanour. 

34.  na^atalomnyopahasam  i/^/^/^et. 

35.  Nor  (should  he  wish  for  sport)  with  a  girl 
who  is  the  only  child  of  her  mother, 

36.  Nor  with  a  woman  during  her  courses, 

T,y.  Nor  with  (a  woman)  who  descends  from  the 
same  /^/i'his. 

38,   Let  him  not  eat  food  which  has  been  brought 

26.  vai«avaTO  dzndam  adadyad  Gandharvo  ^  sity.  27.  upetyS- 
/'aryam  parishadam  prckshed  yaksham  ivety.  28.  upavijyausli//;a- 
pidhaneti  mukhyan  prawan  abhim/v.yed.  29.  goyukta;//  ratham 
alabhed  vanaspata  ity.  30.  asthata  ta  ity  arohet.  31.  praX'im 
prayayodiX'i/w  va  galva  pradakshiwam  avartayet.  32.  pratyagata- 
yarghyam  ity  eke.  33.  vr/ddhajili  sydd  ata  urdhvaw.  34.  nag§.- 
talomnyopahasam  U-^/icn.  35.  niiyugya  (read,  nayugva).  36.  na 
ra^asvahiya.  37.  na  samanarshya.  38.  ^^paraya  dvara  prapanna-4 
(read,  prapanna-)  dvi/^pakvaparjTjshitani  niuniyad. 


33-44  =  ni,  5  (40  deest). 


41  o  khadira-g/2/hya-sOtra. 

by  another  door  (than  the  usual),  or  which  has  been 
cooked  twice,  or  which  has  stood  over-night — 

39.  Except  such  as  is  prepared  of  vegetables, 
flesh,  barley,  or  flour — 

40.  Or  of  milk. 

41.  He  shall  avoid  gathering  fruits,  looking  into 
wells,  running  while  it  is  raining,  and  taking  his 
shoes  in  his  hands. 

42.  He  should  not  wear  a  scentless  wreath, 

43.  If  it  is  not  a  wreath  of  gold. 

44.  He  should  not  use  the  word  '  blessed'  without 
a  reason. 

45.  If  he  is  desirous  of  thriving  (in  his  cattle),  he 
should  with  (the  Mantra),  '  May  these'  (MB.  I,  8,  i) 
have  his  cows  driven  out. 

46.  When  they  have  come  back,  (he  should  recite 
the  Mantra),  'These  which  are  rich  in  sweet'  (1.1.  2). 

47.  If  he  is  desirous  of  thriving  (in  his  cattle),  he 
should  lick  the  forehead  of  the  first-born  calf,  before 
it  is  licked  by  its  mother,  and  should  gulp  with  (the 
formula),  ('  Thou  art  the  phlegm)  of  the  cows  '  (1. 1.  3). 

48.  When  the  cows  have  calved,  he  should  at 
nieht  sacrifice  in  the  cow-stable  churned  curds  with 
drops  of  ghee,  with  (the  verse),  '  Seizer'  (1. 1.  4). 

39.  anyatra  jakama7;/sayavapish/avikarebhya/i.  40.  payasa/^  X'a. 
4 1 .  phalapraX'ayanodapanaveksha«avarshatidhavanopanatsvaya7-'/ha- 
rawani  na  kuryan.  42.  nagandha?;/  sra^aw  dharayen.  43.  na 
/I'ed  dhirawyasrag.  44.  bhadram  iti  na  vr/tha  vyaharet.  45.  push- 
/ikamo  ga/i  prakalayed  ima  ma  iti.  46.  pratyagata  ima  madhu- 
matir  iti.  47.  push/'ikama  eva  prathama^atasya  vatsasya  prah 
matu//  pralehanal  lala/am  ullihya  nigired  gavam  iti.  48.  sampra- 
^atasu  gosh/he  n\sa.yafn  vilayana/?  ^uhuyat  sa;«graha7/ety. 

45-52  =  111,  6. 


Ill  PArALA,    2  KHAiVZ»A,    4.  41  I 


49.  Now  another  (ceremony).  He  should  make 
marks  on  the  ears  of  a  male  and  of  a  female  calf 
with  (the  formula),  '  The  world  art  thou '  (1. 1.  5,  6). 

50.  First  on  the  male. 

51.  He  should  recite  over  them  (the  Mantra), 
'  With  metal '  (1. 1.  7). 

52.  When  the  rope  (to  which  the  calves  are  bound) 
is  spread  out,  (let  him  recite  over  it  the  Mantra), 
'  This  rope '  (1. 1.  8). 

Khanda  2. 

1.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  (the  month)  Sravana., 
let  him  carry  forward  fire  from  his  house,  and  let 
him  besmear  (the  place  around  it)  to  the  extent  of 
more  than  one  prakrama  (i.  e.  step)  towards  the 
different  directions  (of  the  horizon). 

2.  Having  once  taken  a  quantity  of  flour,  and 
having  put  it  into  (the  spoon  called)  Darvi,  he  should 
pour  out  water  on  the  besmeared  place  to  the  east 
(of  the  fire),  and  should  offer  a  Bali  with  (the 
formula),  ('  O  king  of  serpents)  dwelling  towards 
the  east'  (MB.  H,  i,  i). 

3.  He  should  pour  out  the  rest  of  the  water. 

4.  Having  touched  water,  he  should  do  the  same 

49.  athaparaw  vatsamithunayo//  kar«e  laksha//a/«  kuryad  bhu- 
vanam  iti.  50.  puwso^gre.  51.  lohitenety  anumantrayeta.  52. 
tantiw  prasaritam  iyan  tantiti. 

2,  I.  jravawya;;/  paurwamasyaw  g/vliad  agnim  atipra«t}a  prati- 
dijam  upalimpcd  adhike  prakrame.  2.  sak/-/dgr/'hitau  saktun 
darvyaw  kmva  purvopalipte  nini)apo  ya//  praX'yam  iti  baliw  nir- 
vapen.  3.  ninayed  apa?«  jesham.  4.  apa  upaspruyaivavi  prati- 
dija;«  yathalihgaw. 

2.  1-7.  14.  15  =  111,  7. 


4 1  2  KHADIRA-G227HYA-SUTRA. 

towards  the  other  directions  (of  the  horizon)  accord- 
ing as  they  are  mentioned  in  the  Mantras. 

5.  Between  (the  besmeared  surface)  towards  the 
south  and  that  towards  the  east  and  the  fire  (there 
should  be)  a  passage. 

6.  After  he  has  thrown  the  remnants  (of  flour)  out 
of  the  basket  into  the  fire,  he  should  go  from  (the 
fire)  which  has  been  carried  forward,  to  that  (fire) 
which  has  not  (been  carried  forward),  and  should 
turn  his  hands  downwards  (so  as  to  touch  the  earth 
with  them)  and  should  murmur  (the  Mantra),  '  Ado- 
ration to  the  earth's '  (1. 1.  3). 

7.  Thence  rising  he  should  place  (to  the  north  of 
the  fire)  a  bunch  of  Darbha-grass  with  (the  Mantra), 
'  The  king  Soma'  (1. 1.  4),  and  should  fix  his  thoughts 
on  the  serpents  that  are  in  that  bunch. 

8.  Taking  a  portion  of  fried  grain,  he  should  go 
out  of  the  village  in  a  northern  or  eastern  direction, 
and  should  sacrifice  it  with  his  joined  hands  with 
the  four  (verses),  'Hearken,  Raka!'  (MB.  II,  6,  2 
seqq.). 

9.  Walking  eastwards  he  should  murmur,  '  Be  a 
giver  of  wealth  '  (1. 1.  6). 

I  o.  Thus  three  times  to  the  different  quarters  and 
intermediate  quarters  (of  the  horizon). 

5.  dakshiwapajX'ime  antare?mgni;7  -^a  sa;;//('ara//.  6.  ,$-urpe7?a  sish- 
/an  agnav  opyatiprawitad  anatipra/ntasyardha/;/  gatva  nyan^^au  pa;a 
kn'tva  nama/z  Pr/thivya  iti  ^apet.  7.  tata  utthaya  Somo  ra^eti 
darbhastambam  upasthaya  (correct,  upasthapya)  stambasthan  sarpan 
manasa  dhyayann.  8.  akshatan  adaya  prah  vodah  va  graman  nish- 
kramya  ^uhuyad  a;7§-alina  haye  Raka  iti  AntasribhUi.  9.  prafi 
utkramya  ^aped  vasuvana  edhiti.  10.  tris  tri/i  pratidi^am  avan- 
tarade^eshu  X'o. 

8-i3=:IV,  8,  I  seqq.  (10  deest). 


Ill  PATALA,    2  KHAA^I>A,    22.  413 

11.  Looking  upwards  (he  should  offer  a  BaH)  to 
the  hosts  of  divine  beings, 

1 2.  (Looking)  towards  the  side,  to  the  hosts  of 
other  beings ; 

1 3.  Looking  downwards,  he  should  go  back  (to  the 
fire)  without  looking  back,  and  should  eat  the  fried 
grain. 

14.  On  the  following  day  he  should  prepare  flour 
of  fried  grain,  should  put  it  into  a  new  vessel,  and 
after  sunset  he  should  offer  Balis. 

15.  (The  same  is  repeated  every  day)  till  the 
Agrahaya;zi  da)'. 

16.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  Praush///apada  (or) 
under  (the  Nakshatra)  Hasta  they  should  begin  the 
Veda-study ; 

17.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  Srava.7i3.,  according 
to  some  (teachers). 

18.  Having  sacrificed  as  at  the  Upanayana — 

19.  He  should  cause  (the  students)  to  recite  the 
Savitri, 

20.  (The  verse),  '  Soma,  the  king '  (Sama-veda 
I,  91),  and  the  first  verses  of  the  Parvans. 

21.  Let  them  eat  orain  and  curds  with  two 
appropriate  (verses), 

22.  On  the  following  day  in  the  morning  let  them 
repeat  (the  Veda)  to  their  pupils. 

II.  irdhvaw  prekshan  devaya^anebhyas  (correct,  deva^i?-ane- 
bhyas).  12.  tiryaiih  itara^^rrancbhyo.  13.  » van  prekshan  pratyetya- 
navekshann    akshatan    prajntyaX-.  14.  X7/vobhute^kshalasaktun 

krztva  nave  patre  nidhayastam  ite  balin  hared.  15.  agrahayawyaA. 
16.  praush//^apadi;«  hastenadhyayan  upakuryu//.  17.  ^ravawim 
ity  eke.  18.  hutvopanayanavat.  19.  savitrim  anuvaX'ayet.  20. 
Soma;;/  ra^ana;;/  parvadi;;/j  /'a.  21.  dhana  dadhi  Xa  prajniyur 
abhirftpabhya;;/.     22.  jvobhftte  pratar  adhiyira;7  XV/ishyebhyo. 

16-33  =  111,  3  (22,  25,  29,  33  desunt). 


414  KHADIRA-G/tTHYA-SUTRA. 

23.  (After  each  section  of  the  text)  they  should 
repeat  (as  a  sort  of  index  ?)  the  beginnings  of  the 
RikdiS  and  the  Prastavas  (of  the  Samans). 

24.  Then  the  Rahasya  texts  are  chanted, 

25.  Except  when  Hghtning  is  seen  or  thunder 
heard, 

26.  When  they  have  studied  four  months  and  a 
half,  they  finish  on  the  full-moon  day  of  Pausha. 

27.  From  that  time  studying  is  forbidden  when 
clouds  appear, 

28.  And  when  lightning  is  seen,  or  thunder  heard, 
or  when  it  is  drizzling. 

29.  When  these  three  things  happen  together, 
(studying  is  forbidden)  till  the  twilight  has  thrice 
passed. 

30.  On  an  Ash/aka,  on  a  new-moon  day,  on  the 
(three)  festivals  which  come  once  in  four  months,  and 
at  (the  beginning  of)  the  northern  course  of  the  sun, 
(studying  is  forbidden)  for  one  night  with  one  day 
before  and  one  day  after  it. 

31.  And  if  a  fellow-pupil  has  died. 

32.  On  the  falling  of  a  meteor,  or  after  an  earth- 
quake, or  an  eclipse  of  the  sun  or  of  the  moon,  on 
these  occasions  one  should  know  (that  studying  is 
forbidden)  until  the  same  time  next  day. 

33.  The  Ka//^as  and  Kauthumas,  however,  state 

23.  ^nuvakya/^  kuryur  rzgadibhiA  prastavau  X'a.  24.  :^nugana»i 
rahasyanaw.  25.  vidyutstanayitnuvar^am.  26.  ardhapawX'aman 
masan  adhitya  paushim  utsargas.  27.  tata  urdhvam  mantrana- 
dhyayo  (correct,  abhranadhyayo).  28.  vidyutstanayitnuv;7sh/iteshu 
(correct,  °prushiteshu  or  °pr?'shiteshu ;  see  Ludwig's  note  on  Rig- 
veda  VIII,  I,  12)  X'a.  29.  trisannipate  trisandhyam.  30.  ash/akam 
amavasyawz  X'aturmasir  udagayane  X-a  pakshi//iw  ratriw.  31.  sa- 
brahmaX'ariwi  /'a  preta.  32.  ulkapate  bhumi/'ale  ^^yotisho>f  X'opa- 
sarga  eteshv  akalikaw  vidyat.       33.  karshvan  tu  Ka///akauthuma/^. 


Ill  PArALA,    3  KHAJVDA,     lO.  415 

that  {when  rain  has  fallen,  studying  is  forbidden)  as 
Ion  Of  as  the  water  stands  in  the  ditches. 


't> 


Khanda  3. 

A 

1.  On  the  full-moon  day  of  A^vayu^a  milk-rice 
sacred  to  Rudra  (is  prepared). 

2.  He  should  offer  it  with  (the  Mantra),  '  Not  to 
our  children.' 

A 

3.  Let  him  pour  A^ya  into  milk  ;  this  is  called 
a  Przshataka. 

4.  Therewith  he  should  besprinkle  the  cows  when 
they  have  come  home,  with  (the  Mantra),  '  May 
Mitra  and  Varu;^a'  (Sama-veda  I,  220). 

5.  That  night  he  should  let  the  calves  join  their 
mothers. 

6.  At  the  sacrifice  of  the  first-fruits,  milk-rice 
sacred  to  Indra  and  Agni  (is  prepared). 

7.  Let  him  sacrifice  A^ya  with  the  four  (verses), 
'  To  the  bearer  of  the  hundred  weapons'  (MB.  II,  i, 
9  seqq.), 

8.  And  afterwards  with  (the  verse),  '  May  Agni 
eat'  (1. 1.  15). 

9.  All  of  them  who  have  received  the  initiation, 
should  eat  the  remainder  of  that  (sacrificial  food). 

10.  Having  '  spread  under' water,  he  should  cut 
off  two  portions  of  the  new  fruits. 

3,  I.  ajvayu^i;^  Rudraya  payaso.  2.  ma  nas  toka  iti  ^i;Tahuyat. 
3.  payasy  avanayed  agya.m  tat  pr/shatakaw.  4.  tenabhyagata  gS 
ukshed  a  no  IMitravaruweti.  5.  vatsawj  X-a  matr/bhis  saha  vasayet 
taw  ratriw.  6.  navaya^T/e  payasa  aindragna//.  7.  jatayudha- 
yeti  X-atasri^bhir  ai^yaw  ^i;'uhuyad.  8.  uparish/ad  Agni//  praj-natv 
iti  Xa.  9.  tasya  jesha7«  pra^niyur  yavanta  upeta.  10.  ujiastiryapo 
dvir  navasyavadyet. 

3,  i-i5  =  Gobhila  III,  8  (3  deest). 


41 6  KHADIRA-GiJ/HYA-StJTRA. 

11.  Three  (portions  are  cut  off)  by  descendants  of 
Bhrigu. 

1 2.  Over  (these  portions)  water  (is  poured). 

13.  He  should  swallow  (some  part  of  that  food) 
three  times  wdthout  chewing  it,  with  (the  Mantra), 
'  From  the  good  '  (1. 1.  13); 

14.  Or  at  (the  partaking  of)  barley  with  (the 
Mantra),  '  This  barley '  (1. 1.  16). 

15.  With  (the  Mantra),  'This  art  thou'  (1.1.  14), 
let  him  touch  the  different  sense-organs  at  his  head. 

16.  The  Agrahaya72a  ceremony  has  been  explained 
by  the  ^'rava/^a  (ceremony). 

17.  Let  him  (not  ?)  murmur  (the  Mantra),  'Adora- 
tion to  the  Earth'  (see  chap.  2,  6). 

18.  In  the  evening  let  him  make  an  oblation  of 
milk-rice  with  (the  verse),  'As  the  first '  (MB.  II,  2,  i). 

19.  Turning  downwards  his  two  hands  (so  as  to 
touch  the  sacrificial  grass)  he  should  murmur  (the 
Mantra),  '  In  worldly  strength '  (1.  1.  2,  3). 

20.  Having  spread  out  to  the  west  of  the  fire  a 
layer  of  northward-pointed  grass,  so  that  it  is  inclined 
towards  the  north,  the  householder  sits  down  on  that 
layer, 

2 1 .  (And)  the  other  persons  in  due  order. 

22.  Then,  without  an  interval,  their  wives, 


II.  trir  Bhr?g{i;zam.  12.  apa;z /^oparish/ad.  13.  bhadran  na 
ity  asa7;/khadya  pragiret  tris  trir.  14.  etam  u  tyam  iti  va  yavanam. 
15.  amo^siti  mukhyan   prawan   abhimmed.  16.  agrahayawaw 

karma  Mva?zenaiva  vyakhyata;«.  17.  nama/^  Pr?thivya  iti  ^apet 
(read,  iti  na  jE^apet  ?).  18.  pradoshe  payasasya  ^uhuyat  prathameti. 
19.  nyankau  pa?2i  kr/tva  prati  kshatra  iti  ^apet.  20.  pajX-ad  agne 
svastaram  udagagrais  tr/wair  udakpravawam  astirya  tasminn  asta- 
ra«e  gnhapatir  aste.    21.  ^nupurvam  itare.    22.  ;irnantara  bharya^. 

16-31  =  111,  9  and  10,  1-17  (29  deest). 


Ill  PArALA,    4  KIIAiVDA,     I.  417 

23.  And  their  children. 

24.  The  householder,  turning  his  hands  downwards 
(so  as  to  touch  the  layer  of  grass),  should  murmur 
(the  Mantra),  '  Be  soft '  (1. 1.  4). 

25.  When  he  has  finished  that  (verse),  they  should 
lie  down  on  their  right  sides.  They  should  turn 
round  three  times,  turning  themselves  towards  them- 
selves (i.  e.  turning  round  forwards,  not  backwards, 
and  thus  returning  to  their  former  position  ?). 

26.  Let  them  repeat  the  auspicious  hymns. 

27.  Then  let  them  do  what  they  like. 

28.  The  eighth  days  of  the  three  dark  fortnights 
after  the  Agrahaya;^i  are  called  the  Ash/akas. 

29.  On  (each  of)  these  a  mess  of  cooked  food  (is 
sacrificed), 

30.  And  eight  cakes  on  the  first. 

31.  These  he  should  bake  in  a  dish  without  turning 
them  round. 

32.  On  the  last  (Ash/aka)  vegetables  (are  offered). 
(So  also)  at  the  Anvaharya  (6'raddha). 

2,3.  Let  him  sacrifice  with  (the  formula),  '  To  the 
Ash/aka  Svaha ! ' 

Khaa^da  4. 

1.   On  the  middle  (Ash/aka)  a  cow  (is  sacrificed). 

23.  putraj  X-a.  24.  nya«X'au  pa7/i  kr/tva  syoneti  gr/hapatir 
^g^apet.  25.  samaptayaw  clakshi;/ai/i  parjvai^  saw/vueyus  tris  trir 
abhyatmam  avr/tya.  26.  svastyayanani  kuryus.  27.  tato  yathar- 
tha.m  syad.  28.  Cirdhvam  agrahetyawyas  tisras  tamisrash/amyo 
^sh/aka  ity  a/('akshate.  29.  tasu  sthalipaka.  30.  ash/au  X-apupa// 
prathamayaw.  31,  tan  aparivartayan  kapalo  jrapayed.  32.  utta- 
mayaw  jakam  anvaharye.       33.  ^^sh/akayai  svaheli^uhuyat. 

4,  I.  madhyamaya;//  gaus. 


32,  33  =  I'^^  4,  17-  21. 

4,  i-i3  =  Gobhi!a  III,  10.  18  seqq. 

[29]  E  e 


41 8  khadira-g/27Hya-s0tra. 

2.  He  should  place  that  (cow)  to  the  east  of  the 
fire,  facing  the  west,  and  should  sacrifice  (A^ya)  with 
(the  verse),  'What,  O  beasts'  (MB.  II,  2,  5). 

3.  After  having  made  that  oblation  he  should  recite 
over  (the  cow  the  verse),  '  May  to  thee '  (1. 1.  6). 

4.  Let  him  sprinkle  it  with  water  in  which  barley 
is,  with  (the  formula),  '  Agreeable  to  the  Ash^aka  I 
sprinkle  thee ! ' 

5.  Having  sprinkled  it  and  carried  a  fire-brand 
round  it,  he  should  give  the  Proksha^^i  water  (to  the 
cow)  to  drink. 

6.  Going  in  a  northern  direction  (from  the  fire) 
he  should  kill  (the  cow),  the  head  of  which  is  turned 
to  the  west,  the  feet  to  the  north. 

7.  After  it  has  been  killed,  he  should  sacrifice 
(A^ya)  with  (the  verse),  '  If  the  beast '  (1. 1.  8). 

8.  His  wife  should  wash  the  apertures  of  its  body. 

9.  After  (the  cow's  body)  has  been  opened,  so 
that  two  purifiers  (i.  e.  grass-blades)  have  been  put 
under  (the  knife),  he  should  have  the  omentum 
drawn  out. 

10.  Seizing  it  with  one  branch  and  with  another 
forked  branch  of  a  sacrificially  pure  tree  he  should 
roast  it. 

11.  When  it  has  ceased  to  drop,  he  should  hew 
(the  cow)  to  pieces. 


2.  ta»^  purastad  agne/z  pratyahmukhim  avasthapya  ^uhuyad 
yat  pajava  iti.  3.  hutva  X'anumantrayetanu  tveti.  4.  yavama- 
tibhir  adbhi/^  prokshed  ash/akayai  tva  gush/3.??i  (correct,  ^ush/aw) 
prokshamiti.  5.  prokshyolmukena  parihrz'tya  proksha;/i/i  payayed. 
6.  udahfi  utsnpya  pralyak^irasam  (°sim,  °sim  the  MSS.)  udakpadi?;; 
saOT^;7apayet.  7.  saw^ir^^aptaya?;;  ^^uhuyad  yat  pajur  iti.  8.  tasya^ 
patni  srotawsi  prakshalayet.  9.  pavitre  antardhayotkrztya  vapam 
uddharayed.  10.  ya^«iyasya  vr?'kshasya  vijakhajakhabhya/w  pari- 
gnTiyagnau  jrapayet.       11.  prasr/tayaz?i  \djased. 


Ill  PAT-ALA,    4  KUANDA,    23.  419 

12.  The  'spreading  under'  and  sprinkling  (of 
Af^ya)  on  (the  omentum)  has  been  described.  (It  is 
done)  as  at  the  Svish/akr/t  oblation  (see  II,  i,  24). 

13.  He  should  sacrifice  with  (the  formula),  'To 
the  Ash/akaSvah^!' 

14.  The  Avadanas  (or  portions  which  have  to  be 
cut  off)  he  should  have  taken  from  all  its  limbs. 

15.  Not  from  the  left  thigh  and  the  lungs. 

16.  The  left  thigh  he  keeps  (for  the  Anvash/akya). 

17.  He  should  cook  the  Avadanas  and  a  mess  of 
sacrificial  food,  (stirring  up  the  ones  and  the  other) 
with  two  different  pot-ladles. 

18.  The  juice  he  lets  drop  into  a  brazen  vessel. 

19.  The  Avadanas  he  puts  on  branches  of  the 
Plaksha  tree. 

20.  From  each  (Avadana)  he  should  cut  off  (the 
prescribed  portions,  and  should  put  them)  into  a 
brazen  vessel ; 

21.  And  from  the  mess  of  cooked  food. 

22.  Let  him  take  four  portions  or  eight  portions  of 
A^ya  (?)  and  let  him  sacrifice  it  with  (the  verses), 
'  Into  Agni  '  (MB.  II,  2,  9  seqq.). 

23.  Let  him  make  oblations  out  of  the  brazen 
vessel,  each  oblation  with  two  of  the  following 
(verses). 

12.  uktam  upastara«abhighara;/aw  yatha  svish/ak/7to.  13.  ^sh/a- 
kayai  svaheti  ^uhuyat.  14.  sarvahgebhyo^vadanany  uddharayen. 
15.  na  savyat  sakthno  na  klomna//.        16.  savyaw  sakthi  nidhaya. 

1 7.  pnthah  meksha;/abhyam  avadanani  sthalipaka;7  Xa  jrapayitva. 

18.  kawse  rasaw  prasravya.  19.  plakshajakhasv  avadanani  kr/tvai. 
20.  ikaikasmat  ka;«seivadyet.  21.  sthalipakaX' /'a.  22.  X-aturgr/- 
hitam  ash/agr/Tiita/w  vatra  (va^ya/// ?  \atra7«,  vatra  the  JNISS.) ^uhu- 
yad  Agnav  iti.  23.  ka/z/sat  parabhir  dvabhyaw  dvabhyam  ekaikam 
ahuti;«. 

i4--M  =  IV,  I,  3-17. 
E  e  2 


42  O  KHADIRA-G/2/HYA-StjTRA. 


24.  The  oblation  to  (Agni)  Svish/akm  with  the 
eighth  (verse). 

25.  At  a  sacrifice  to  the  Fathers  the  omentum  is 
sacrificed  with  (the  verse), '  Carry  the  omentum '  (MB. 

11,  3,  16). 

26.  At  one  to  the  gods  with  (the  verse),  '  6^ata- 

vedas  ! '  (1.  1.  1 7.) 

27.  If  (the  deity  is)  unknown,  (in  the  formula  for) 
assigning  (the  oblation,  instead  of  the  name  of  a  deity 
the  name  of)  that  (ceremony  is  put) — 

28.  As  (for  instance),  '  To  the  Ash^aka.' 

29.  An  animal  is  the  sacrificial  fee  at  (the  sacrifice 
of)  an  animal ; 

30.  A  full  vessel  at  (that  of)  a  mess  of  cooked  food. 

Khaa^z?a  5. 

1.  On  the  ninth  or  tenth  (of  the  dark  fortnight) 
the  Anvash/akya  (ceremony  is  performed). 

2.  To  the  south-east  (of  the  house)  they  partition 
off  (a  place  with  mats  or  the  like),  and  to  the  northern 
part  of  that  (place)  he  should  carry  a  fire  which  has 
been  kindled  by  attrition. 

3.  Let  him  take  one  portion  of  rice,  let  him  remove 
the  husks  once,  and  let  him  cook  it,  stirring  it  up 
from  rio-ht  to  left. 


24.  sauvish/akn'tam  ash/amya.  25.  vaha  vapam  iti  pitrye  vapa- 
homo.  26.  (rataveda  iti  daivatye.  27.  tadade^am  ana^i,^;7ate.  28. 
yathash/akaya  iti.  29.  pa^ur  eva  pa^or  dakshiwa.  30.  sthalipa- 
kasya  pur7/apatram. 

5,  I.  navamiw  dajamiwz  vanvash/akyaw.  2.  dakshiz/apurva- 
bhage  parivarya  tatrottarardhe  mathitvagniOT  prawayet.  3.  sakr/d- 
gnliitan  vrihin  sakn'tphalikr/tan  prasavyam  udayuva?/  jrapayed. 


25-28  =  IV,  4,  22-24  (29  deest).     30  =  1,  9,  6.  10. 
5,  i-i2  =  Gobhila  IV,  2. 


Ill  PAT-ALA,    5  KIIAiVDA,     I  3.  42 1 


4.  And  some  flesh  of  that  thigh  (see  above,  chap. 
4»  16). 

5.  He  should  take  it  from  the  fire  in  a  southern 
direction,  and  should  omit  the  second  sprinkling  (of 
A^;c^a)  on  it. 

6.  To  the  west  of  the  fire  he  should  dig,  in  the 
southern  part  (of  the  place  mentioned  in  Sutra  2)  three 
pits,  four  inches  in  depth  and  breadth. 

7.  He  should  carry  the  fire  to  the  east  of  them. 

8.  He  should  strew  (Darbha-grass  round  the  fire), 

9.  And  (into)  the  pits. 

10.  Having  spread  out  to  the  west  of  the  fire  a 
layer  of  southward-pointed  grass  so  that  it  is  inclined 
towards  the  south,  he  should  put  (a  mat)  on  it. 

11.  On  that  (grass)  he  should  place  the  sacrificial 
implements,  one  by  one. 

12.  Cutting  off  (the  prescribed  portions  of  the 
sacrificial  food,  and  putting  those  portions)  into 
the  brazen  vessel  he  should  sacrifice,  picking  out 
(portions  of  the  Havis)  with  the  pot-ladle,  with  (the 
formulas),  '  Svaha  to  Soma  Pitrzmat !  Svaha  to 
Agni  Kavyavahana !'  (MB.  H,  3,  i,  2.) 

13.  With  his  left  hand  he  should  lay  down  a  fire- 
brand on  the  southern  side  of  the  pits  (Sutra  6),  with 

4.  amushma^  X'a  sakthno  mawsani  iti.  5.  dakshi«odvasya  na 
pratyabhigharayet.  6.  pa^Hd  agner  dakshiwas  tisra//  karshfi/^ 
khanyaX'  /■aturahgulam  adhas  tiryak  X'a.  7.  tasa^  purastad  agn\7n 
prawayet.  8.  st/vV/uyat.  9.  karshCij  X-a.  10.  paxXad  agne  sva- 
staraw  dakshiwagrais  t;v;/air  dakshi«aprava//am  astirya  b/v'sim  upari 
nidadhyat.  11.  tasminn  ekaikam  aharet.  12.  kawse  samavadaya 
mckshawenopaghataw  ^njhuyat  svaha  Somaya  pitr/mate  s\ahagnaye 
kavyavahanayeti.  13.  savyenolmukaw  dakshiwata//  karshflr  nida- 
dhyad  apahata  iti. 

I3-3^  =  I^^  3  (23  deest). 


42  2  KHADIRA-Gi^HVA-SUTRA. 

(the  formula), '  (The  Asuras  have  been)  driven  away ' 
(MB.  II,  3,  3). 

14.  (He  should  perform  the  different  rites)  in  the 
eastern  pit  for  his  father, 

15.  In  the  middle  for  his  grandfather, 

16.  In  the  last  for  his  great-grandfather. 

1 7.  Let  him  pour  out  vessels  of  water,  from  right 
to  left,  into  the  pits,  pronouncing  the  name  of  each 
one  (of  his  ancestors),  with  (the  formula),  '  N.  N. ! 
Wash  thyself,  and  they  who  follow  thee  here,  and 
they  whom  thou  foUowest.     To  thee  Svadha  ! ' 

18.  In  the  same  way  he  should  put  down  the 
Vvida-s  for  them  and  should  murmur,  '  Here,  O 
Fathers,  enjoy  yourselves  ;  show  your  manly  vigour 
each  for  his  part'  (MB.  II,  3,  6). 

19.  After  he  has  spoken  thus,  he  should  turn  to 
the  north,  doubling  his  left  arm,  turning  round  from 
right  to  left. 

20.  Holding  his  breath  and  fixing  his  thoughts  on 
something  good  he  should,  while  turning  back  (in  the 
same  way),  murmur:  'The  Fathers  have  enjoyed 
themselves ;  they  have  shown  their  manly  vigour 
each  for  his  part'  (MB.  II,  3,  7). 

21.  He  should  sprinkle  collyrium  on  three  Darbha- 


14.  purvasya?;^  karshva?;;  pitur.  15.  madhyamaya?^  pitama- 
hasyo.  16.  Attamaya/«  prapitamahasyo.  17.  ^^dapatrawy  apasalavi 
karshushu  ninayed  ekaikasya  namoktvasav  avanenikshva  ye  /'atra 
tvanu  yams  /'a  tvam  anu  tasmai  te  svaheti  (correct,  svadheti).  18. 
tathaiva  pi?/^an  nidhaya  ^s^aped  atra  pitaro  madayadhvaw  yatha- 
bhagam  avr/shayadhvam  ity.  19.  uktvodahh  avarteta  savyaw 
bahum  upasa/z/hn'tya  prasavyam  avn'tyo.  20.  ^^rpatamya  kalyawaw 
dhyayann  abhiparyavartamano  ^aped  amimadanta  pitaro  yatha- 
bhagan:i  avr/shayishateti.  21.  tisro  darbhapi%ulir  a%anena 
nighnshya  karshushu  nidadhyad  yathapiwf/aw. 


Ill  PATALA,    5    KUANDA,    30.  423 

blades,  and  should  put  them  down  into  the  pits  in 
the  same  way  as  the  F'mdas, 

22.  And  sesamum  oil  and  perfumes. 

23.  For  the  Pi;^rt^as  and  the  following  offerings  he 
should  alter  the  formula  (Sutra  1 7)  accordingly. 

24.  Now  (follows)  the  deprecation. 

25.  On  the  eastern  pit  he  lays  his  hands,  turning 
the  inside  of  the  right  hand  upwards,  with  (the  for- 
mula), '  Adoration  to  you,  O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of 
life !  Adoration  to  you,  O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of  vital 
breath!'  (MB.  II,  3,  8.) 

26.  On  the  middle,  turning  the  inside  of  the  left 
hand  upwards,  with  (the  formula),  '  Adoration  to  you, 
O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of  terror!  Adoration  to 
you,  O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of  sap  !'  (MB.  1. 1.) 

27.  On  the  western,  turning  the  inside  of  the  right 
hand  upwards,  with  (the  formula),  '  Adoration  to  you, 
O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of  comfort  (svadha) !  Ado- 
ration to  you.  O  Fathers,  for  the  sake  of  wrath ! ' 

(MB.  11,3,9-)   , 

28.  Joining  his  hands — 

29.  (He  should  murmur  the  formula),  '  Adoration 
to  you'  (MB.  II,  3,  9). 

30.  He  should  lay  down  threads  into  the  pits  in 
the  same  way  as  the  Pi;^^as,  with  (the  formula), 
'  This  (garment)  to  you.' 

22.  tailaw  surabhi  kz.  23.  pi;/(/aprabh/-/li  yalhartham  uhed. 
24.  atha  nihnavanaw.  25.  purvasya///  karshvaw  dakshiwottanau 
pawi  kn'tvS  nanio  \z/i  pitaro  ^ivaya  namo  va//  pitaraj  jflshayeti. 
26.  savyottanau  madhyamayaw  namo  va^  pitaro  ghoraya  namo 
va//  pitaro  rasayeti.  27.  dakshiz/ottanau  pajX-imaya/«  namo  va// 
pitara  svadhayai  namo  va//  pitaro  manyava  ity.  28.  a/T^ali/;/ 
kr/tva  29.  namo  va  iti.  30.  sutralantim  karshCishu  nidadhyad 
yathapi/ziyam  eiad  va  ity. 


424  KHADIRA-Gii/HYA-StjTRA. 


31.  He  should  recite  over  the  pits  (the  verse), 
*  Bringing  strength'  (MB.  II,  3,  13). 

32.  The  middle  Vwda.  he  should  give  to  his  wife 
to  eat,  if  she  is  desirous  of  a  son,  with  (the  verse), 
'  Give  fruit.' 

33.  With  (the  verse),  '  (6'atavedas)  has  been  our 
messenger'  (MB.  II,  3,  15),  he  should  throw  the  fire- 
brand into  the  fire. 

34.  They  should  take  the  sacrificial  vessels  back 
two  by  two. 

35.  The  same  is  the  rite  of  the  Pi;/^apit?'/ya^;1a. 

36.  Let  him  cook  the  Havis  in  the  (sacred) 
domestic  fire. 

37.  From  that  fire  (let  him  take  the  fire  which)  he 
carries  forward  (see  above,  Sutra  ,2). 

38.  (Here  is  only)  one  pit. 

39.  No  layer  of  grass  (Sutra  10). 

40.  Of  the  mess  of  cooked  food  sacred  to  Indra;/i 
he  should  sacrifice  with  (the  verse), '  The  Ekash/aka ' 
(MB.  II,  3,  19).  He  should  sacrifice  with  (the  verse), 
'  The  Ekash/aka.' 

End  of  the  Third  Pa/ala. 


31.  ur^a;;?  vahantir  iti  karshur  anumantrayeta.  32.  madhyama?;; 
Y>inda.m  putrakamaw  praj-ayed  adhattety.  33.  abhun  no  duta  ity 
ulmukam  agnau  prakshiped.  34.  dvandvaw  patrawy  atihareyur. 
35.  esha  eva  pi;/(^apitnya^/7akalpo.  36.  grihye^gmu  havu  jra- 
payet.  37.  tata  evatiprawayed.  38.  eka  karshur.  39.  na 
svastara.  40.  Indrawya  sthalipakasyaikash/aketi  ^huyad  ekash/a- 
keti  ^uhuyat.         tr?'tiyapa/ala//. 


35-39  =  IV,  4,  I  seqq.     40  =  IV,  4,  32.  33. 


IV  PATALA,     I   KHANDA,    lO.  425 


PaTALA    IV,    KUANDA    1. 

1.  When  undertaking  ceremonies  for  the  obtain- 
ment  of  special  wishes,  let  him  omit  six  meals  or 
three. 

2.  At  such  ceremonies  as  are  repeated  daily,  (let 
him  do  so  only)  in  the  beginning  ; 

3.  After  (the  ceremony),  if  it  is  performed  on 
account  of  a  prodigy. 

4.  Thus  also  at  the  performances  of  the  sacrificial 
day  (i.  e.  of  the  first  day  of  the  fortnight). 

5.  One  who  keeps  the  vow  (of  fasting)  through 
one  fortnight,  (may  avail  himself  of  the  following 
indulgence)  : 

6.  If  he  is  not  able  (to  subsist  entirely  without 
food,  let  him  drink)  rice-water  once  a  day. 

7.  Let  him  murmur  the  Prapada  formula  (MB.  II, 
4,  5),  sitting  in  the  forest  on  eastward-pointed  grass- 
blades. 

8.  Thus  one  who  is  desirous  of  holy  lustre. 

9.  One  who  is  desirous  of  cattle,  as  stated  above 

(HI,  1,5?). 

10.  One   who    desires    that    his    stock    of    cattle 


IV,  1,  I.  kamyeshu  sha(/ bhaktani  tn«i  va  najniyan.  2.  nitya- 
prajoiktanam  adita.  3.  uparish/at  sannipatika.  4.  eva;«  ya^ani- 
yaprayogcshv.  5.  ardliamasavraty.  6.  aj-aktau  peyam  (read, 
peyam)  ekaw  kalam.  7.  ara«ye  prapada;«  ^aped  astna/z  prag- 
agreshv.  8.  eva;«  brahmavarX-asakamo.  9.  yathoktaw  paju- 
kama>^.  10.  sahasrabahur  iti  pajusvastyayanakamo  vrihiyavau 
^nihuyad. 

IV,  1,  i-i8  =  Gobhila  IV,  5,  i,  9,  10,  1 1,  13,  12,  27,  24,  25,  14, 
15, 18,  19,  20,  27,  28,  22,  23,  30-34  (9  deest). 


426  KHADIRA-G/2/HYA-SUTRA. 


may  Increase,  should  sacrifice  rice  and  barley,  with 
(die  verse),  'He  who  has  a  thousand  arms'  (MB. 

11,4-7)- 

II.   To    one   with   whom    he   wishes    to   become 

associated,  he  should  give  fruits  of  a  big  tree, 
over  which  he  has  murmured  the  Kautomata  verse 
(MB.  11,4.8). 

I  2.  Having  kept  the  vow  (of  fasting)  through  one 
fortnight,  he  should  In  the  full-moon  night  plunge  up 
to  his  navel  Into  a  pool  which  does  not  dry  up,  and 
should  sacrifice  with  his  mouth  fried  grain  Into  the 
water,  with  the  five  (verses),  'Like  a  tree'  (MB.  H, 

4,  9-13). 

13.  This    ceremony    procures    (property  on)    the 

earth. 

14.  One  who  Is  desirous  of  the  enjoyment  (of 
riches),  should  worship  the  sun  with  the  first  (of  those 
five  verses),  while  one  who  Is  rich  In  wealth  should 
look  at  him. 

15.  One  who  desires  that  his  stock  of  horses  and 
elephants  may  Increase,  (should  sacrifice)  fried  grain 
with  the  second  (of  those  verses),  while  the  sun  has 
a  halo. 

16.  One  who  desires  that  his  flocks  may  increase, 
(should  sacrifice)  sesamum  seeds  with  the  third  (verse), 
while  the  moon  has  a  halo. 


II.  yeneMet  sahakara?;^  kautomatenasya  mahavr/kshaphalani 
pari^apya  dadyad.  12.  ardhamasavrati  paur«amasyaw  ratrau 
iiabhimatraw  pragahyavidasini  hrade^kshatatawJulan  asyena  ^uhu- 
yad  udake  vr/ksha  iveti  pa;7/('abhi/i.  13.  parthivaw  karma.  14. 
prathamayadityam  upatishMed  bhogakamo^rthapatau  prekshamawe. 
15.  dvitiyayakshatataw^ulan  aditye  parivishyamawe  br/hatpattra- 
svastyayanakamas.  16.  tr/tiyaya  X'andramasi  tilata«(/dan  kshudra- 
pajusvastyayanakamaj-. 


IV  PATALA,     I   KHAiVJDA,    26.  427 


17.  Having  worshipped  the  sun  with  the  fourth 
(verse),  let  him  try  to  gain  great  wealth. 

18.  Having  worshipped  the  sun  with  the  fifth,  let 
him  return  home. 

19.  In  order  to  avert  involuntary  death  let  him 
murmur  every  day  (the  formula),  '  BhM ! '  (MB.  H, 

4,  I4-) 

20.  On  the  sacrificial  day  (i.  e.  the  first  day  of  the 
fortnight)  let  him  make  oblations  with  the  six  verses, 
'  From  the  head  '  (MB.  H,  5,  i  seqq.),  with  the  Vama- 
devya  verses,  with  the  Mahav}-ahmis,  and  with  the 
verse  sacred  to  Pra^apati  (1. 1.  8). 

2 1 .  Thus  he  will  drive  away  misfortune. 

22.  On  an  unsafe  road  let  him  murmur  the  verse, 
'Go  away'  (Rig-veda  X,  164,  i). 

23.  One  who  is  desirous  of  glory  should  worship 
the  sun  in  the  forenoon,  at  noon,  and  in  the  afternoon, 
with  (the  formula),  '  I  am  glory'  (MB.  H,  5,  9). 

24.  Let  him  change  (the  word),  '  Of  the  forenoon,' 
according  (to  the  different  times  of  the  day). 

25.  Worshipping  (the  sun)  at  twilight  with  the  for- 
mula, 'O  sun!  the  ship'  (MB.  H,  5,  14),  procures 
happiness. 

26.  At  the  morning  twilight  (he  says),'  When  thou 
risest '  (1, 1.  15). 


17.  X-aturthyadityam  upasthaya  gurum  artham  abhyuttishMet. 
18.  pa;7/'amyacliLyam  upasthaya  gr/han  eyad.  19.  anakamamaraw 
nityaw  ^i;'aped  bhur  iti.  20.  ya^;^aniye  ^i.-'uhuyan  murdhno^dhi  ma 
iti  sha^hir  vamadevyargbhir  mahavyah/-nibhi//  pra^apatyaya  /(-a. 
2  1.  Alakshminirwodo.  22.  ^ksheme  pathy  apehiti  ^aped.  23.  ya,ro 
^ham  ity  adityam  upatish///ed  ya.raskama/;  purvahwamadhyandina- 
parah//eshu.  24.  pratarahwasyeti  yathartham  fihed.  25.  aditya 
navam  iti  sandhyopasthanaw  svastyayanam.  26.  udyantaw  tveti 
piarvaw. 

19-27  =  IV,  6,  I,  4,  5,  7,  8,  9,  3,  10-12  (22  deest). 


428  KHADIRA-Gi27HYA-SUTRA. 

27.  At  the  evening  twilight,  'When  thou  goest  to 
rest '  (1. 1.  16). 

Khaa^da  2. 

1.  Having  kept  the  vow  (of  fasting)  through  one 
fortnight,  he  should,  on  the  first  day  of  the  dark  fort- 
night, feed  the  Brahma?2as  with  boiled  milk-rice  pre- 
pared of  one  Ka7;2sa  of  rice. 

2.  The  small  grains  of  that  (rice)  he  should  sacri- 
fice (day  by  day)  at  the  evening  twilight  to  the  west 
of  the  village,  on  a  place  which  he  has  besmeared 
(with  cowdung),  with  the  formula,  'To  Phala '  (MB. 

11,5,17). 

3.  And  with    (the  formula),   '  To   Phalla ! '     The 

same  on  the  first  day  of  the  next  dark  fortnight. 

4.  He  shall  observe  chastity  till  the  end  (of  the 
rite). 

5.  A  hundred  cart-loads  (of  gold)  will  be  his. 

6.  A  Brahma/^a  should  elect  the  site  for  building 
his  house  on  white  ground,  a  Kshatriya  on  red,  a 
Vai^ya  on  black,  which  should  be  even,  covered  with 
grass,  not  salinous,  not  dry — 

7.  Where  the  water  flows  off  to  the  north-west. 

8.  (Plants)  with  milky  juice  or  with  thorns  or  acrid 
plants  should  not  be  there. 

27.  pratitishMantaw  tveti  paj/fimam. 

2,  I.  ardhamasavrati  tamisradau  brahma7;an  a^ayed  viihika;;/- 
saudanaw.  2.  tasya  ka?zan  aparasu  sandhyasu  pratyag  gramat 
sthawrt'ilam  upalipya  Phalayeti  ^uhuyat.  3.  Phallayeti  X-aivam 
evaparasmiws  tamisradau.  4.  brahma/C'aryam  a  samapter.  5. 
a^'itarata;;?  bhavati.  6.  gaure  bhumibhage  brahma;/o  lohite 
kshatriya/^  krishne  vauyo^vasanaw  ^oshayet  sama;«  lomajam 
aniriwam  a^ushkaw.  7.  yatrodaka;;/  pratyagudi/'i^/  pravartate. 
8.  kshiriwa/^  ka«/akina/^  [sic]  ka/uka^  X-atraushadhayo  na  syur. 

2,  i-5  =  Gobhila  IV,  6,  13-16.     6-23  =  lV,  7. 


IV  PATALA,    2  KHAiVDA,  2  1,  429 

9.  (Soil)  on  which  Darbha-grass  grows,  brings  holy- 
lustre  ; 

10.  Big  sorts  of  grass,  strength  ; 

1 1 .  Tender  grass,  cattle. 

1 2.  Or  (the  site  of  the  house)  should  have  the  form 
of  bricks  (?)  or  of (?) 

13.  Or  there  should  be  natural  holes  (in  the 
ground)  in  all  directions. 

14.  15.  (A  house)  with  its  door  to  the  east  brings 
wealth  and  fame  ;  with  its  door  to  the  north,  children 
and  cattle.  By  one  with  its  door  to  the  south  all 
wishes  (are  obtained).  The  back-door  should  not 
face  (?)  the  house-door. 

16.  Milk-rice  should  be  offered, 

1 7.  And  a  black  cow, 

18.  Or  a  white  goat.     Or  only  milk-rice. 

19.  In  the  middle  of  the  house  he  should  sacrifice 
the  fat  (of  the  animal)  and  the  milk-rice,  mixed  with 
A^ya,  taking  eight  portions  (of  that  mixture),  with 
(the  verse),  '  Vastoshpati !'  (MB.  II,  6,  i.) 

20.  And  with  the  seven  last  (texts)  used  at  the  driv- 
ing away  of  misfortune  (see  above,  chap,  i,  20,  21). 

21.  After  he  has  sacrificed,  he  should  distribute 
Balis  in  the  different  directions  (of  the  horizon). 


9.  darbhasammitaw  brahmavarX-asyaw.  10.  br/Tiattr/V/air  ba- 
lyam.  11.  mn'duin'naUi  pajavyaw.  12.  jatabhir  (corr.  jadabhir?) 
ma;/(/aladvipibhir  va.  13.  yatra  va  svayawkr/ta>^  jvabhra/z  sarvato- 
ibhiniukha  syu/i.  14.  pragdvaraw  dhanyaw  ya^asyaw  X'odag- 
dvaraw  putryaw/  pa^avyaw  X-a  dakshi«advare  sarve  kama.  anudvaraw 
gehadvaram  15.  asawloki  (asawloki  ?)  syat.  16.  payaso  havi^. 
17.  k/-/sh«a  X'a  gaur.  18.  a^o  va  jveta^  payasa  eva  va.  19. 
madhye  vejmano  vasaw  payasaw  Hi^ycna.  mijram  ash/agrzhitaw 
^uhuyad  Vastoshpata  iti.  20.  yas  Xa  paras  saptalaks^hminirwode 
tabhij-  Xa.      2 1 .  hutva  disam  baliw  nayed. 


430  KHADIRA-G/27HYA-S^TRA. 

2  2.  And  towards  the  intermediate  points,  and  up- 
wards and  downwards. 

23.  This  (he  should  repeat)  every  year,  or  at  the 
two  sacrifices  of  the  first-fruits  (of  rice  and  barley). 

24.  With  the  two  (formulas),  '  Obeying  the  will ' 
(MB.  II,  6,  7,  8),  he  should  sacrifice  two  oblations. 

25.  He  should  pronounce  the  name  of  the  person 
whom  he  wishes  to  subdue  to  his  will, '  N.  N. ;'  then 
that  person  will  obey  him. 

Kuan  DA  3. 

1 .  Keeping  the  observance  (of  fasting)  through  one 
fortnight,  let  him  sacrifice  in  a  full-moon  night  one 
hundred  pegs  with  the  Ekaksharya  verse  (MB.  II,  6, 
9),  if  he  is  desirous  of  having  (a  large)  family. 

2.  (Those  pegs  should  be)  of  Khadira  wood,  if  he 
is  desirous  of  long  life. 

3.  Now  another  (ceremony  performed  with  the 
same  verse).  He  should  go  out  of  the  village  in 
an  eastern  or  northern  direction,  should  brush  up  an 
elevated  surface,  or  (should  raise  it)  on  a  mountain 
with  the  dung  of  beasts  of  the  forest,  should  set  it  on 

22.  avantaradijaOT  X'ordhvava/l'ibhya;;/  X'ai.  23.  ^va?;/  sa;;A'atsare 
sawvatsare  navaya^;7ayor  va.  24.  va,fa;«gamav  iLy  etabhyam  ahuti 
^uhuyad.  25.  yam  i/t'/ied  vaj-am  aya.ntz?n  tasya  nama  gn'hitvasav 
iti  vaji  hasya  bhavati. 

3,  I.  ardhamasavrati  paurwamasya/;;  ratrau  jankiuata?^  ^uhuyad 
ekaksharyaya  sanvayakama/^.  2.  khadiran  ayushkamo.  3.  ^tha- 
paraw.  prafi  vodah  va  graman  nishkramya  siha.ndi\a.??i  samuhya 
parvate  vara7zyair  gomayai  sthapayitva  (read,  gomayais  tapayitva  ?) 
sfigaran  apohyasyena  ^uhuyad. 


24  =  IV,  8,  7  (25  deest). 

3,  i-5  =  Gobhila  IV,  8,  10-16.     6  =  IV,  y,  15. 


IV  PA^ALA,    3  KHAA'DA,    II.  43 1 

fire,  should  sweep  the  coals  away  (from  that  surface), 
and  should  make  an  oblation  (of  butter)  with  his  mouth. 

4.  If  (the  butter)  catches  fire,  twelve  villages  (will 
be  his). 

5.  If  smoke  rises,  at  least  three. 

6.  Let  him  sacrifice  in  the  evening  and  in  the 
morning  the  fallings-off  of  rice-grains.  Thus  his 
means  of  livelihood  will  not  be  exhausted. 

7.  Of  articles  of  trade  let  him  make  an  oblation 
with  (the  formula),  '  Here  (this  Vi^vakarman),'  (^vIB. 
II,  6,  10.) 

8.  On  the  sacrificial  day  (i.  e.  on  the  first  day  of 
the  fortnight)  let  him  sacrifice  a  full  oblation  (with  the 
verse  MB.  11,6,  1 1,  'A  full  oblation  I  sacrifice,'  &c.). 

9.  One  who  is  desirous  of  companions  (should 
sacrifice)  with  (the  formula),  '  Indramavadat'  (?),  (MB. 

11.6,12.) 

10.  He  should  fast  through  a  period  of  eight  nights, 
and  then  should  kindle  a  fire  to  the  east  or  to  the 
north  of  the  village,  at  a  place  where  four  roads  meet. 
The  fuel  should  be  Udumbara  wood,  and  the  Sruva 
and  the  cup  (for  water  should  be  of  the  same  wood). 
Let  him  sacrifice  (A^ya)  with  (the  formulas), '  Food 
indeed,'  and  '  Bliss  indeed  '  (MB.  II,  6,  13,  14). 

11.  A  third  (oblation)  in  the  village  with  (the  for- 
mula), 'The  food's'  (1. 1.  15). 

4.  dvadaja  grama  ^valite.  5.  tryavara  dhOme.  6.  kambftkan 
sayawpratar  ^huyan  nasya  vn'itUi  kshiyata.  7.  idam  ahani  imam 
iti  pawyahomaw  ^huyat.  8.  p0r;;ahoma7«  ya^^aniye  ^^uhuyad. 
9.  Indramavadad  iti  sahayakamo.  10.  :«sh/aratroposhitojparaw 
prafi  vodah  va  grama-^'  /^-atiishpathe  samidhyagnim  audumbara 
idhma  sydt  sruva^'amasau  Xa  ^uhuyad  annzm  va  iti  snr  va  iti.  1 1 . 
grame  tr/tiyam  annasycty. 


7-9  =  IV,  8,  19  seqq.       10-16  =  IV,  9,  i  seqq. 


43  2  khadira-g/?7HYA-sOtra. 

12.  Then  he  will  become  a  ruler. 

13.  When  (his  cows)  are  sick,  let  him  sacrifice 
milk-rice  in  the  cow-stable. 

14.  On  a  dangerous  road  let  him  make  knots  in 
the  skirts  of  the  garments  (of  those  who  travel 
together).  This  will  bring  a  prosperous  journey  to 
(himself)  and  his  companions. 

15.  With  the  two  (formulas), '  To  Hunger  Svaha  '' 
(MB.  II,  6,  16,  17),  let  him  sacrifice  a  thousand  obla- 
tions, if  he  desires  to  obtain  a  thousand  cart-loads 
(of  gold). 

16.  One  wjio  is  desirous  of  cattle  (should  sacrifice 
one  thousand  oblations)  gf  the  excrements  of  a  male 
and  a  female  calf  Of  a  male  and  a  female  sheep,  if 
he  is  desirous  of  flocks. 

1 7.  Let  him  make  oblations  of  fresh  cowdung  In 
the  evening  and  in  the  morning ;  then  his  means  of 
livelihood  will  not'  be  exhausted. 


Khanda  4. 

I.  One  who  has  been  bitten  by  a  venomous 
animal,  he  should  besprinkle  with  water,  murmuring 
(the  verse),  '  Do  not  fear'  (MB.  II,  6,  18). 


12.  adhipatya;«  prapnoty.  13.  upatapinishu  goshZ/^e  payasaw 
^uhuyad.  14.  aksheme  pathi  vastradajanaw  granthin  kuryat  saha- 
yinaw  (sahayana;«  ?)  ^a  svastyayanani.  1 5.  kshudhe  svahety  eta- 
bhyam  ahutisahasra?;;  ^uhuyad  a/'itasahasrakamo.  16.  vatsa- 
mithunayo/;  purishe?/a  pa.mkamo^vimithunayo//  kshudrapajukamo. 
17.  haritagomayena  sayampratar  ^uhuyan  nasya  vn'ttik  kshiyate. 

4,  I.  vishavata  dash/am  adbhir  abhyukshan  ^apen  ma  bhaishir 
iti.  

i7  =  IV,  8,  18. 

4,  i-4=Gobhila  IV,  9,  16  seqq. 


IV  PArALA,    4  KIIAA'DA,    9.  433 

2.  A  Snataka  should,  when  lying  down  to  sleep, 
put  his  bamboo  staff  near  (his  bed)  with  (the  formula), 
'  Strong  one,  protect'  (1. 1.  19).  This  will  bring  him 
luck. 

3.  A  place  where  he  has  a  worm   he  should  be- 
.    sprinkle  with  water,  murmuring  (the  verses),  '  Thy 

worm  is  killed'  (MB.  II,  7,  1-4). 

4.  (If  doing  this)  for  his  cattle,  let  him  fetch  in  the 
afternoon  an  earth-clod  taken  out  of  a  furrow,  and  let 
him  in  the  morning  strew  the  dust  of  it  (on  the  place 
attacked  by  worms),  murmuring  (the  same  texts). 

5.  (A  guest)  who  is  going  to'  accept  the  Madhu- 
parka  should  come  forward  murmuring, '  Here  I  tread 
on  this'  (MB.  II,  8,  2). 

6.  They  announce  three  times  (to  the  guest)  each 
(of  the  following  things  which  are  brought  to  him) : 
a  bed  (of  grass),  water  for  washing  the  feet,  the  Argha 
water,  water  for  sipping,  and  the  Madhuparka ; 

7.  And  the  cow. 

8.  Having  spread  out  the  bed  (of  grass,  so  that  the 
points  of  the  grass  are)  turned  to  the  north,  he  should 
sit  down  thereon  with  (the  verse), '  The  herbs  which ' 

(MB.  II,  8,  3). 

9.  With  the  feet  (he  treads  on  another  bundle  of 

2.  snatakas  sawvi^an  vaiwavara  dandum  upanidadhyat  .tura  gopa- 
yeti  svastyayanaw/.  3.  hatas  ta  (hastata,  ha^sta,  hasta,  vitasta, 
the  ]\ISS.)  iti  kr/mimanta/;^''  dejam  adbhir  abhyukshaw  ^apet.  4. 
pajfina?/;  X'ed  aparahwe  sitalosh/am  ahr/tya  tasya  prata^  pawsubhi// 
pratishkira;/  j!:;^apen.  5.  madhuparkawi  jiratigrahishyann  idam 
aham  imam  iti  j)ratitish///a7}  ^viipc<^-  6.  vish/arapadyarghyaX'ama- 
niyamadhuparka7/am  ekaika;//  trir  vedayante.  7.  gaw  X'o.  8. 
»da«/'aw  vish/aram  astir}a  ya  oshadhir  ily  adh\asita.  9.  padayor 
dvitiyaya  dvau  ked. 

5-23  =  IV,  10. 

[29]  F  f 


434  KHADIRA-Gie/HYA-S'^TRA. 

grass),  if  there    are   two,   with    the    second  (verse) 

(1. 1.  4). 

10.  Let  him  look  at  the  water  with  (the  formula), 

'  From  which  side  I  see  the  goddesses '  (1. 1.  5). 

11.  Let  him  wash  his  left  foot  with  (the  formula), 
'  The  left '  (1. 1.  6),  the  right  with, '  The  right '  (1. 1.  7) ; 
both  with  the  rest  (8). 

12.  Let  him  accept  the  Arghya  water  with  (the 
formula),  '  Thou  art  the  queen  of  food '  (1. 1  9). 

13.  The  water  which  he  is  to  sip,  (he  accepts)  with 
(the  formula),  '  Glory  art  thou  '  (1.  1.  10). 

14.  The  Madhuparka  with  (the  formula),  'The 
glory's  glory  art  thou'  (1.  1.  11). 

15.  Let  him  drink  three  times  with  (the  formulas), 
'  The  glory's,'  *  The  might's,'  '  The  fortune's '  (1. 1.  1 2). 

16.  Having  drunk  more  of  it  a  fourth  time  silently 
he  should  give  the  remainder  to  a  Brahma;^a. 

1 7.  Over  the  cow,  when  it  has  been  announced  to 
him,  he  should  recite  (the  formula),  '  Let  loose  the 
cow.' 

18.  Instead  of  '  and  of  N.  N.'  (in  that  formula)  he 
should  put  the  name  of  the  person  who  offers  the 
Arghya  reception. 

19.  Thus  if  it  is  no  sacrifice  (by  which  the  Arghya 
ceremony  has  been  occasioned). 

20.  '  Make  it  (ready),'  if  it  is  a  sacrifice. 


10.  apa/z  pa^yed  yato  devir  iti.  11.  savya7;^  padam  avasi;7X-ed 
savyam  iti  dakshi«a?«  dakshiwa?^  ity  ubhau  jeshe;/a.  12.  ^-^nnasya 
rash/rir  asity  arghya;^  pratig;7h;?iyad.  13.  yajo^sity  a/'amaniya;«. 
14.  yajaso  ya^o^siti  madhuparka^.  15.  tri/z  pibed  yayaso  mahasa 
jriya   iti.  16.  tush«i;«    /'aturtha^/z    bhuyo^bhipaya   brahma;za- 

yokkMshfa.?n  dadyad.  17.  ga.m  veditam  anumantrayeta  mwlka. 
gam  ity.  18.  amushya  /^-ety  arhayitm-  nama  bruyad.  19.  evam 
aya^;7e.       20.  kuruteti  ya^i^//a. 


IV  PATALA,    4  KHAiVDA,    23.  435 

2 1 .  The  six  persons  to  whom  the  Arghya  reception 
is  due  are,  a  teacher,  an  officiating  priest,  a  Snataka, 
a  king,  the  father-in-law,  a  friend. 

22.  He  should  honour  them  (with  the  Arghya 
reception)  once  a  year ; 

23.  But  repeatedly  in  the  case  of  a  sacrifice  and  of 
a  wedding.  But  repeatedly  in  the  case  of  a  sacrifice 
and  of  a  wedding. 

End   of  the  Fourth   Pa^ala. 


End  of  the  Grihy3kha,nd3L. 


21.  aX-arya  rnvik  snatako  ra^a  vivahya/z  priya  iti  shad  arghya^. 
22.  pratisawvatsaran  arhayet.  23.  punar  ya^wavivahayo^  X-a  punar 
ya^wavivahayoj  ka,.         X'aturthapa/ala^. 

gr/hyakhaw^/aw  samaptam. 


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Stuhbs  (  W.,  D.D.).      The  Cojistittttional  History  of  England^ 

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